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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Paquistão , Composição Corporal , Lagoas , Dieta
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252093, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355861

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou analisar a dieta do cachorro-do-mato, de vida livre, por meio da identificação do conteúdo estomacal de 17 Cerdocyon thous atropelados em duas unidades de conservação da Floresta Amazônica. O conteúdo estomacal foi analisado e os itens alimentares foram quantificados pela frequência de ocorrência (FO) e percentagem de ocorrência (PO). Também foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra bruta (FB), extrato etéreo (EE) e, matéria mineral (MM). Foram estimados o extrativo não-nitrogenado (ENN), a energia metabolizável (EM) e a necessidade energética de manutenção. A composição da dieta do cachorro-do-mato apresentou 29 itens alimentares dos diferentes grupos taxonômicos, tendo uma maior diversidade de itens de origem animal (n=22), ainda que a maior FO tenha sido de gramíneas (Poaceae) (41.18%). Dentre os itens de origem animal, 21% eram mamíferos, 18% répteis, 10% anfíbios, 9% invertebrados e 3% aves. Determinou-se um alto teor de FB (62.76%). A média do ENN e da MS foi 5.91% e 141.82 kcal/100g, respectivamente. A média da energia de manutenção foi 447.01 kcal/dia. Estes achados sugerem que o cachorro-do-mato encontrado na Bacia Amazônica é um animal generalista com uma dieta onívora, se alimentando de gramíneas, frutos, insetos, serpentes, anfíbios, aves e pequenos mamíferos, portanto com o mesmo hábito alimentar relatado a esta espécie quando encontrada em outros biomas brasileiros.


Assuntos
Animais , Floresta Úmida , Raposas , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339393

RESUMO

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aminoácidos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250296, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339385

RESUMO

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.


Assuntos
Animais , Gengibre , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMO

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Osmeriformes , Chile , Dieta/veterinária , Lipídeos
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285637

RESUMO

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , 6-Fitase , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMO

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , 6-Fitase , Nutrientes , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 62(10): 2836-2844, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354986

RESUMO

Mollusks are excellent dietary sources for LC-PUFA. However, the main challenge limiting mollusk production is the high mortality rate of molluskan larvae in early life cycle stages. This paper reviews scientific evidences on molecular and biochemical studies of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in commercially important molluskan species. It carefully summarizes the pertinent data published on specific research questions to improve the understanding of the diverse evidences. It is helpful to clarify the current state of research and determine topics for future studies on LC-PUFA biosynthesis in mollusks. From the analysis of published data, mollusks have the ability to biosynthesis LC-PUFA to a certain extent. LC-PUFA biosynthesis information of commercially important molluskan species can be useful to determine the fatty acids essential for their diet. Therefore, specific management strategies or feeds can be developed to strengthen the industry by improving the health and survival rate of molluskan larvae.


Assuntos
Dieta , Moluscos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos
14.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(3): 538-542, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642168

RESUMO

High-sugar diet causes various diseases, including insulin resistance, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In recent years, as researchers probe deeper and deeper into issues concerning high-sugar diet, the impact of high-sugar diet on inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases has been gradually uncovered and clarified. In this review, we summarized the current research progress on high-sugar diet and inflammatory diseases, and suggested that a high-sugar diet based on high intake of glucose and fructose may be an important factor inducing the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases. Moreover, we also summarized the regulatory mechanisms through which high-sugar diet induces exacerbation of inflammatory diseases. In addition, we stated that conducting extensive clinical research and research in real-life settings and pursuing thorough investigation to reveal the different involvement of high-glucose diet and high-fructose diet in immune regulation are the key scientific issues that need urgent solutions in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glucose , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(6): 1151-1153, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642392

