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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4943, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009384

RESUMO

Despite their high vulnerability, insular ecosystems have been largely ignored in climate change assessments, and when they are investigated, studies tend to focus on exposure to threats instead of vulnerability. The present study examines climate change vulnerability of islands, focusing on endemic mammals and by 2050 (RCPs 6.0 and 8.5), using trait-based and quantitative-vulnerability frameworks that take into account exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Our results suggest that all islands and archipelagos show a certain level of vulnerability to future climate change, that is typically more important in Pacific Ocean ones. Among the drivers of vulnerability to climate change, exposure was rarely the main one and did not explain the pattern of vulnerability. In addition, endemic mammals with long generation lengths and high dietary specializations are predicted to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Our findings highlight the importance of exploring islands vulnerability to identify the highest climate change impacts and to avoid the extinction of unique biodiversity.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ilhas , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 881-885, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviors of teachers and students in a medical college in Beijing and their influencine factors, and to provide evidence for nutrition education and promotion. METHODS: The subjects of this study were teachers, as well as first-year and second-year graduate students, and first-year to third-year undergraduate students. The teachers and students were respectively sampled by stratified cluster sampling with equal proportion. t-test or ANOVA was used to compare the means between the groups, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) score. RESULTS: The average score of nutrition knowledge was 5.7±1.5. The knowledge rate of nutrition was 57.3%. The average score of nutritional attitudes was 8.3±3.0. The mean nutritional behavior score was 5.1±2.0. The average nutritional KAP score was 19.1±4.6, with the teachers 19.9±5.2 higher than the students 18.9±4.5; the female 19.5±4.5 higher than the male 18.4±4.5; All the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The scores of nutritional attitudes, nutritional behavior and total KAP scores of doctoral students were significantly higher than those of the undergraduate and postgraduate students (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The nutrition attitudes of teachers and students is relatively correct, the nutrition knowledge needs to be further strengthened, and there are some unreasonable aspects in the nutrition behaviors. Gender, identity and degree are the main influencing factors of the nutrition score of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. It is necessary to carry out nutritional education in schools to improve the nutrition knowledge of teachers and students, correct bad eating habits, and promote the construction of healthy China action.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1384-1395, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016445

RESUMO

Nutrients excreted from animals affect the nutritive value of manure as a soil amendment as well as the composition of gases emitted from manure storage facilities. There is a dearth of information, however, on how diet type in combination with dietary particle size affects nutrients deposited into manure storage facilities and how this affects manure composition and gas emissions. To fill this knowledge gap, an animal feeding trial was performed to evaluate potential interactive effects between feed particle size and diet composition on manure characteristics and manure-derived gaseous emissions. Forty-eight finishing pigs housed in individual metabolism crates that allowed for daily collection of urine and feces were fed diets differing in fiber content and particle size. Urine and feces were collected and stored in 446-L stainless steel containers for 49 d. There were no interactive effects between diet composition and feed particle size on any manure or gas emission parameter measured. In general, diets higher in fiber content increased manure nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and increased manure VFA emissions but decreased manure ammonia emissions. Decreasing the particle size of the diet lowered manure N, C, VFAs, phenolics, and indole concentrations and decreased manure emissions of total VFAs. Neither diet composition nor particle size affected manure greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Esterco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gases , Tamanho da Partícula , Suínos
4.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 704-709, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045779

RESUMO

The achievements and breakthroughs in scientific field have provided scientific evidence for the relationship amongst diet, nutrition and chronic diseases, including oral diseases. Thus many international organizations and the governments of most countries were pushed to pay their attention to the prevention of chronic diseases by dietary patterns. From 1989 to 2018, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization organized expert consultations for many times to issue a series of global strategies and action plans on diet and health. The governments of China, Japan and US had produced the Dietary Guidelines for Residents. The results showed that the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases had been decreased by following the dietary guidance. However, the scientific achievements did not seem to produce tremendous enhancement in public health for various reasons. In the present article, the authors analyses the relationship between contemporary dietary patterns and oral health, and make suggestions on preventing and controlling oral diseases via dietary patterns for policy makers and dental professionals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Política Nutricional , China , Japão , Saúde Pública
5.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMO

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autogestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3421-3430, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876253

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19 in Brazil further explained the massive discrepancy between different social realities coexisting in the country, rekindling the discussions about food and nutrition security, similarly to what has been happening in other countries facing the same pandemic situation. In this paper, we argue that the risks to hunger and food security in Brazil have been present since 2016 and are now being exacerbated due to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This situation requires knowing the extent and magnitude of the issue and articulation of measures in the three governmental spheres(federal, municipal and state) to ensure access to adequate and healthy food and reduce the disease's adverse effectson the diet, health, and nutrition among the most vulnerable people. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the debate on the measures to be adopted by governments and society to promote and ensure food and nutrition security and prevent insecurity and the expansion of hunger during and after the social and health crisis created by the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil , Dieta , Humanos , Fome , Pandemias , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106307, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892894

RESUMO

In Japan, the radiocesium activity concentration in milk must be less than 50 Bq/kg-fresh to meet shipping standards, and the radiocesium concentration of the diet fed to dairy cattle must be less than 500 Bq/kg-dry. After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, we conducted two experiments to investigate whether Prussian blue (PB) could suppress the radiocesium (134Cs + 137Cs) activity concentration in Japanese cattle' milk. In experiment 1, four cattle were fed a diet with a radiocesium activity concentration of 175 Bq/kg-dry, with or without PB supplementation. The PB intake ranged from 0 to 3.0 g/day, and the average radiocesium intake was 3.42 kBq/day in all treatments. The radiocesium activity concentration in milk decreased from 16.4 to 8.6 Bq/kg-fresh, and the transfer coefficient of radiocesium from diet to milk (Fm) decreased from 4.77 × 10-3 to 2.61 × 10-3 with increased PB intake. In experiment 2, three cattle were fed another diet including a radiocesium activity concentration of 927 Bq/kg-dry of with or without PB supplementation. The PB intake ranged from 0 to 18.9 g/day, and the average radiocesium intake was 15.2 kBq/day in all treatments. The milk's radiocesium activity concentration decreased from 24.3 to 4.2 Bq/kg-fresh, and the Fm decreased from 1.68 × 10-3 to 0.28 × 10-3 with increased PB intake. Our results suggest that both the radiocesium activity concentration in milk and Fm can be reduced by PB, and that Fm is affected by diet. We recommend cattle should be fed absorbents such as PB to minimize the risk of milk radiocesium activity concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg-fresh even if the diet has a radiocesium activity concentration of less than 500 Bq/kg-dry.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Leite , Monitoramento de Radiação , Animais , Bovinos , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Dieta , Ferrocianetos , Japão , Leite/química
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140220, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887000

RESUMO

Human-dominated environments alter the availability and quality of resources for many species, especially for scavengers that have large home ranges and plastic foraging behaviors that enable them to exploit novel resources. Along the western slope of the Andes, the modification of natural landscapes have resulted in significant declines in native prey, the introduction of non-native species, and an increase in the availability of anthropogenic resources. These factors have likely influenced the resources available to Andean condors (Vultur gryphus), however, data are lacking as to how condor's diet vary along their large latitudinal range. We evaluated differences in Andean condor diet along a ~2500 km latitudinal gradient in Chile from the heavily modified Central zone (32-34°S) to the more pristine Austral zone (44-56°S). We assessed diet composition through the identification of prey remains in condor pellets, and carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of condor feathers and their primary prey identified from pellet analysis. Our results identified medium- and large-bodied domesticated mammals (ungulates) and introduced exotic species (lagomorphs) as common prey across the study area. Condors from the Central zone had the largest isotopic niche width, probably related to consumption of anthropogenic resources with distinctly high carbon isotope values indicative of C4-based foods likely acquired from landfills or corn-fed livestock. Isotopic niches for condors from the Southern and Austral zones almost completely overlapped. Andean condor diet is strongly influenced by local conditions determining differential access to prey sources. The high dependence of Andean condors on livestock across a large geographical area, and landfills in more (sub)urban areas, may help stabilize their populations via anthropogenic resources subsidies. Long-term dependence on such resources, however, may have health costs including contaminant exposure and greater mortality risk. These data will help identify potential threats related to resource availability and use, and better inform management and conservation decisions.


