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1.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(5): 337-347, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059170

RESUMO

Objective: Nutrition is closely related to the health of the elderly population. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrition status of elderly Chinese and its related dietary, geographical, and socioeconomic factors. Methods: A total of 13,987 ≥ 60-year-old persons from the 2010-2013 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey were included to evaluate various aspects of malnutrition, including underweight, overweight or obesity, and micronutrient inadequacy. Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight was 12.4%, 34.8%, and 5.7%, respectively, with disparities both geographically and socioeconomically. The prevalence of underweight was higher among the older old (≥ 75 years), rural residents and those with low income, with low education status, and residing in undeveloped West areas. More than 75% of the elderly do not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamins A, B 1, B 2, and E, folate, calcium, selenium, potassium, biotin, and choline, with the prevalence of inadequate intake increasing with age for most nutrients. At the population level, the mean intakes of numerous food groups did not meet the recommendations by the Chinese Dietary Guideline. Conclusions: Obesity epidemic, inadequacy of micronutrient intake, and high prevalence of underweight and anemia in susceptible older people are the major nutrition challenges for the rapidly aging population in China.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/etiologia
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(5): 356-363, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059172

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) on the concentration and metabolism of plasma homocysteine (pHcy) in folate-sufficient and folate-deficient rats. Methods: In this study, 0.1% DMG was supplemented in 20% casein diets that were either folate-sufficient (20C) or folate-deficient (20CFD). Blood and liver of rats were subjected to assays of Hcy and its metabolites. Hcy and its related metabolite concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatographic system. Results: Folate deprivation significantly increased pHcy concentration in rats fed 20C diet (from 14.19 ± 0.39 µmol/L to 28.49 ± 0.50 µmol/L; P < 0.05). When supplemented with DMG, pHcy concentration was significantly decreased (12.23 ± 0.18 µmol/L) in rats fed 20C diet but significantly increased (31.56 ± 0.59 µmol/L) in rats fed 20CFD. The hepatic methionine synthase activity in the 20CFD group was significantly lower than that in the 20C group; enzyme activity was unaffected by DMG supplementation regardless of folate sufficiency. The activity of hepatic cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) in the 20CFD group was decreased but not in the 20C group; DMG supplementation enhanced hepatic CBS activity in both groups, in which the effect was significant in the 20C group but not in the other group. Conclusion: DMG supplementation exhibited hypohomocysteinemic effects under folate-sufficient conditions. By contrast, the combination of folate deficiency and DMG supplementation has deleterious effect on pHcy concentration.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sarcosina/administração & dosagem , Sarcosina/metabolismo
3.
4.
Georgian Med News ; (313): 146-152, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103447

RESUMO

The rapid development of molecular biology and genetic engineering contributes to the creation of plants with desired properties in a short time. One of the aspects of the study of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically modified products (GMP) is the study of their impact on humans, animals and the environment. Subject of research - changes in the morph functional indicators of the reproductive system of mice. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the importance of the reproductive system for the reproduction of a healthy generation, capable of developing normally and continuing its race. Purpose of the study - to identify the effect of GMOs on the reproductive system of mice. Cultivation of three groups of laboratory mice using transgenic feed (genetically modified soybean meal) and obtaining biological material for research. Determination of the presence of genetically modified sources (GMS), genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food and feed products using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Morphometric study of the obtained material and biometric data processing. It has been shown that the consumption of feed by animals prepared on the basis of genetically modified plants does not affect the reproductive functions of the parental generation; but at the same time there was an inhibition of the growth rate and the process of formation of the gonads of the descendants of the first and, especially, the second generation; the second generation of offspring, eating only soybean meal, had defective reproductive qualities and high mortality. Second-generation mice eating genetically modified soybean meal are at greater risk than second-generation mice eating traditional diets.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Animais , Dieta , Genitália , Camundongos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(2): 92-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105130

