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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444690

RESUMO

Snacking contributes a significant portion of adolescents' daily energy intake and is associated with poor overall diet and increased body mass index. Adolescents from low socioeconomic status (SES) households have poorer snacking behaviors than their higher-SES counterparts. However, it is unclear if the types of food/beverages and nutrients consumed during snacking differ by SES among adolescents. Therefore, this study examines SES disparities in the aforementioned snacking characteristics by analyzing the data of 7132 adolescents (12-19 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2018. Results reveal that adolescents from low-income households (poverty-to-income ratio (PIR) ≤ 1.3) have lower odds of consuming the food/beverage categories "Milk and Dairy" (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.95; p = 0.007) and "Fruits" (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.78; p = 0.001) as snacks and higher odds of consuming "Beverages" (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.19-1.76; p = 0.001) compared to those from high-income households (PIR > 3.5). Additionally, adolescents from low- and middle-income (PIR > 1.3-3.5) households consume more added sugar (7.98 and 7.78 g vs. 6.66 g; p = 0.012, p = 0.026) and less fiber (0.78 and 0.77 g vs. 0.84 g; p = 0.044, p = 0.019) from snacks compared to their high-income counterparts. Future research is necessary to understand factors that influence snacking among adolescents, and interventions are needed, especially for adolescents from low-SES communities.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Dieta/economia , Alimentos/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Lanches , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(9): 618-630, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261842

RESUMO

Objectives This study aims to develop a dietary consciousness scale and examine its reliability and validity, as well as investigate the changes in psychological aspects that influence diet among Japanese adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and clarify its related factors.Methods An online survey was conducted from July 1, 2020 to July 3, 2020. Participants were adults aged between 20 and 69 years selected from 13 prefectures where the government declared the state of emergency from April to May 2020. All selected participants were shopping or cooking foods for more than 2 days a week at the time of the survey. A total of 2,299 participants were included in the analysis. Dietary consciousness was measured using 12 items, and the construct was examined using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was examined as an indicator of internal validity, and the criterion-referenced validity was confirmed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. To determine changes in dietary consciousness, we calculated total scores based on changes in each item of the Dietary Consciousness Scale as follows: no change (0 points), improved (+1 point), and worsening (-1 point). The associations between the changes in dietary consciousness and characteristics or socioeconomic factors of the participants were examined using the chi-squared test and residual analysis.Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a model consisting of two factors fitted the data (GFI = 0.958, AGFI = 0.938, CFI = 0.931, RMSEA = 0.066). Cronbach's alpha of the first factor (importance of diet) was 0.838 and 0.734 for the second factor (precedence of diet), and the reliability was confirmed at 0.828 for the entire scale. In the examination of criterion-related validity, the higher the stage of change, the higher the total score of the scale, and a significant difference was observed (P<0.001). The percentage of participants whose precedence worsened was higher than the importance. Significant differences were observed regarding gender, age group, marital status, employment status, household annual income, and income change during the COVID-19 pandemic considering changes in both the importance and precedence of diet. Those who were in the "worsening tendency" group in both the importance and precedence were men, 20-29 years old, unmarried, full-time employees, with a household income of 4-6 million yen during the past year.Conclusion During the COVID-19 pandemic, the precedence of diet worsened, compared to its importance, and men, young, or unmarried persons show a worsening of dietary consciousness.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estado de Consciência , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/economia , Dieta/economia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 153, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor diet is the leading preventable risk factor contributing to the burden of disease globally and in Australia, and is inequitably distributed. As the price of healthy foods is a perceived barrier to improved diets, evidence on the cost and affordability of current (unhealthy) and recommended (healthy, more equitable and sustainable) diets is required to support policy action. METHODS: This study applied the Healthy Diets ASAP (Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing) methods protocol to measure the cost, cost differential and affordability of current and recommended diets for a reference household in Queensland, Australia. Food prices were collected in 18 randomly selected locations stratified by area of socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Diet affordability was calculated for three income categories. RESULTS: Surprisingly, recommended diets would cost 20% less than the current diet in Queensland as a whole. Households spent around 60% of their food budget on discretionary choices (that is, those not required for health that are high in saturated fat, added sugar, salt and/or alcohol). Queensland families would need to spend around 23% of their income on recommended diets. However, recommended diets would not be affordable in low socioeconomic or very remote areas, costing 30 and 35% of median household income respectively. The government supplements due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic would improve affordability of recommended diets by 29%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings highlight that while price is one factor affecting consumer food choice, other drivers such as taste, convenience, advertising and availability are important. Nevertheless, the study found that recommended diets would be unaffordable in very remote areas, and that low-income families are likely experiencing food stress, irrespective of where they live in Queensland. Policy actions, such as increasing to 20% the current 10% tax differential between basic healthy, and unhealthy foods in Australia, and supplementing incomes of vulnerable households, especially in remote areas, are recommended to help improve diet equity and sustainability, and health and wellbeing for all.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta/economia , Áreas de Pobreza , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queensland
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 208-222, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the Middle Ages, Portugal witnessed unprecedented socioeconomic and religious changes under transitioning religious political rule. The implications of changing ruling powers for urban food systems and individual diets in medieval Portugal is poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the dietary impact of the Islamic and Christian conquests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiocarbon dating, peptide mass fingerprinting (ZooMS) and stable isotope analysis (δ13 C, δ15 N) of animal (n = 59) and human skeletal remains (n = 205) from Muslim and Christian burials were used to characterize the diet of a large historical sample from Portugal. A Bayesian stable isotope mixing model (BSIMM) was used to estimate the contribution of marine protein to human diet. RESULTS: Early medieval (8-12th century), preconquest urban Muslim populations had mean (±1SD) values of -18.8 ± 0.4 ‰ for δ13 C 10.4 ± 1 ‰ for δ15 N, indicating a predominantly terrestrial diet, while late medieval (12-14th century) postconquest Muslim and Christian populations showed a greater reliance on marine resources with mean (±1SD) values of -17.9 ± 1.3‰ for δ13 C and 11.1 ± 1.1‰ for δ15 N. BSIMM estimation supported a significant increase in the contribution of marine resources to human diet. DISCUSSION: The results provide the first biomolecular evidence for a dietary revolution that is not evidenced in contemporaneous historical accounts. We find that society transitioned from a largely agro-pastoral economy under Islamic rule to one characterized by a new focus on marine resources under later Christian rule. This economic change led to the naissance of the marine economy that went on to characterize the early-modern period in Portugal and its global expansion.


