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Food Chem ; 430: 136915, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37515908


As a natural sweetener produced by honey bees, honey was recognized as being healthier for consumption than table sugar. Our previous study also indicated thatmetaboliteprofiles in mice fed honey and mixedsugardiets aredifferent. However, it is still noteworthy about the batch-to-batch consistency of the metabolic differences between two diet types. Here, the machine learning (ML) algorithms were applied to complement and calibrate HPLC-QTOF/MS-based untargeted metabolomics data. Data were generated from three batches of mice that had the same treatment, which can further mine the metabolite biomarkers. Random Forest and Extra-Trees models could better discriminate between honey and mixed sugar dietary patterns under five-fold cross-validation. Finally, SHapley Additive exPlanations tool identified phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine as reliable metabolic biomarkers to discriminate the honey diet from the mixed sugar diet. This study provides us new ideas for metabolomic analysis of larger data sets.

Mel , Abelhas , Camundongos , Animais , Dieta , Sacarose na Dieta , Metabolômica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Biomarcadores
Food Chem ; 430: 137008, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37586289


Microbial fermented feed (MFF) has been demonstrated to improve nutritional status as well as promote animal health. However, only a few studies have focused on its effect on the flavor of animal products, and the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, egg amino acids and yolk trimethylamine (TMA), small intestine histomorphology, cecal microbiota and yolk metabolites were analyzed in MFF-treated ducks. The results showed that MFF significantly increased the flavor amino acids in duck eggs, along with reducing the yolk TMA. MFF caused an increase in beneficial cecal microflora, and regulated the bacteria involved in the metabolism of glucolipid, TMA and its N-oxide. Moreover, MFF regulated 34 annotated metabolites markedly enriched in four metabolic pathways. Correlation analysis showed that cecal microbiota and yolk metabolites were closely related to flavor-related indicators of duck eggs. Our study therefore provides a theoretical basis for improving avian egg flavor starting from the feed.

Patos , Microbiota , Animais , Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos/análise
Food Chem ; 431: 137158, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37604010


Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) consist of a wide variety of fatty acids with alkyl branching of methyl group. The most common BCFAs are the types with one methyl group (mmBCFA) on the penultimate carbon (iBCFA) or the antepenultimate carbon (aiBCFA). Long-chain mmBCFAs are widely existing in animal fats, milks and are mostly derived from bacteria in the diet or animal digestive system. Recent studies show that BCFAs benefit human intestinal health and immune homeostasis, but the connection between their content, distribution in the human and their nutritional functions are not well established. In this paper, we reviewed BCFAs from various dietary sources focused on their molecular species. The BCFAs biosynthesis in bacteria, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammals and their distribution in human tissues are summarized. This paper also discusses the nutritional properties of BCFAs including influences on intestinal health, immunoregulatory effects, anti-carcinoma, and anti-obesity activities, by highlighting the most recent research progress.

Dieta , Obesidade , Animais , Humanos , Homeostase , Caenorhabditis elegans , Carbono , Ácidos Graxos , Mamíferos
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt A): 116936, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37487963


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam., a medicinal and edible herb for thousands of years in Ayurveda, is used as Pancha (na) karma (purgative) during and after the body cleansing process, to treat constipation, reduce cholesterol and body weight. AIM OF STUDY: The aim was to investigate the diarrhea effects and possible mechanism of M. oleifera leaves in constipation rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hot water extract of M. oleifera leaves (WEMOL) was prepared and analyzed using LC-20AT HPLC system. The constipated rat model was induced by feeding with low fiber diet for 21 days. After oral administration of WEMOL for 7 days, the excretion parameter analysis, gastro-intestinal propulsion, histological analysis by HE and Alcian blue staining, and gastrointestinal hormone in rat's digestive tract through ELISA were used to evaluate the laxative effect of WEMOL. Label-free quantitation (LFQ) with LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and Western blot were used to discover and verify the signal pathways and key proteins of WEMOL related to diarrhea. RESULTS: The contents of isoquercitrin and astragalin were 2.7 mg/g and 1.7 mg/g, respectively in WEMOL. The stool number, weight, and water content of constipation rats were significantly reduced, indicating model had been established successfully. WEMOL (1.25 and 2.5 g/kg) increased water content of feces and the levels of Gas, MTL, NPY in gastric antrum and VIP, SP in colon of constipation rats, improved the muscle layer thickness and mucin secretion of colon. The proteomics revealed a total of 1731 differential proteins and 9 signaling pathways, WEMOL increased the expression of Vamp2, Gnai3, and Prkacb. CONCLUSIONS: The laxative mechanism of WEMOL maybe modulate the signaling pathways mediated by 5-HT and Ach receptors, related to gastrointestinal motility and intestinal fluid secretion. It can be considered as the scientific connotation of Pancha (na) karma of M. oleifera leaves in ayurveda.