RESUMO

Nutritional fitness is a key goal of every Special Operations Forces (SOF) Operator, and nutrition is one way of potentially gaining a necessary edge. Although fad diets are popular among SOF Operators, many have no evidence with regard to military-specific tasks. One fad diet-intermittent fasting (IF)-is clearly the rage across the United States (US) and popular as a dietary pattern. Most fad diets are studied in the context of various chronic diseases, in particular, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, and there are no data on the benefits among SOF or any military population. Thus, evidence demonstrating improvements in performance is typically lacking. Despite no clear evidence, many still devote their lives to popular fad diets. We address whether IF confers performance improvements in SOF by first discussing the concepts of metabolic flexibility and metabolic shifting, then describing IF and its subtypes, after which we summarize the literature with regard to cardiovascular disease and obesity. We close with how IF impacts performance and discuss who should use consider using IF as a dietary pattern.


Assuntos
Jejum , Militares , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade , Estados Unidos
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210033, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usual consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and its association with body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), age, and sex in adults living in Brasília City, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: A total of 506 individuals aged ≥ 20 years old were interviewed. Dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24-h food recalls. The distributions of usual intakes of energy and the amount of UPF were estimated using the Iowa State University method. The association of age, BMI, PA, and sex with the proportions of UPF consumption (%Kcal and %grams) was investigated with linear regression models. RESULTS: UPF represented 9.2% of the total dietary consumption (grams/day) and 25% of total energy intake. Compared to eutrophic, subjects with obesity consumed a higher percentage of UPF in grams, whereas subjects with overweight had a higher percentage of UPF in kilocalories. The share of UPF in energy intake was lower in male than female individuals, and PA and age were inversely associated with UPF consumption. CONCLUSION: Careful monitoring of intake of UPF is recommended. Its consumption should be reduced among people with overweight/obesity and sedentary individuals. Appropriate choices for methods to evaluate the usual distribution of intake will strengthen future analysis of UPF assessment.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068374

RESUMO

This review answers the question of why selenium is such an important trace element in the human diet. Daily dietary intake of selenium and its content in various food products is discussed in this paper, as well as the effects of its deficiency and excess in the body. Moreover, the biological activity of selenium, which it performs mainly through selenoproteins, is discussed. These specific proteins are responsible for thyroid hormone management, fertility, the aging process, and immunity, but their key role is to maintain a redox balance in cells. Furthermore, taking into account world news and the current SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, the impact of selenium on the course of COVID-19 is also discussed. Another worldwide problem is the number of new cancer cases and cancer-related mortality. Thus, the last part of the article discusses the impact of selenium on cancer risk based on clinical trials (including NPC and SELECT), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Additionally, this review discusses the possible mechanisms of selenium action that prevent cancer development.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Dieta , Neoplasias , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 207, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many C. elegans aging studies use the compound 5-fluro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) to produce a synchronous population of worms. However, the effects of FUdR on the bacterial gene expression of OP50 E. coli, the primary laboratory C. elegans food source, is not fully understood. This is particularly relevant as studies suggest that intestinal microbes can affect C. elegans physiology. Therefore, it is imperative that we understand how exposure to FUdR can affect gene expression changes in OP50 E. coli. RESULTS: An RNAseq dataset comprised of expression patterns of 2900 E. coli genes in the strain OP50, which were seeded on either nematode growth media (NGM) plates or on FUdR (50 µM) supplemented NGM plates, was analyzed. Analysis showed differential gene expression in genes involved in general transport, amino acid biosynthesis, transcription, iron transport, and antibiotic resistance. We specifically highlight metabolic enzymes in the L-histidine biosynthesis pathway as differentially expressed between NGM and FUdR exposed OP50. We conclude that OP50 exposed to FUdR results in differential expression of many genes, including those in amino acid biosynthetic pathways.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Floxuridina , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Dieta , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 52-61, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is an essential nutrient for cellular homeostasis and life. Drinking ≥ 6 glasses (1.5 L/day) is the recommendation of daily water intake (RIAD). AIM: To characterize water intake, according to sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyles variables, in the Chilean adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of data from 5,520 participants of the 2016-17 National Health Survey. Compliance with RIAD by population groups according to sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics was studied through logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Only 27.8% of the national population met the RIAD. Women, people over than 56 years of age, housewives, retired people, widowers, and non-smokers were less likely to meet the RIAD. The likelihood of not complying with RIAD in these segments of the population ranged from 28% to 62%. Conversely, participants who presented a higher likelihood of meeting RIAD were those who co-habiting, had a medium and higher educational level, followed a diet plan, and those who reported a good health and well-being. The likelihood of meeting with the RIAD for these population groups ranged from 47% to 116%. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of meeting the RIAD varied according to different sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables. Therefore, public policies for promoting water consumption should be focused on all age groups, but especially in those groups with the highest risk of underconsumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20201571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076185