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Dieta , Islamismo/história , População Urbana/história , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/economia , Dieta/história , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Portugal , Datação Radiométrica
5.
J Dairy Res ; 88(2): 134-138, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988095

RESUMO

Spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera) is widely used in animal feed in semi-arid regions, due to the adaptive characteristics to such conditions and for having high levels of soluble carbohydrates. This research article describes the effect of replacing grain maize with spineless cactus in the diet of dairy goats on dry matter intake, water intake, milk yield, milk physicochemical characteristics and diet production costs. Eight multiparous Anglo Nubian goats were fed diets in which grain maize was replaced with spineless cactus at four levels (0, 33, 66, and 100%) in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk yield was measured and samples collected in the last three days of each period for physicochemical analysis and for determining nutrient intake. Diet production costs were also determined. Replacing maize with spineless cactus did not influence dry matter intake. Water intake via the drinker decreased linearly in response to the increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet. The replacement of maize with spineless cactus did not change milk yield or physicochemical parameters. Total feed cost and the percentage of revenue losses from feed decreased with the replacement. Therefore, spineless cactus can fully replace grain maize in the diet of dairy goats, as it does not change dry matter intake or milk yield, but rather reduces feed costs and the drinking-water intake of goats.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Cabras/fisiologia , Zea mays , Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Dieta/economia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804848

RESUMO

Research on the impact of school and community food environments on adolescent food choice is heavily reliant on objective rather than subjective measures of food outlets around schools and homes. Gaining the perspective of adolescents and how they perceive and use food environments is needed. The aim of this study was to explore adolescent's perception and use of the food environment surrounding their schools. Purposive sampling was used to recruit schools. Mapping exercises and discussion groups were facilitated with 95 adolescents from six schools. Thematic analysis showed that adolescents are not loyal to particular shops but are attracted to outlets with price discounts, those with 'deli' counters and sweets. Cost, convenience and choice are key factors influencing preference for food outlets and foods. Quality, variety and health were important factors for adolescents but these features, especially affordable healthy food, were hard to find. Social factors such as spending time with friends is also an important feature of food environments that deserves further attention. Adolescents' perceptions of their food environment provide insights into features that can be manipulated to enable healthy choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Adolescente , Fast Foods/economia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804858