RESUMO

Dietary intake biomarkers that can be written as actual intake, plus 'error' that is independent of actual intake and confounding factors can substitute for actual intake in disease association analyses. Also, such biomarkers can be used to develop calibration equations using self-reported diet and participant measures, and biomarker-calibrated intakes can be calculated in larger cohorts for use in disease association analyses. Criteria for biomarkers, and for biomarker-calibrated intakes, arise by working back from properties needed for valid disease association analyses. Accordingly, arguments for a potential biomarker are strengthened if error components are small relative to actual intakes, and important sources of reduced sensitivity or specificity are not apparent. Feeding study biomarker development can then involve regression of actual intake on putative biomarkers, with regression R2 values playing a role in biomarker evaluation. In comparison, 'predictive' biomarker status, as argued in this issue by Freedman and colleagues for 24-hour urinary sucrose plus fructose as biomarker for total sugars, involves regression of potential biomarker on actual intake and other variables, with parameter stability across populations and limited within-person variability as criteria. The choice of criteria for biomarkers and for biomarker-calibrated intakes, is discussed here, in the context of total sugars intake. See related article by Freedman et al., p. 1227.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Frutose , Biomarcadores , Dieta , Humanos , Sacarose
16.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 24, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643518

RESUMO

The potential modifiable role of diet in common psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, has attracted growing interest. Diet may influence the occurrence of mental disorders through its inflammatory characteristics. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore whether dietary inflammatory potential is associated with the risk of depression and anxiety. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases up to February 2021. Articles related to dietary inflammatory potential and risk of depression or anxiety were included. After the elimination of repetitive and irrelevant literature, we conducted quality assessment, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis. In total, 17 studies with a total of 157,409 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest inflammatory diet group, the highest group was significantly associated with the incidence of depression and anxiety, with the following pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 1.45 (1.30 ~ 1.62) for depression and 1.66 (1.41 ~ 1.96) for anxiety. A subgroup analysis by gender showed that this association was more prominent in women. For depression, the increased risk was 49% in women (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.28 ~ 1.74) and 27% in men (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.52). As for anxiety, the increased risk was 80% in women (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.30 ~ 2.49) and 47% in men (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.81 ~ 2.89). As a result, long-term anti-inflammatory eating patterns may prevent depression and anxiety, whereas pro-inflammatory eating patterns may promote these conditions. People should add more fish, fish oil, fresh fruit, walnuts, and brown rice to their diet.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8987, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643927

RESUMO

Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrinopathy of domestic felines. In humans, toxic nodular goitre is pathophysiologically similar to feline hyperthyroidism and can be caused by chronically low or fluctuating dietary iodine intake. The aetiopathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism is not known, but chronically low or fluctuating dietary iodine intake is likely common. This study assessed habitual iodine intake in domestic cats by: (1) conducting a dietary survey involving 361 owners of 549 cats, (2) analysing iodine content of 119 cat feeds, 38 urine and 64 hair samples and (3) assessing variation in iodine content of eight cat feeds over 4-6 different batches. Owners varied their cats feed regularly, usually on a day-to-day basis and often between wet and dry feeds with differing flavours. The majority (78%; 93 of 119) feeds for cats were within the guideline range for iodine. Of the 22% (n = 26 feeds) that were not compliant, the majority (n = 23) were below the nutritional minimum value with most (n = 16) being dry kibble. Iodine content of feeds did not vary considerably between types of feed or feed packaging, but variation between different batches of the same feed was 14-31%. Hence, urine iodine in cats also varied markedly. Cats being treated for hyperthyroidism had lower hair iodine. In conclusion, a survey assessing how domestic cats are fed, together with an analysis of commercial cat feeds suggests that domestic cats are likely to experience chronically low or fluctuating dietary iodine intake. The latter is supported by wide variation in urine iodine content.


Assuntos
Bócio Nodular , Hipertireoidismo , Iodo , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(784): 1096-1099, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647746

RESUMO

An adequate fiber intake is recommended for pregnant women, with or without gestational diabetes, similarly to the general population. Due to the lack of precise data on the composition of fiber in foods, dietary advices are not specific. Their objective is to increase the overall fiber consumption, ideally up to a daily consumption of 28g. Fiber intake has diverse effects and it is predominantly the intake of the viscous soluble fibers that improves the glycemic profile. In the case of gestational diabetes, supplementation with fiber products can be of interest in addition to the dietary recommendations to improve the postprandial glycemic profiles. More precise information on the impact of foods according to their fiber composition is needed to optimize the dietary advice.