RESUMO

Sturnira lilium is a frugivorous bat that is known for its high consumption of Solanaceae fruits. We captured S. lilium, using mistnets, to study its diet and diet seasonal variation in a seasonal deciduous forest in southern Brazil. We also investigated the predominance of Solanaceae and of Solanum granulosoleprosum, the main food source, correlated with the availability of ripe fruits. A total of 11 plant species were identified from 126 fecal samples. Seeds of Solanaceae species were present in 81% of the samples, with S. granulosoleprosum seeds being the most common (68.3 %). There was no seasonal variation in the diet; however ANOVA revealed that the consumption of Solanaceae and S. granulosoleprosum showed monthly differences. There was no monthly correlation and there was a weak seasonal correlation between ripe fruit availability and the consumption of S. granulosoleprosum by S. lilium, indicating that this bat species occupies broad home ranges and is capable of locating plants with mature fruits in adjacent areas during most of the year. The mobility of S. lilium and high abundance of S. granulosoleprosum in the diet suggests that this species as good disperser of plants that are characteristic of early successional stages and areas undergoing regeneration.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Lilium , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Florestas , Estações do Ano
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(741): 1083-1086, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077040

RESUMO

There is no real consensus on the ideal nutritional approach to recommend for gestational diabetes (GDM) treatment. A carbohydrates reduction (low-carb) is frequently suggested, although many studies have not found any consistent beneficial effects. On the other hand, according to recent meta-analyses, a low glycemic index (GI) diet would have favorable effects for the mother and the child. Although the clinical and practical value of GI is still being studied, a low GI diet seems to be the most appropriate approach in GDM. In addition, soluble fibers may have a beneficial metabolic impact in the short time of pregnancy. More evidence on the impact of these nutritional approaches in the short and long term for mother and child is needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Índice Glicêmico , Carboidratos , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 460-465, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between dietary inflammatory index(DII), serum interleukin-6(IL-6) of late pregnant women and infant birth weight. METHODS: This study was conducted in late pregnant women who received antenatal care at the Maternal and Children& apos; s Hospital of Baiyun and Yuexiu District in Guangzhou, China between September 2010 and February 2011. Tree consecutive 24-h diet recalls, pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal education level and etc were collected. DII score was calculated based on data of dietary surveys. Participant were dived into anti-inflammatory group(T1), neutral group(T2) and pro-inflammatory group(T3) according to the tertiles of DII score. Maternal and infant anthropometric profile(n=456) and level of maternal serum IL-6(n=308) were measured. Structrural equation modeling(SEM) was used to explore the relationship between DII, IL-6 and birth weight. RESULTS: In 456 women, the mean DII score was 0. 02±1. 08. Women performed anti-inflammatory diet had higher intake of grain and potato, vegetables, energy, fiber, minerals, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids, but lower intakes of fruits, diary, fat(% energy) and protein from animal food(P& lt; 0. 05). Average infant birth weight and level of maternal serum IL-6 were(3238. 1±376. 4)g and 4. 05(2. 02, 10. 14) pg/mL respectively. DII of pregnant women was positively correlated with maternal serum IL-6(r=0. 144, P& lt; 0. 05), and IL-6 was negatively correlated with birth weight(r=-0. 184, P& lt; 0. 05). SEM indicated that maternal serum IL-6 may be a mediator in the association between DII and birth weight. CONCLUSION: The diet of pregnant women may change the serum level of IL6, and then affect infant birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Dieta , Interleucina-6 , Gestantes , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/sangue , Gravidez
14.
Vnitr Lek ; 67(E-2): 25-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074101