RESUMO

Obesity and other diet-related health conditions have received much attention in the public health literature over the past two decades. This study investigates the relationship between household food budget shares at different food outlets with diet quality and weight-related health outcomes in the United States. Our analysis used event-level food purchase data from the national household food acquisition and purchases survey (FoodAPS). We find that, after controlling for observables, food purchase location is significantly associated with diet quality and body mass index (BMI). Our findings indicate that larger food budget shares at convenience stores and restaurants are linked with poor diet quality based on the healthy eating index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores and higher BMI. We further explored potential heterogeneity on outcomes of interest across income groups. Results suggest heterogeneous effects may exist across income groups: low-income households, who spent a larger share of their food budget at convenience stores and fast-food restaurants are related to poor diet quality and more likely to be obese. Our findings will help improve understanding of the causes of diet-related health problems and may illuminate potential avenues of intervention to address obesity.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572629

RESUMO

Americans waste about a pound of food per day. Some of this is represented by inedible food waste at the household level. Our objective was to estimate inedible food waste in relation to diet quality and participant socio-economic status (SES). Seattle Obesity Study III participants (n = 747) completed the Fred Hutch Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and socio-demographic and food expenditure surveys. Education and geo-coded tax-parcel residential property values were measures of SES. Inedible food waste was calculated from diet records. Retail prices of FFQ component foods (n = 378) were used to estimate individual-level diet costs. The NOVA classification was used to identify ultra-processed foods. Multivariable linear regressions tested associations between inedible food waste, SES, food spending, Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015) scores. Inedible food waste was estimated at 78.7 g/d, mostly from unprocessed vegetables (32.8 g), fruit (30.5 g) and meat, poultry, and fish (15.4 g). Greater inedible food waste was associated with higher HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 scores, higher food expenditures and lower percent energy from ultra-processed foods. In multivariable models, more inedible food waste was associated with higher food expenditures, education and residential property values. Higher consumption of unprocessed foods were associated with more inedible food waste and higher diet costs. Geo-located estimates of inedible food waste can provide a proxy index of neighborhood diet quality.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos/economia , Resíduos/economia , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta/economia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Peixes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aves Domésticas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Verduras , Washington , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 26, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Offering financial incentives promotes increases in fruit and vegetable purchases in farmers' markets and supermarkets. Yet, little is understood about whether food-insecure adults purchase more fruits and vegetables as a result of receiving financial incentives in mobile produce market settings. METHODS: In 2018-2019, Food on the Move provided a 50% discount to customers using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to purchase fruit and vegetables from 16 market locations in Rhode Island (n = 412 market occasions). We used mixed multivariable linear regression to estimate the difference in total dollar sales per transaction per month between SNAP transactions and non-SNAP transactions. We also estimated the difference in out-of-pocket dollar sales per transaction per month between SNAP and non-SNAP transactions, less the 50% discount. This reflects the actual amount spent on fresh fruits and vegetables purchased per visit. In both models, we controlled for the number of market sites per month, with fixed effects for quarter and year. We estimated random intercept variance for date of transaction and market site to adjust for clustering. RESULTS: In 2018-2019, the majority of market transactions (total n = 13,165) were SNAP transactions [n = 7.988 (63.0%)]. On average, customers spent $17.38 (SD = 16.69) on fruits and vegetables per transaction per month. However, customers using SNAP benefits spent significantly more on FVs per transaction per month [$22.01 (SD = 17.97)] compared to those who did not use SNAP benefits [9.81 (SD = 10.68)] (ß = $10.88; 95% CI: 10.18, 11.58). Similarly, out-of-pocket dollar sales per SNAP transaction per month (i.e., less the 50% discount) were significantly higher [$11.42 (SD = 9.44)] relative to non-SNAP transactions [$9.40 (SD = 9.33)] (ß = $1.85; 95% CI: 1.44, 2.27). CONCLUSIONS: Financial incentives contributed to higher fruit and vegetable purchases among low-income customers who shop at mobile produce markets by making produce more affordable. Higher spending on fruits and vegetables may promote healthy diet behaviors and reduce chronic disease risk among food-insecure adults.