Assuntos
Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Chile , Dieta , Plumas , Humanos
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 114-120, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890373

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state. This suggests that the development of psychopathology is not only limited to the brain, but rather involves an additional systemic aspect, accounting for the large body of evidence demonstrating co-presentation of mental illness with chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Studies have shown that inflammatory processes underlie the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with recent studies revealing not only correlative, but causative relationships between the immune system and psychopathology. Lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may influence psychopathology, and this may occur via a bidirectional relationship. Mental illness may prevent health-seeking behaviours such as failing to maintain a balanced diet, whilst adopting a 'healthy' diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish alongside nutritional supplementation correlates with a reduction in psychiatric symptoms in patients. Obesity and the gut microbiome have proven to be further factors which play an important role in inflammatory signalling and the development of psychiatric symptoms. In a related paper we focus on the role of exercise (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health (Venkatesh et al. 2020). Lifestyle modifications which target diet and nutrition may prove therapeutically beneficial for many patients, especially in treatment-resistant subgroups. The current evidence base provides equivocal evidence, however future studies will prove significant, as this is a highly attractive therapeutic avenue, due to its cost efficacy, low side effect profile and preventative potential. By promoting lifestyle changes and addressing the limitations and barriers to adoption, these therapies may prove revolutionary for mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1291-1295, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867438

RESUMO

Objective: To identify dietary patterns among children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 and the associations between these patterns and family characteristics. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data was collected on 2 438 students and their parents through physical examinations and questionnaires. Students were from 16 schools (4 urban primary schools, 4 rural primary schools, 4 urban middle schools, and 4 rural middle schools) in Fangshan district, Beijing. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Rank sum tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the correlations between family characteristics and the scores on dietary patterns. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the associations between family characteristics and dietary patterns, for univariate analyses. Results: Two dietary patterns were identified: the risk pattern and the protective pattern. Results from the univariate analyses showed that maternal BMI was associated with the risk pattern (P=0.011). All factors, including the only-child, parental education level, monthly household income, paternal age at birth and maternal BMI, were related to the protective pattern (all P<0.05) except for the paternal BMI. After adjusting for gender, age, locations of residence (urban-rural) and BMI z-score, children with a lower parental education level and higher monthly household income were more likely to adhere to the risk pattern (ß=-0.10, 95%CI:-0.16- -0.04; ß=0.07, 95%CI: 0.02-0.12, respectively). For the protective pattern, the scores were positively associated with parental education level (ß=0.08, 95%CI: 0.02-0.14), monthly household income (ß=0.06, 95%CI: 0.02-0.11) and maternal age at birth (ß=0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.03). Children from the one-child families were more likely to adhere to the protective pattern (ß=-0.13, 95%CI: -0.22- -0.03). Conclusions: Differences of dietary behaviors were seen among children and adolescents from families with different characteristics. Protective patterns for children from families with lower parental education, lower monthly household income, lower maternal age at birth or multiple children etc. should be promoted. Risk patterns of children with lower parental educational or higher monthly household income also need to be corrected.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Características da Família , Adolescente , Pequim , Criança , Humanos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140665, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927525

RESUMO

This study screened six different species of forest plants and then further evaluated the most promising plant, giant milkweed (Calotropis gigantea), for the potential to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through inhibiting rumen protozoa in vitro. Ground leaves of giant milkweed at 1.6 and 3.2 mg/mL decreased the counts of Entodinium cells by 41.30% and 58.89%, respectively, and damaged their cell surface structure. Dasytricha, Isotricha, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex, and Diplodinium were not affected, while total bacterial and archaeal populations did not decrease. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration decreased by 50.64% and 33.33% at 1.6 g/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and methane production remained unaffected, but butyrate production increased. The giant milkweed leaves contained (per gram of dry matter) 3636 µg phenolics including 205.9 µg of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2079 µg flavonoids including 1197.5 µg of quercetin and 91.4 µg of myricetin, and 490 µg alkaloids including 219.8 µg of anthraquinone glycosides. The effective inhibition of Entodinium was accompanied by a decrease in NH3-N concentration, and methane production did not increase except for the dose of 1.6 mg/mL. Giant milkweed may be used as a new feed additive or an alternative to chemicals or antibiotics for sustainable animal husbandry enhancing NUE in ruminants.