RESUMO

Gout is a metabolically-related joint disease, characterized by recurrent episodic arthritis. The recent epidemiological study suggests that the incidence of hyperuricemia and gout in many countries has risen especially in recent decades. A possible explanation may be a decreased physical activity level and changes in eating habits. The patients lifestyle is one of the key factors contributing to the development of hyperuricemia. For patients, an important part of therapy is non-pharmacological treatment through changes in lifestyle factors such as dietary measures, weight control, and adequate hydration and exercise. Lifestyle changes can lead to beneficial health changes in patients. The relationships between serum uric acid levels, hyperuricemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are well established. Higher serum uric acid concentration positively correlates with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome. The reduction of BMI may lead to improved hyperuricemia in patients. Other important changes include stopping alcohol consumption, reducing the intake of sweetened beverages, increasing the intake of dairy products, no eating organ meats, sea fish, sausages. Proper hydration is also an important part of the treatment.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Animais , Laticínios , Dieta , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/terapia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Úrico
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 389-394, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey the intakes of energy and macronutrients in 6-11 years old age group in 2016-2017 in China. METHODS: Multi-stage cluster randomization sampling method was used to collect the data from China Nutrition and Health Surveillance of Children and Lactating Mothers in 2016-2017 in 257 surveillance sites of 31 provinces. 24-h dietary recalls for three consecutive days were used to obtain the dietary information. The intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated by the China Food Composition, and the intakes of protein were assessing by Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes(DRIs). RESULTS: A total of 8777 children in 6-11(9. 2±1. 6) years old group were recruited in this surveillance, the number of boys and girls were 4364 and 4413, respectively. The general intakes of energy were 1591. 7 kcal and that of boys and girls were 1624. 1 kcal and 1559. 7 kcal, respectively. The energy intakes in urban children were higher than rural children. The energy intakes in the east region were the highest and the middle region were the lowest. The general protein intakes were 50. 0 g, and that of boys and girls were 50. 9 g and 49. 1 g, respectively. The intakes of protein in urban children were higher than in rural. The intakes of protein in east region were higher than that in the middle and west regions. The ratios that above RNI of protein intakes were 52. 4%, and the ratios of urban and rural were 63. 0% and 42. 9%, respectively. The general fat intakes were 69. 6 g and that of boys and girls were 71.4 g and 67.8 g, respectively. The fat intakes in urban children were higher than in rural, but in the rural of the west the fat intakes were higher than in the urban of the east. The general intakes of carbohydrate were 196. 3 g, and that of boys and girls were 199. 5 g and 193. 2 g, respectively. The carbohydrate intakes in urban children were higher than in rural, and in the west region the intakes of carbohydrate were higher than in the east region. But in the rural populations, the carbohydrate intakes in the west region were higher than that in the east region. CONCLUSION: Comparing with 2010-2013, obvious changes of energy and macronutrients intakes in China 6-11 y children were observed in 2016-2017 surveillance. Inadequate intakes of protein were still the problem in rural children populations. The increase of fat intake was larger and more significant in the western region.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Lactação , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nutrientes , Inquéritos Nutricionais
16.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 401-408, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the fresh vegetables and fresh fruit consumption among the elders aged 60 and above of China in 2015. METHODS: The consumption of fresh vegetables and fresh fruits in the past 12 months was calculated by using the food frequency questionnaire data of 58 335 elderly people aged 60 and above from "China National Chronic Diseases and Nutrition Surveillance of Adults(2015)", and the intake status was evaluated according to the recommended intake of Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents(2016). RESULTS: The consumption rate of fresh vegetables among the elderly in China was 98. 7%, the median intake of the whole population was 270. 0 g, the median intake of the consumer population was 300. 0 g, and the proportion of under-intake was 49. 6%. The fresh fruit consumption rate was 84. 2%, the median intake of the whole population was 30. 0 g, and the median intake of the consumer population was 50. 0 g. The proportion of insufficient intake of fresh fruits reached 85. 2%. The frequency of intake of fresh vegetables was mainly 2 times/day, accounting for 45. 9%; fresh vegetables intake 1-3 times/week and ≥2 times/day were 38. 7% and 35. 6%, respectively. The consumption rate and intake of fresh vegetables and fruits were both higher in urban areas than in rural areas, and decrease significantly with increasing age, lower educational background and lower income. In addition, the consumption rate and intake were lower in elderly living alone. CONCLUSION: China& apos; s elderly people aged 60 and above have insufficient intake of vegetables and fruits. Health education and dietary guidance should be carried out, and intervention measures should be taken for key populations to effectively promote a reasonable diet for the elderly.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , China , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