Assuntos
Dieta , Assistência Alimentar , Frutas , Verduras , Dieta/economia , Dieta/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Motivação
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 420-430, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518093

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed on 3 black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) and Greenleaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum)-based meals. We evaluated growth performance, carcass quality, and profitability under various commercial pathways (doorstep, retail, whole, and assorted). Desmodium and BSFL powders were formulated into 3 ratios: T1 25:75, T2 50:50, and T3 75:25. A commercial feed was used as a control. One hundred and twenty mixed-sex 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were reared in pens for 42 d in a completely randomized design. The chickens were weighed weekly to monitor their growth rate. After the 42-day rearing period, they were slaughtered for carcass quality evaluation and recording of the weights of internal organs. During the initial growth phase (7-21 d), significant effects of fish meal replacement were found on the chickens' average weight (P < 0.001), average daily body weight gain (P < 0.001), average daily feed intake (P < 0.001), and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001). However, during the second phase (21-42 d), no significant effect of the replacement was detected except on average daily feed intake (P = 0.003). No significant differences were found in terms of the relative weights of internal organs. It was found that Desmodium-BSFL-based feeds were more profitable than the control feed, and the assorted and retail modes of sale generated more revenue compared to when the chickens were sold at doorstep and on whole-chicken basis. The return on investment was higher for a push-pull adopter compared to a non-adopter. The study found that a BSFL-Desmodium mixture can be a valuable replacement for the protein component in conventional feed and would provide a new impetus for the adoption of push-pull.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Ração Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Dípteros , Agricultura/métodos , Ração Animal/economia , Ração Animal/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/normas , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Quênia , Larva , Carne/economia , Carne/normas
11.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(4): 655-668, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between diet quality and health care costs is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline diet quality and change in diet quality over time, with 15-year cumulative health care claims/costs. DESIGN: Data from a longitudinal cohort study were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Data for survey 3 (2001) (n = 7,868) and survey 7 (2013) (n = 6,349 both time points) from the 1946-1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diet quality was assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Fifteen-year cumulative Medicare Benefits Schedule (Australia's universal health care coverage) data were reported by baseline ARFS quintile and category of diet quality change ("diet quality worsened" [ARFS change ≤ -4 points], "remained stable" [-3 ≤ change in ARFS ≤3 points], or "improved" [ARFS change ≥4 points]). STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Linear regression analyses were conducted adjusting for area of residence, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and private health insurance status. RESULTS: Consuming a greater variety of vegetables at baseline but fewer fruit and dairy products was associated with lower health care costs. For every 1-point increment in the ARFS vegetable subscale, women made 3.3 (95% CI, 1.6-5.0) fewer claims and incurred AU$227 (95% CI, AU$104-350 [US$158; 95% CI, US$72-243]) less in costs. Women whose diet quality worsened over time made more claims (median, 251 claims; quintile 1, quintile 3 [Q1; Q3], 168; 368 claims) and incurred higher costs (AU$15,519; Q1; Q3, AU$9,226; AU$24,847 [US$10,793; Q1; Q3, US$6,417; US$17,281]) compared with those whose diet quality remained stable (median, 236 claims [Q1; Q3, 158; 346 claims], AU$14,515; Q1; Q3, AU$8,539; AU$23,378 [US$10,095; Q1; Q3, US$5,939; US$16,259]). CONCLUSIONS: Greater vegetable variety was associated with fewer health care claims and costs; however, this trend was not consistent across other subscales. Worsening diet quality over 12 years was linked with higher health care claims and costs.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Dieta/normas , Dieta/tendências , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Benefícios do Seguro/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras , Saúde da Mulher
12.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population intake goals intended to prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been defined for multiple nutrients. Yet, little is known whether the existing food supply in Africa is in conformity with these goals or not. We evaluated the African food balances against the recommendations for macronutrients, free sugars, types of fatty acids, cholesterol and fruits and vegetables over 1990 to 2017, and provided regional, sub-regional and country-level estimates. METHODS: The per capita supply of 95 food commodities for 45 African countries (1990-2017) was accessed from the FAOSTAT database and converted into calories, carbohydrate, fat, protein, free sugars, cholesterol, saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids contents using the Food Data Central database. The supply of fruits and vegetables was also computed. RESULTS: In Africa the energy supply increased by 16.6% from 2,685 in 1990 to 3,132 kcal/person/day in 2017. However, the energy contribution of carbohydrate, fat and protein remained constant and almost within acceptable range around 73, 10 and 9%, respectively. In 2017, calories from fats surpassed the 20% limit in upper-middle- or high-income and Southern Africa countries. Energy from SFA remained within range (<10%) but that of PUFA was below the minimum desirable level of 6% in 28 countries. Over the period, energy from free sugars remained constant around 7% but the figure exceeded the limit of 10% in upper-middle- or high-income countries (14.7%) and in Southern (14.8%) and Northern (10.5%) sub-regions. Between 1990 and 2017 the availability of dietary cholesterol per person surged by 14% but was below the upper limit of 300 mg/day. The supply of fruits and vegetables increased by 27.5% from 279 to 356 g/capita/day; yet, with the exception of Northern Africa, the figure remained below the target of 400 g/capita/day in all sub-regions. CONCLUSION: According to this population level data, in Africa most population intake goals are within acceptable range. Yet, the supply of fruits and vegetables and PUFAs are suboptimal and the increasing energy contributions of free sugars and fats are emerging concerns in specific sub-regions.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Objetivos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Dieta/economia , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Frutas , Humanos , Renda , Doenças não Transmissíveis/economia , Nutrientes , Açúcares/análise , Verduras
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1053818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294432