Une consommation suffisante de fibres fait partie des recommandations pour les femmes enceintes, avec ou sans diabète gestationnel, tout comme pour la population générale. Par manque de données précises sur la composition des fibres des aliments, les conseils alimentaires se trouvent être peu spécifiques, avec pour objectif d'augmenter la consommation de manière générale à 28 g par jour. Les fibres ont des effets divers, et ce sont surtout les fibres solubles visqueuses qui améliorent le profil glycémique. En cas de diabète gestationnel, une supplémentation est intéressante pour limiter les élévations glycémiques, en plus des conseils pour majorer les fibres de manière générale dans l'alimentation. Plus de détails sur l'impact des aliments en fonction de leur composition en fibres sont nécessaires pour optimiser les conseils alimentaires.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1193, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For decades, dominant weight discourses have led to physical, mental, and social health consequences for young women in larger bodies. While ample literature has documented why these discourses are problematic, knowledge is lacking regarding how they are socially organized within institutions, like fashion and media, that young women encounter across their lifespan. Such knowledge is critical for those in public health trying to shift societal thinking about body weight. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how young women's weight work is socially organized by discourses enacted in fashion and media, interpreting work generously as any activity requiring thought or intention. METHODS: Using institutional ethnography, we learned from 14 informants, young women aged 15-21, in Edmonton, Canada about the everyday work of growing up in larger bodies. We conducted 14 individual interviews and five repeated group interviews with a subset (n = 5) of our informants. A collaborative investigation of weight-related YouTube videos (n = 45) elicited further conversations with two informant-researchers about the work of navigating media. Data were integrated and analyzed holistically. RESULTS: Noticing the perpetual lack of larger women's bodies in fashion and media, informants learned from an early age that thinness was required for being seen and heard. Informants responded by performing three types of work: hiding their weight, trying to lose weight, and resisting dominant weight discourses. Resistance work was aided by social media, which offered informants a sense of community and opportunities to learn about alternative ways of knowing weight. However, social media alleging body acceptance or positivity content often still focused on weight loss. While informants recognized the potential harm of engagement with commercial weight loss industries like diet and exercise, they felt compelled to do whatever it might take to achieve a "normal woman body". CONCLUSIONS: Despite some positive discursive change regarding body weight acceptance in fashion and media, this progress has had little impact on the weight work socially expected of young women. Findings highlight the need to broaden public health thinking around how weight discourses are (re)produced, calling for intersectoral collaboration to mobilize weight stigma evidence beyond predominantly academic circles into our everyday practices.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Mídias Sociais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Peso
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9685, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690616

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing untreated cowpea (CWP; Aura 26 variety) seeds as a protein source on quality parameters of chickens' breast (PM; Pectoralis major) and thigh muscles (BF; Biceps femoris). A total of 240 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly allotted to two groups: a control group fed with soybean meal (SBM) and an experimental group fed with CWP included at 200 g/kg as a replacement of SBM. Each group consisted of six pens as replicates, with 20 chicks per pen. At 6 weeks of age, twelve birds/group were slaughtered. Compared to SBM group, the group fed CWP had higher (P < 0.0001) lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values of PM and BF muscles, the latter had also higher yellowness (b*, P < 0.0001). The collagen and protein contents were significantly higher in CWP group in both PM and BF muscles, while fat was lower (P < 0.001) only in BF muscle. The use of CWP into broilers' diets did not negatively impact the textural properties, i.e., hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of PM and BF, showing similar values in both groups. Also, PM and BF muscles of birds fed CWP had significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of C:18:3n-3 and C:20:5n-3 compared with birds fed SBM. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower in CWP group (11.72 and 7.00) compared to SBM (13.47 and 12.63) for both PM and BF muscles. These results indicate that CWP can be considered a promising protein source for broiler chickens' feed.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vigna , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético , Sementes , Soja
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