Moringa oleifera , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Laxantes/farmacologia , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta , Folhas de Planta , Água
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541


Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.

Animais , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Paquistão , Composição Corporal , Lagoas , Dieta
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548


Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.

Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.

Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552


Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.

Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.

Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252093, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355861


Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.

Resumo Este estudo objetivou analisar a dieta do cachorro-do-mato, de vida livre, por meio da identificação do conteúdo estomacal de 17 Cerdocyon thous atropelados em duas unidades de conservação da Floresta Amazônica. O conteúdo estomacal foi analisado e os itens alimentares foram quantificados pela frequência de ocorrência (FO) e percentagem de ocorrência (PO). Também foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra bruta (FB), extrato etéreo (EE) e, matéria mineral (MM). Foram estimados o extrativo não-nitrogenado (ENN), a energia metabolizável (EM) e a necessidade energética de manutenção. A composição da dieta do cachorro-do-mato apresentou 29 itens alimentares dos diferentes grupos taxonômicos, tendo uma maior diversidade de itens de origem animal (n=22), ainda que a maior FO tenha sido de gramíneas (Poaceae) (41.18%). Dentre os itens de origem animal, 21% eram mamíferos, 18% répteis, 10% anfíbios, 9% invertebrados e 3% aves. Determinou-se um alto teor de FB (62.76%). A média do ENN e da MS foi 5.91% e 141.82 kcal/100g, respectivamente. A média da energia de manutenção foi 447.01 kcal/dia. Estes achados sugerem que o cachorro-do-mato encontrado na Bacia Amazônica é um animal generalista com uma dieta onívora, se alimentando de gramíneas, frutos, insetos, serpentes, anfíbios, aves e pequenos mamíferos, portanto com o mesmo hábito alimentar relatado a esta espécie quando encontrada em outros biomas brasileiros.

Animais , Floresta Úmida , Raposas , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900


Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.

Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902


Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.

Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207


The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.

O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.

Animais , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Helianthus
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255493, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360217


The demand for products to replace high-cost raw materials, such oil and fish meal, in the manufacture of feed for use in aquaculture, while also guaranteeing the nutritional quality of the diets, is increasing. Silage produced with fish and vegetables residues is a low-cost and efficient protein source. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of tambaqui fingerlings fed four different levels of silage included in commercial feed with 28% crude protein, over two periods: 45 and 90 days. Each treatment was carried out over three replications, with 10 tambaqui in each 100 L experimental tank. At the end of each established period, blood samples were collected from five animals from each repetition to determine the hematological and biochemical variables. Body weight and total length, hepatosomatic and liposomal indices and hematocrit of specimens fed with diets supplemented with silage did not exhibit significant changes in both assessment period. After 45 days of feeding, the hemoglobin concentration increased when tambaqui were fed a diet including 20% silage. The red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin did not change between treatments in either period. The total protein concentrations increased significantly in the plasma of tambaqui fed with diets with the inclusion of 5 and 10% of silage, evaluated after feeding for 45 days. It was found that the groups which had silage included in their diet did not exhibit significant alterations in the evaluated parameters, and the diet was therefore not consider harmful to the health of tambaqui. Therefore, the use of silage as a feed supplement during tambaqui farming is a sustainable alternative for producers, as it leads to a reduction of impacts of fish and vegetables waste disposal.

A procura por insumos que substituam produtos de alto custo, como óleo e farinha de peixe, na fabricação de rações para uso na aquicultura é crescente, sendo necessário garantir a qualidade nutricional das dietas. A silagem produzida a partir de resíduos de pescado e de vegetais apresenta-se como uma alternativa de baixo custo e eficiente fonte proteica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas de alevinos de tambaqui alimentados com quatro níveis de inclusão de silagem em ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta, em dois períodos: 45 e 90 dias. Cada tratamento foi realizado em três repetições, com 10 tambaquis em cada caixa experimental de 100 L. Ao término de cada período estabelecido, amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas de cinco animais de cada repetição para determinação das variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas. Peso, comprimento total e índices hepatossomático e lipossomático de espécimes alimentados com silagem não mostraram alterações significativas em ambos os períodos de avaliação, bem como os valores de hematócrito. A concentração de hemoglobina de tambaqui após 45 dias de alimentação aumentou quando foi fornecida dieta com inclusão de 20% de silagem. A contagem de eritrócitos, volume corpuscular médio e hemoglobina corpuscular média não apresentaram alterações entre os tratamentos, em ambos os períodos. As proteínas totais aumentaram significativamente no plasma de tambaquis que receberam dietas com inclusão de 5 e 10% de silagem, avaliados após 45 dias de alimentação. Evidenciou-se que os grupos com inclusão de silagem na dieta não apresentaram alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados, assim não sendo prejudiciais à higidez do tambaqui. Portanto, o uso da silagem como suplemento alimentar durante o cultivo do tambaqui é uma alternativa sustentável para produtores, por promover a redução do descarte de resíduos de pescado e da agricultura.