RESUMO

Background: Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis, using novel approaches such as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT). Larval diet is a critical factor to be considered in mass rearing of Aedes mosquitoes for SIT and IIT programs. Therefore, the current study is aimed at evaluating the effects of two novel diets developed from dry fish powder on the growth and development of immature stages and adult fitness-related characteristics of Ae. aegypti in Sri Lanka. Method: Three batches of the first instar Ae. aegypti larva, each containing 250 larvae, were exposed to three different larval diets as standard dry fish powder (D1), dry fish powder meal and brewer's yeast (D2), and International Atomic Energy Agency- (IAEA-) recommended diet (D3), separately. Morphometric and developmental parameters of the 4th instar larvae, pupae, and adult mosquitoes reared under different dietary treatments were measured. The entire experimental setup was replicated thrice. A General Linear Model (GLM) in the form of two-way ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Significant diet-based variations were observed in the head length, head width, thoracic length, thoracic width, abdominal length, abdominal width, and total length (F 2,87 > 4.811; P < 0.05) of Ae. aegypti larvae. The highest pupation success and the larval size were observed from the larvae fed the D2 diet, while the lowest was reported from D1. All adult morphometric parameters of adult male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes also denoted significant dietary variations, reporting the best-sized adults from the D2 diet (F 2,87 > 3.54; P < 0.05). Further, significantly higher fecundity and male longevity were also shown by the adult Ae. aegypti (F 2,6 > 7.897; P < 0.01) mosquitoes reared under diet D2. Conclusion: Based on all the growth and developmental parameters, the D2 diet tends to perform similar to the IAEA-recommended diet in mass rearing of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, while being more inexpensive. Therefore, larval diet D2 could be suggested as the ideal diet for mass rearing of Ae. aegypti for IIT and SIT-based vector control in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta/economia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942588

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the impact of 2017 revisions to the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) nutrition standards on foods and beverages served and meal costs in family child care homes (FCCHs). Our pre-post study utilized four weeks of menus and food receipts from 13 FCCH providers in Boston, MA prior to CACFP nutrition standards changes in 2017 and again one year later, resulting in n = 476 menu observation days. We compared daily servings of food and beverage items to the updated standards. Generalized estimating equation models tested for changes in adherence to the standards and meal costs. FCCHs offered more whole grains and less juice and refined grains from baseline to follow-up. FCCHs were more likely to meet the revised whole grain standard at follow-up (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.2, p = 0.002), but rarely met all selected standards together. Inflation-adjusted meal costs increased for lunch (+$0.27, p = 0.001) and afternoon snack (+$0.25, p = 0.048). FCCH providers may need assistance with meeting CACFP standards while ensuring that meal costs do not exceed reimbursement rates.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação/economia , Refeições , Necessidades Nutricionais , Boston , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional
15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942598