17.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 409-414, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the intake and structure of energy and macronutrients of farmers under three kinds of job types: working, farming and housework in China, and analyzes the intake status under different work intensity. METHODS: Based on the data of China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012, this paper analyzed the dietary intake of farmers over 18 years old at three job types and different work intensities. RESULTS: The energy intake of farmers in China was 2149. 5 kcal/d, and that of men and women were 2345. 2 kcal/d and 1985. 4 kcal/d, respectively. Farming farmers took in the highest energy and the domestic farmers took in the lowest energy. The average protein intake of farmers was 60. 8 g, 66. 0 g for men and 56. 4 g for women. The protein intake of working, farming and housework farmers, showed a downward trend. The fat intake of farmers was 66. 6 g, including 71. 9 g for men and 62. 1 g for women. With the three main forms of working, farming and housework, the fat intake showed a downward trend. The carbohydrate intake of farmers was 327. 5 g, including 354. 6 g for men and 304. 7 g for women, with farming farmers taking in the highest carbohydrate. Among the working farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the intake of carbohydrate increased in turn, but protein and fat had no obvious characteristics; among the farming workers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, carbohydrate, protein and fat showed an increasing trend. There were also differences in the dietary structure characteristics among the three job types of working, farming and housework. The proportion of energy from protein and fat was higher in working farmers, the proportion of high-quality protein was close to 35%, the proportion of energy from carbohydrate was the highest in farming farmers, the proportion of high-quality protein was only 27%, the proportion of high-quality protein in household farmers was 30%, and the ratio of fat to energy in both farming and household farmers was less than 30%. Among working farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the proportion of energy from carbohydrate increased, while the proportion of protein from animal food decreased; among farming farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the proportion of protein from animal food increased slightly. CONCLUSION: There are some differences in the energy and macronutrients intake among the working farmers, farming farmers and household farmers in China. The farming farmers have the most energy intake, and with the increase of work intensity, the proportion of carbohydrate intake increases, and the protein intake is insufficient, especially the heavy work intensity. The nutrition needs of the population should get more attention.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fazendeiros , Adolescente , Animais , China , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 415-420, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the intake of energy and macronutrients of employees at different levels of work intensity in China. METHODS: Based on the data of National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012, this paper analyzed the energy and macro nutrients intakes of employees at three levels of working strength. RESULTS: The energy intake of employees in China was 1952. 7 kcal/d, the intakes of protein, fat and carbohydrate were 62. 7 g/d, 76. 6 g/d and 254. 0 g/d, respectively, the energy supply ratios were 13. 1%, 34. 9% and 52. 4%, respectively. From food sources of energy, the percentage of total energy provided by cereals and animal foods was 47. 7% and 18. 2%, respectively. The percentage of protein from cereal, legumes and Animal food was 39. 8%, 6. 7% and 37. 5%, respectively. The percentage of fat from animal food was 34. 8%. From the age and work intensity groups, the energy intake was lower in the low age group and the light work intensity of employees. There was the lowest intake of protein and fats in high age groups with heavy work intensity. Energy levels form protein and fat were highest in the light intensity group. Energy supply from cereal food was the highest in the group with heavy work intensity and energy supply from animal food was the highest in the group with low age group and light work intensity. The intake of high quality protein and animal food fat decreased with the increase of age and work intensity. CONCLUSION: The energy intake of employees in China is lower than the recommended energy intake for Chinese residents, and fat provides a higher proportion of energy. Employees with high age and heavy work intensity have insufficient protein intake, and the unreasonable dietary structure was particularly prominent with them, and their nutritional status needs to be paid more attention.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Animais , China , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 421-425, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the dietary diversity and food sources of different groups in Arun Banner. Comparing and analyzing the changes of dietary diversity of local residents in different periods. METHODS: In October 2019, according to the differences of Kashin-Beck disease conditions and land use patterns of Arun Banner, Hulun Buir, 78 rural residents were randomly selected from four villages to investigate the frequency of daily food consumption by using self-made food frequency questionnaire. Dietary diversity score(DDS) was used to evaluate the dietary diversity of different populations. RESULTS: The average DDS of the investigated residents was 9. 76±2. 32. DDS of the residents of Minzu and Tieshan villages(10. 14±2. 66) in the West was higher than that of Longtoushan and Hongqi villages(9. 42±1. 95) in the East. However, the difference was not statistically significant(Z=-1. 875, P& gt; 0. 05). DDS in males(10. 37±2. 47) was significantly higher than that in females(9. 36±2. 14)(P& lt; 0. 05). There was no significant difference in DDS(9. 52±2. 29) between Kashin-Beck disease affected patients and healthy residents(9. 85±2. 34)(Z=-0. 601, P& gt; 0. 05). There was no significant difference in DDS among different age groups. The average of DDS was higher in those younger than 60 years old(9. 90±2. 35). Residents mainly eat rice and flour, and the proportion of purchasing food from other places reaches 96% and 95%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The staple food in Arun Banner was mainly rice and flour purchased from other places. The dietary structure of residents tends to be diversified. Residents reduced dependence on low selenium natural environment is an important factor for local selenium-susceptible endemic diseases to be stable and gradually controlled.