Animais , Aquicultura , Suplementos Nutricionais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-11427
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 50(3): [100860], Jul-Sep. 2023. mapas, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-223307


Introducción: Comparar los niveles de vitamina D maternos con la zona de residencia o el consumo de pescado, así como su relación con el peso, la longitud y el perímetro craneal de los bebés. Materiales y métodos: Cohorte de 100 parejas madre-hijo (n=100) de la provincia de Sevilla (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío y Hospital Universitario de Valme). En muestras de sangre materna (edad gestacional≥40 semanas) se han medido los niveles de 25(OH)D mediante quimioluminiscencia. Las medidas antropométricas de los bebés se realizaron mediante métodos estándares. Resultados: Con relación a los niveles de vitamina D, 54% presentaban valores deficientes, 26% insuficientes y 20% valores suficientes. Tras un análisis de regresión múltiple, se observa que no hay diferencia significativa entre niveles de vitamina D maternos, la longitud y el perímetro cefálico de los bebés, sin embargo, sí con el peso al nacer (p<0,05). Al aplicarse la T-Student y el test Wilcoxon, no hay relación entre niveles de vitamina D y el área de residencia ni con el consumo de pescado materno (ambos p>0,05). Conclusiones: El 80% de madres presentan valores deficientes e insuficientes de vitamina D. No hay correlación entre este parámetro y la longitud y perímetro cefálico del bebé, observándose correlación negativa con el peso al nacer. Tampoco se observa correlación entre la zona de residencia o el consumo de pescado y niveles de vitamina D en madres. Sugerimos complementos en dieta de madres gestantes y seguimiento de los niveles de vitamina D en los bebés.(AU)

Introduction: To compare maternal vitamin D levels with the area of residence or the consumption of fish, as well as its relationship with the weight, length and cranial perimeter of babies. Materials and methods: Cohort of 100 mother–child pairs (n=100) from the province of Seville (Virgen del Rocío University Hospital and Valme University Hospital). In maternal blood samples (gestational age≥40 weeks) 25(OH)D levels have been measured by chemiluminescence. Anthropometric measurements of the babies were made using standard methods. Results: Regarding vitamin D levels, 54% had deficient values, 26% insufficient and 20% sufficient values. After a multiple regression analysis, it is observed that there is no significant difference between maternal vitamin D levels, the length and the cephalic perimeter of the babies, however, there is a difference with the birth weight (P<.05). When applying the t-Student and the Wilcoxon test, there is no relationship between vitamin D levels and the area of residence or with maternal fish consumption (both P>.05). Conclusions: Eighty percent of mothers present deficient and insufficient values of vitamin D. There is no correlation between this parameter and the length and cephalic perimeter of the baby, observing a negative correlation with birth weight. No correlation was observed between the area of residence or the consumption of fish and vitamin D levels in mothers. We suggest dietary supplements for pregnant mothers and monitoring of vitamin D levels in babies.(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Vitamina D/sangue , Proteínas de Peixes , Recém-Nascido , Antropometria , 24439 , Dieta , Espanha , Estudos de Coortes
Lipids Health Dis ; 22(1): 149, 2023 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689717


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and dyslipidemia, as well as to evaluate the mortality risk associated with DII in participants with dyslipidemia. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database were divided into dyslipidemia and non-dyslipidemia groups. The association between DII and dyslipidemia was investigated using the weighted chi-square test, weighted t-test, and weighted logistic regression. Weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related mortality within the dyslipidemia group. RESULTS: A total of 17,820 participants, including 4,839 without and 12,981 with dyslipidemia were analyzed in this study. The results showed that DII was higher in the dyslipidemia group compared to the non-dyslipidemia group (1.42 ± 0.03 vs. 1.23 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). However, for energy, protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, and iron, DII was lower in participants with dyslipidemia. Logistic regression analysis revealed a strong positive association between DII and dyslipidemia. The odds ratios for dyslipidemia from Q1 to Q4 were 1.00 (reference), 1.12 (0.96-1.31), 1.23 (1.04-1.44), and 1.33 (1.11-1.59), respectively. In participants with dyslipidemia, a high DII was associated with high all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSION: DII was closely associated with dyslipidemia. A pro-inflammatory diet may play a role in unfavorable consequences and is linked to both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in patients with dyslipidemia. Participants with dyslipidemia should pay attention to their anti-inflammatory dietary patterns.

Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dislipidemias , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia
Food Res Int ; 172: 113133, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689844


Dietary fiber exerts a wide range of biological benefits on host health, which not only provides a powerful source of nutrition for gut microbiota but also supplies key microbial metabolites that directly affect host health. This review mainly focuses on the decomposition and metabolism of dietary fiber and the essential genera Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium in dietary fiber fermentation. Dietary fiber plays an essential role in host health by impacting outcomes related to obesity, enteritis, immune health, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, the gut microbiota-independent pathway of dietary fiber affecting host health is also discussed. Personalized dietary fiber intake combined with microbiome, genetics, epigenetics, lifestyle and other factors has been highlighted for development in the future. A higher level of evidence is needed to demonstrate which microbial phenotype benefits from which kind of dietary fiber. In-depth insights into the correlation between gut microbiota and dietary fiber provide strong theoretical support for the precise application of dietary fiber, which elucidates a dietary causal relationship with host health.

Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Fibras na Dieta
Food Res Int ; 172: 113095, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689868


A diet rich in sugar and fat can promote metabolic disorders development, especially in the intestine. Chia flour (Salvia hispanica. L) is a source of dietary fiber, alpha-linolenic fatty acid (ALA), bioactive peptides, and phenolics, promoting health benefits. This study aimed to analyze chia flour's effect on gut microbiota modulation and intestinal health in adult male Wistar rats fed a high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were fed the diets standard (AIN-93M) or HFHF (31% saturated fat and 20% fructose) in the first phase to induce metabolic disorders. In the second phase, the rats were fed AIN-93M, HFHF, or HFHF plus 14.7% chia flour (HFHF + CF) for 10 weeks. The consumption of chia flour increased the ALA (3.24 ± 0.24) intake and significantly improved immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels (1126.00 ± 145.90), goblet cells number (24.57 ± 2.76), crypt thickness (34.37 ± 5.86), crypt depth (215.30 ± 23.19), the longitudinal muscle layer (48.11 ± 5.04), cecum weight (4.39 ± 0.71), Shannon index (p < 0.05), and significantly increased the production of acetic (20.56 ± 4.10) and butyric acids (5.96 ± 1.50), Monoglobus sp., Lachnospiraceae sp., and Prevotellaceae sp. abundance. Furthermore, chia significantly reduced the cecal pH content (7.54 ± 1.17), body mass index (0.62 ± 0.03) and weight (411.00 ± 28.58), and Simpson index (p < 0.05). Therefore, chia intake improved intestinal health parameters and functionality in rats with metabolic disorders, which demonstrates to be an effective strategy for gut microbiota modulation.

Farinha , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Frutose , Salvia hispanica , Dieta
Food Res Int ; 172: 113109, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689878


Dietary nutrients regulate intestinal homeostasis through a variety of complex mechanisms, to affect the host health. Nowadays, various models have been used to investigate the dietary nutrients-intestinal homeostasis axis. Different from the limited flux in animal experiments, limited intestinal cell types and distorted simulation of intestinal environment of 2D cells, intestinal organoid (IO) is a 3D culture system of mini-gut with various intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and producibility of intestinal biology. Therefore, IOs is a powerful tool to evaluate dietary nutrients-intestinal homeostasis interaction. This review summarized the application of IOs in the investigation of mechanisms for macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) affecting intestinal homeostasis directly or indirectly (polysaccharides-intestinal bacteria, proteins-amino acids). In addition, new perspectives of IOs in combination with advanced biological techniques and their applications in precise nutrition were proposed.

Nutrientes , Organoides , Animais , Vitaminas , Dieta , Homeostase
Food Res Int ; 172: 113182, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689934


Due to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, diabetes, colon cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome, dietary approaches to reduce starch digestion and regulate glucose homeostasis have gained attention. Starch is a polysaccharide in most daily food consumed as bakery products, snacks, breakfast cereals, and pasta, which are often vilified. However, it is also present in beans, lentils, and oatmeal, which are considered healthy food products. The difference relays on the food matrix and the thermal process that can produce interactions between starch and dietary compounds (protein, lipid, non-starch polysaccharide, and bioactive compounds) or among starch chains (retrogradation). Such interactions produce structural changes so the digestive enzymes cannot hydrolyze them; additionally, the physical barrier of some macromolecules (proteins, hydrocolloids) restricts starch gelatinization and accessibility of the digestive enzymes to hydrolyze the starch. The interactions mentioned above and the use of some macromolecules as physical barriers could be explored as a pathway to develop functional foods. This review analyzes the interactions between starch and dietary compounds influenced by the processing of some food matrices to better understand their potential for developing functional foods.

Doenças Cardiovasculares , Amido , Humanos , Alimento Funcional , Dieta , Obesidade