Assuntos
Calotropis , Cilióforos , Microbiota , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fermentação , Metano , Rúmen
12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 546-553, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Development of dietary literacy questionnaire for school-age children's diet providers and evaluation of its reliability and validity. METHODS: Based on the main theoretical basis of dietary literacy definition, a pool of dietary literacy questionnaires for school-age children's daily diet providers was prepared by expert group discussion through the Delphi method. The initial scale was formed by method such as expert panel discussions. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to investigate the daily dietary providers of 1137 urban and rural children in Hefei in November 2018. The t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyze the decision value, correlation analysis and internal consistency analysis. The structural equation model was constructed to evaluate the structural validity of the questionnaire. One week after the interval, 90 school-age children's daily diet providers using random sampling were retested, and the test-retest reliability was analyzed. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach'α, Guttman coefficient, and structural validity. Further analysis of the differences in the educational level of children's diet providers and the scores of urban and rural questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 1043 valid questionnaires were returned. 894(85. 7%) were children's parents and 128(12. 3%) were children's grandparents or maternal grandparents. After expert group discussion, the questionnaire preliminarily identified four first-level indicators to provide attitudes, actions, skills and environment for daily dietary providers about children's meals. The average authority coefficient of experts was 0. 87. The study finally retained 30 items, including the four dimensions of attitudes, actions, skills and environment provided by the daily diet providers of school-age children to the children's diet. The cumulative variance contribution rate was 52. 470%. The Cronbach' α coefficient of the questionnaire was 0. 874, the split-half reliability was 0. 813, and the test-retest reliability was 0. 878. Structural equation model fitting index: χ~2/df=2. 28, RMSEA=0. 042, NFI=0. 841, GFI=0. 927, AGFI=0. 912, RFI=0. 821, IFI=0. 904, TLI=0. 891, CFI=0. 903. In addition, the differences in scores of different education levels, urban and rural questionnaires and different dietary behaviors of children were statistically significant(P<0. 05), and the questionnaires had good discriminant validity. CONCLUSION: The reliability and validity of the dietary literacy questionnaire for school-age children's daily diet providers is good, and it can provide reference for evaluating the dietary quality of school-age children's dietary providers.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alfabetização , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 613-616, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dietary exposure level of advanced glycation end products(AGEs) in the diet of Shenzhen residents. METHODS: 3 markets, 6 supermarkets and 10 chain catering units in Shenzhen were selected as sampling points. 196 food samples were collected in 11 categories in batches from December 2016 to October 2017. The AGEs content database was obtained by detecting carboxy methyl lysine by ELISA competition method. Combined with the food consumption data of Shenzhen residents in the 2011 survey of dietary and nutritional status of Shenzhen residents, through Monte Carlo simulation, the probability distribution of AGEs dietary exposure was calculated by using the Latin hypercube method from the AGEs content data and consumption data, and the result were expressed by the exposure corresponding to different percentiles(P50 and P95). RESULTS: In Shenzhen, 50% of the population had a dietary exposure of more than 37. 2 mg/d per person, while 5% of the population had a dietary exposure of more than 65. 9 mg/d per person. The first three factors that had a great impact on the dietary exposure of AGEs were the AGEs content of cereal and its products, the AGEs content of meat and its products, and the consumption of cereal and its products. The top three sources of AGEs exposure for both P50 and P95 were cereal and its products and its products taste, meat and its products. CONCLUSION: 5% of Shenzhen residents had a high intake of AGEs, which mainly came from cereals and their products, condiments, meat and their products.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Exposição Dietética , Grão Comestível , Estado Nutricional
14.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1810415, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867606