Assuntos
Doença de Kashin-Bek , Selênio , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Selênio/análise
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 448-453, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status and long-term trends in dietary vitamin intakes from 1989 to 2015 in adults aged 18 to 35 in 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) of China. METHODS: Based on the data of "China Health and Nutrition Surveys" from 1989 to 2015 and "cohort study on the changes of nutritional status of Chinese residents" in 2015, covering 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) in China. Adults aged 18 to 35 were selected as study subjects. Nonparametric statistical method was used to analyze the trend of dietary vitamin intake with years. Comparing the dietary vitamin intake with the dietary reference intakes, the trend of the proportion of people at risk of insufficient dietary vitamin intake was analyzed by Cochran Armitage trend test. According to the different demographic characteristics in 2015, the vitamin intake status and the proportion of people with insufficient dietary vitamin intake were analyzed. RESULTS: From 1989 to 2015, the overall dietary vitamin intake of adults aged 18-35 in 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) of China showed a downward trend. The median vitamin intake of adults in 2015 were vitamin A 361. 28 µg RAE/d(based on vitamin A activity equivalent), vitamin B_1 0. 75 mg/d, vitamin B_2 0. 67 mg/d, nicotinic acid 13. 61 mg/d, vitamin C 56. 41 mg/d and vitamin E 21. 04 mg α-TE/d. In 2015, there were significant differences in dietary vitamin A, vitamin B_2, niacin and vitamin C intakes between the North and the South and the distribution of education level, in which the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin B_2, niacin and vitamin C in the South were significantly higher than those in the North; the intakes of dietary vitamin B_1 in the low education level group were significantly lower than those in the middle and high education level; the intakes of dietary vitamin B_1 in urban areas were significantly higher than those in the North. The intakes of vitamin A, vitamin B_2, niacin and vitamin E were significantly higher than those in rural areas. From 1989 to 2015, the proportion of people with insufficient intake of vitamin B_2 remained above 80%, and the proportion of adults with the risk of insufficient intake of dietary vitamin A, vitamin B_1 and vitamin C showed an increasing trend year by year. In 2015, the proportion of people at risk of insufficient intake of dietary vitamin A, vitamin B_2 and vitamin C in northern China was significantly higher than that in southern China. CONCLUSION: From 1989 to 2015, there was a risk of insufficient intake of micronutrients in adults aged 18-35 in 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) in China, and the problem of insufficient calcium intake was serious.


Assuntos
Dieta , Vitaminas , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos Nutricionais
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