RESUMO

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) updated meal pattern standards took effect in October 2017. The aim of this quasi-experimental, pre-post study is to identify changes in food and beverage practices of CACFP-participating centers due to implementation of updated CACFP meal patterns over a 21-month period. Eight hundred and fifty-eight centers located in 47 states and the District of Columbia completed a survey (primarily electronic) at both time points (67.6% follow-up response rate). Multivariable logistic regressions with robust standard errors assessed changes over time, accounting for repeated observations within each site. From baseline to follow-up, centers reported the increased familiarity and implementation, albeit with time, money, and staffing-related challenges. Significant improvements were seen in not serving sugary cereals or flavored milk, in serving 100% whole grains, and serving processed meats less than once a week. While CACFP-participating centers reported making significant progress in meeting the updated meal pattern standards and suggested best practices within 15-19 months of their effective date, reported compliance and adherence to the standards and best practices was not universal. USDA, state agencies, and technical assistance providers should work to provide centers with additional guidance to help them with implementation.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação/economia , Refeições , Necessidades Nutricionais , Boston , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Estados Unidos
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3609-3619, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940855

RESUMO

The work assessed the productive response and estimated enteric methane (CH4) emissions of dairy cows grazing in small-scale dairy systems. Treatments were grazing annual pasture (AP) mainly of annual ryegrass and perennial pasture (PP) mainly of perennial ryegrass, complemented daily with 3.72 kg DM/cow of commercial concentrate. Eight Holstein cows were used in a double cross-over design with three 14-day-each experimental periods for animal variables and CH4 emissions. Pasture variables were analysed with a split-plot design. AP showed higher sward height (P < 0.05) with no differences (P > 0.05) in net herbage accumulation or in herbage chemical composition. Cows on AP yielded 24.6% more milk (P < 0.001) than grazing PP, but there were no differences in milk fat and protein content. There were differences (P ≤ 0.05) among periods for milk yields, but no differences among periods for milk fat and protein. Milk urea nitrogen was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in PP than in AP with no differences among periods. There was higher (P < 0.001) DMI for AP than PP with a significant decline (P < 0.05) as periods progressed. There was a trend (P = 0.08) for higher daily CH4/cow in AP, but significantly lower emissions (7.2%) in AP/kg DMI, and 20.1% lower emission intensity of g CH4/kg milk. The proportion of gross energy lost as CH4 for AP was lower (P < 0.01). Higher milk yields in AP resulted in a 26% higher margin over feed costs than for PP. Results show that grazing annual pastures with moderate concentrate supplementation results in higher milk yields, higher incomes, and reduces the intensity of CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Lolium , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Dieta/economia , Feminino , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , México
17.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study estimated the monetary cost of diets with higher and lower caloric shares of ultraprocessed food products (UPF) and unprocessed/minimally processed foods (MPF) in Belgium for various sociodemographic groups. METHODS: Data from the latest nationally representative Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014-2015 (n = 3146; 3-64 years) were used. Dietary data were collected through two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (food diaries for children). Average prices for >2000 food items (year 2014) were derived from GfK ConsumerScan panel data and linked with foods consumed in the FCS. Foods eaten were categorized by their extent of processing using the NOVA classification. The average caloric share (percentage of daily energy intake) of UPF and MPF were calculated. The mean diet cost was compared across the UPF and MPF contribution tertiles, using linear regression. RESULTS: The average price per 100 kcal for UPF was significantly cheaper (EUR 0.55; 95%CI = 0.45-0.64) than for MPF (EUR 1.29; 95% CI = 1.27-1.31). UPF contributed between 21.9% (female adults) and 29.9% (young boys), while MPF contributed between 29.5% (male adolescents) and 42.3% (female adults) to the daily dietary cost. The contribution of MPF to the daily dietary cost was significantly higher for individuals with a higher household education level compared to those with a lower household education level (p < 0.01). Adjusted for covariates, the average dietary cost per 2000 kcal was significantly lower for individuals in the highest compared to the lowest tertile for the proportion of daily energy consumed from UPF (EUR -0.37 ± 0.13; p = 0.006), and significantly higher for individuals in the highest compared to the lowest tertile for proportion of daily energy consumed from MPF (EUR 1.18 ± 0.12, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Diets with a larger caloric share of UPF were significantly cheaper than those with a lower contribution of these products, while the opposite was found for MPF. Policies that improve relative affordability and accessibility of MPF are recommended.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos/economia , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fast Foods/economia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867197