RESUMO

At the time of writing, it is unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic will play out in rapidly urbanising regions of the world. In these regions, the realities of large overcrowded informal settlements, a high burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases, as well as malnutrition and precarity of livelihoods, have raised added concerns about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in these contexts. COVID-19 infection control measures have been shown to have some effects in slowing down the progress of the pandemic, effectively buying time to prepare the healthcare system. However, there has been less of a focus on the indirect impacts of these measures on health behaviours and the consequent health risks, particularly in the most vulnerable. In this current debate piece, focusing on two of the four risk factors that contribute to >80% of the NCD burden, we consider the possible ways that the restrictions put in place to control the pandemic, have the potential to impact on dietary and physical activity behaviours and their determinants. By considering mitigation responses implemented by governments in several LMIC cities, we identify key lessons that highlight the potential of economic, political, food and built environment sectors, mobilised during the pandemic, to retain health as a priority beyond the context of pandemic response. Such whole-of society approaches are feasible and necessary to support equitable healthy eating and active living required to address other epidemics and to lower the baseline need for healthcare in the long term.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Urbanização , Betacoronavirus , Ambiente Construído , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21621, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872019

RESUMO

Upper gastrointestinal stenting is a palliative treatment for relieving symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and dietary intake in patients with obstruction due to inoperable advanced stomach cancer. Self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) implantation for malignant obstruction has recently become more effective, safer, and less expensive than operative modality. It also has better short-term outcomes, particularly a shorter hospital stay and a more rapid return to oral intake, than surgical treatment. However, there is no comparative analysis regarding the efficacy, side effects, and survival rate of stenting between the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and pyloric obstructions.To compare the prognoses and complications after SEMS implantation between EGJ and pyloric obstructions in advanced gastric cancer.Among advanced gastric cancer patients with gastrointestinal obstruction diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2017 at the Gastroenterology Department of Chungnam National University Hospital, 42 and 76 patients presented with EGJ (EGJ obstruction group) and gastric pyloric obstructions (pyloric obstruction group), respectively. We retrospectively reviewed the survival period, changes in food intake, and complications of these patients before and after SEMS placement.The prevalences of aspiration pneumonia were 11.9% (5/42) and 2.6% (2/76) in the EGJ and pyloric obstruction groups, respectively, before SEMS placement (P value: .041). Other symptoms associated with gastric malignant obstruction were not statistically different between the groups. Success rate and adverse events did not significantly differ between the EGJ and pyloric obstruction groups. There was no difference in frequency of stent reinsertion procedures performed owing to reobstruction, but the reprocedure average period was statistically significantly longer in the EGJ obstruction group [EGJ obstruction: 158.3 days (±42.4); pyloric obstruction: 86.0 days (±29.1)] (P value: .022). As an index of improved dietary status, the Gastric Outlet Obstruction Scoring System score was not significantly different between the groups before and after SEMS placement.The EGJ and pyloric obstruction groups did not significantly differ in prognosis or complication rates. However, EGJ stent was more stable than pyloric stent when reobstruction was considered.


Assuntos
Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Piloro/patologia , Stents Metálicos Autoexpansíveis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Pneumonia Aspirativa/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 796-801, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is a complex process influenced by factors such as smokers' nicotine dependence levels, socioeconomic status (SES) and other lifestyle behaviours. Little is known about these relationships in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between nicotine dependence, SES, lifestyle behaviours and lifetime quit attempts among adult smokers in SA. METHODS: This study used data from 2 651 participants aged ≥16 years in the 2011 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Information on SES (measured by asset ownership), binge drinking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, intention to quit smoking and lifetime quit attempts was extracted. Nicotine dependence was measured using the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI). All data were weighted to account for the complex survey design and to yield nationally representative estimates. Data analysis included binary logistic regression with high nicotine dependence (HND) defined as HSI ≥4 and lifetime quit attempts as separate outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 20.1% (31.6% for males and 9.5% for females), and was highest in the mixed-ancestry group (37.0%). Overall, 14.5% of smokers had HND, with a higher proportion in the high-SES group. The odds of HND increased with every 10  years of smoking history (odds ratio (OR) 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 - 3.00) but decreased among participants who reported frequent physical activity (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.18 - 0.86) and those who planned to quit (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19 - 0.75). Quit attempts were more likely among participants who reported frequent fruit and vegetable intake (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.98) and less likely among those reporting binge drinking (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 - 0.59) or assessed as having HND (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17 - 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Most adult smokers in SA have low nicotine dependence. However, the association of HND with high SES in this study suggests that although cessation treatment based on an integrated lifestyle behavioural intervention package may suffice for most smokers, a more intense cessation treatment package is needed for smokers of higher SES.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876139

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of inclusion levels of dietary fiber in the Japanese quail diets. 480 Japanese quail were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and 12 replicates composed of 8 birds each. The treatments were constituted by five increasing levels of fiber in the diet: 2.78; 3.08; 3.38; 3.68; 3.98%. The parameters of productive performance, water consumption, egg quality, total lipids in the egg, excreta humidity, weight of digestive organs and intestinal morphology were evaluated. There was no significant effect of the use of different fiber levels on feed intake, egg production, viability, live weight, relative and absolute weight of gizzard, small intestine and cecum, and in excreta moisture of Japanese quais. Higher dietary fiber levels resulted in improvements in feed conversion per mass and per dozen eggs and higher water consumption. There was no significant difference for egg quality, except fot the color of the yolk where it was observed higher pigmentation of this structure with higher levels of fiber inclusion, and the lipid concentration in the buds was influenced in a quadratic manner. The inclusion of fiber promoted improvement in the villi of the duodenum and cecum.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
19.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127413, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947681

RESUMO

Fishing is part of the traditional activities of Indigenous people in Canada. However, it is also a route of exposure to methylmercury, a known neurotoxicant, and this is a concern for those who rely on fish as part of their diet. The probable weekly intake (PWI) of methylmercury from six species of fish was calculated for Indigenous community members (N = 1406), grouped by age and sex, and compared to Canadian and international provisional reference doses to assess exposure. Mixed-effects regression models were also used to estimate the input of methylmercury into the blood, and Hazard Quotients (HQ) were used to assess potential effects. Of the species of fish in our study, walleye and lake trout contributed the most to methylmercury intake. There was a positive association between the consumption of walleye and the total blood mercury concentrations of mercury in women and men (R2A = 0.40 and 0.47, respectively), and to a lesser extent, children. Similar results were observed for the consumption of lake trout. The 95th-percentile HQ for girls (3.16) and boys (3.18) from the consumption of lake trout was relatively high, and to a lesser extent, so was the HQ for walleye and pike. The consumption of some species of fish increases the exposure to methylmercury, however, taking a balanced approach, there are health benefits associated with the consumption of fish that must be considered. To mitigate future exposure to methylmercury, we recommend follow-up blood monitoring and local-geospatial-based assessments.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adolescente , Animais , Baías , Canadá , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Quebeque , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The confinement recommended during COVID-19 pandemic could affect behavior and health. METHODS: We conducted a self-reported survey in northern Italy to observe the lockdown effects on lifestyle changes and to assess their determinants. Prevalence Odds Ratio and Prevalence Risk Ratio were determined. RESULTS: 490 adults (84% female) completed the survey: 13% and 43% reported improved and unchanged sleep quality, respectively, while 43% had insomnia symptoms. Among the 272 active subjects in pre-lockdown, 14% continued habitual exercising, 18% increased it and 68% reduced it; 27% of sedentary subjects started physical exercise; 34% reported an improvement in diet quality; 42% increased food intake and 13% decreased it; and 38% of the smokers increased cigarette consumption. Age and the pre-lockdown habit of regular physical exercising were the mainly determinants of lifestyle changes whereas BMI, gender, and the presence of chronic diseases did not. Living with other people increased the likelihood of increasing the food intake (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of people were able to positively reorganize their lives during the forced home confinement. It is worth to disseminate information to preserve a healthy lifestyle even when confined at home.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono
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