RESUMO

Although low socioeconomic groups have the highest risk of noncommunicable diseases in Estonia, national dietary guidelines and nutrition recommendations do not consider affordability. This study aims to help develop nutritionally adequate, health-promoting, and culturally acceptable dietary guidelines at an affordable price. Three food baskets (FBs) were optimised using linear programming to meet recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs), or Estonian dietary guidelines, or both. In total, 6255 prices of 422 foods were collected. The Estonian National Dietary Survey (ENDS) provided a proxy for cultural acceptability. Food baskets for a family of four, earning minimum wage, contain between 73 and 96 foods and cost between 10.66 and 10.92 EUR per day. The nutritionally adequate FB that does not follow Estonian dietary guidelines deviates the least (26% on average) from ENDS but contains twice the sugar, sweets, and savoury snacks recommended. The health-promoting FB (40% deviation) contains a limited amount of sugar, sweets, and savoury snacks. However, values for vitamin D, iodine, iron, and folate are low compared with RNIs, as is calcium for women of reproductive age. When both the RNIs and dietary guidelines are enforced, the average deviation (73%) and cost (10.92 EUR) are highest. The composition of these FBs can help guide the development of dietary guidelines for low income families in Estonia.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional/economia , Pobreza/economia , Adulto , Cultura , Estônia , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that income inequality is associated with risk for mortality, self-rated health status, chronic conditions, and health behavior, such as physical activity. However, little is known about the relationship between income inequality and dietary intake, which is a major risk factor for common chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain types of cancers. The objective of this study is to determine the association between US state income inequality and fruit and vegetable consumption among adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 270,612 U.S. adults from the U.S. 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed from the six-item fruit and vegetable frequency questionnaire, which is part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Multilevel modeling was used to determine whether US state-level income inequality (measured by the z-transformation of the Gini coefficient) was associated with fruit and vegetable consumption adjusting for individual-level and state-level covariates. RESULTS: In comparison to men, women were more likely to consume fruits and vegetables ≥5 times daily, fruits ≥2 times daily, vegetables ≥3 times of daily, and less likely to consume fruit juice daily. Among both men and women, a standard deviation increase in Gini coefficient was associated with an increase in consuming fruit juice daily (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11). However, among women, a standard deviation increase in Gini coefficient was associated with a decreased likelihood in meeting daily recommended levels of both fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.93; 0.87-0.99), fruits only (OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) and vegetables only (OR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the first to show the relationship between income inequality and fruit and vegetable consumption among U.S. adults empirically. Women's health is more likely to be detrimentally affected when living in a state with higher income inequality.


Assuntos
Frutas/economia , Renda , Verduras/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/economia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20044-20051, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747534

RESUMO

Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in hair sampled from 65 communities across the central and intermountain regions of the United States and more intensively throughout 29 ZIP codes in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, revealed a dietary divergence related to socioeconomic status as measured by cost of living, household income, and adjusted gross income. Corn-fed, animal-derived proteins were more common in the diets of lower socioeconomic status populations than were plant-derived proteins, with individual estimates of animal-derived protein diets as high as 75%; United States towns and cities averaged 57%. Similar patterns were seen across the socioeconomic status spectrum in the Salt Lake Valley. It is likely that corn-fed animal proteins were associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations, a common practice for industrial animal production in the United States today. Given recent studies highlighting the negative impacts of animal-derived proteins in our diets, hair carbon isotope ratios could provide an approach for scaling assessments of animal-sourced foods and health risks in communities across the United States.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Classe Social , Estados Unidos , Utah
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