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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 28, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653279

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for food group intake in Japan, the reproducibility and partial validity of which were previously confirmed for nutrients. METHODS: A total of 288 middle-aged healthy volunteers from 11 different areas of Japan provided nonconsecutive 3-day weighed dietary records (DRs) at 3-month intervals over four seasons. We evaluated reproducibility based on the first (FFQ1) and second (FFQ2) questionnaires and their validity against the DRs by comparing the intake of 20 food groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (SRs) were calculated between energy-adjusted intake from the FFQs and that from the DRs. RESULTS: The intake of 20 food groups estimated from the two FFQs was mostly equivalent. The median energy-adjusted SRs between the FFQ1 and FFQ2 were 0.61 (range 0.38-0.86) for men and 0.66 (0.45-0.84) for women. For validity, the median de-attenuated SRs between DRs and the FFQ1 were 0.51 (0.17-0.76) for men and 0.47 (0.23-0.77) for women. Compared with the DRs, the proportion of cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the FFQ1 ranged from 58 to 86% in men and from 57 to 86% in women. According to the robust Z scores and the Bland-Altman plot graphs, the underestimation errors in the FFQ1 tended to be greater in individuals with high mean levels of consumption for meat for men and for other vegetables for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The FFQ demonstrated high reproducibility and reasonable validity for food group intake. This questionnaire is short and remains appropriate for identifying associations between diet and health/disease among adults in Japan.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 28, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased anxiety was frequently reported during the 2020 global COVID-19 pandemic. An association between anxiety and increased body weight has been documented. Identifying associations between diet quality and anxiety may facilitate the development of preventive dietary policy, particularly relevant since obesity appears to increase the risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. In this study we aim to examine associations between changes in diet pattern and body weight and anxiety levels during the COVID-19 pandemic among Israeli respondents to an international online survey. METHODS: Conducted between March 30-April 252,020, this was cross-sectional, international and online study. The questionnaire was developed and tested in Hebrew and translated into six other languages: English, Arabic, Spanish, French, Italian, and Russian. The survey was conducted on a Google Survey platform, the link to which was posted on several social media platforms. Adults aged 18 or older who saw and responded to the link on a social media site comprised the study population. RESULTS: Of the 3979 eligible respondents, 1895 indicated their current location as Israel. Most Israeli respondents completed the survey in Hebrew (83.2%) followed by Arabic (9.4%), though responses were recorded in all seven of the survey languages. The median age was 33 (IQ = 22) years, and 75.7% were female. Almost 60% indicated that their pre-pandemic diet was healthier than their current diet, and 25.2% indicated they had gained weight during the pandemic. The median Mediterranean diet score was 9 (IQ = 3). While the median General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) score was 5 (IQ = 8), only 37.3% of participants reported at least mild anxiety (a GAD-7 score of 5 or more), while 10.7% reported moderate anxiety or greater (a GAD-7 score of 10 or more). In a multivariate logistic regression model of at least mild anxiety, being male and completing the survey in Hebrew significantly reduced odds of at least mild anxiety, while a worsening of diet quality during the pandemic, weight gain, and isolation significantly increased odds of at least mild anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID pandemic, changes in nutrition quality and habits were associated with greater anxiety. These findings suggest the need for routine and continuous surveillance of the nutritional and psychological consequences of outbreaks as part of healthcare preparedness efforts. Organizations responsible for community-based health services (such as Israeli health plans) should adopt specific interventions to improve case finding and support individuals at increased risk of anxiety and declining nutrition status within primary healthcare settings. These interventions should include the provision of appropriate diagnostic instruments, training of medical staff, feedback to physicians and nurses, and raising awareness among the relevant patient population and their caregivers. Primary care physicians should refer people with high anxiety or substantial weight gain during the pandemic to appropriate mental health and dietetic treatment, as needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04353934 .


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777300

RESUMO

Introduction: there is an existing variability in eating patterns between adolescents and children. Consequently, with the adoption of westernised way of life, this translates to a change in eating habits and food choices. This study was designed to investigate the dietary patterns and nutritional status of the female adolescents in Amai Secondary Commercial School, Delta State, Nigeria. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 adolescent female students (12-18 years) using simple random sampling techniques. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the information while anthropometric measurement was carried out to obtain the height and weight of the respondents. Data generated were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: majority of the respondents 129 (64.20%) were between the ages of 16-18 years. Measurement of nutritional status confirmed that 46.80% and 31.80% of the respondents were underweight and healthy weight respectively. In addition, the dietary pattern of the respondents demonstrated that they consumed proteinous, carbohydrate, and snacks occasionally. Factors that motivated respondents for good food choices include; nutritional status 71 (35.30%), taste 54 (26.90%), and popularity 15 (7.50%). Conclusion: under nutrition remains a challenge among rural adolescent girls in Amai community. Therefore sustained strategic nutritional campaigns should be carried out among female adolescents in Amai community in order to improve their nutritional status.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , População Rural , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23955, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight before pregnancy is independent risk factor for diabetes mellitus. This randomized controlled trial was to investigate the long-term effects of regular exercise during pregnancy on overweight and obese gravidas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-center, prospective, randomized controlled test will be conducted in Wuhan Central Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Overweight and obese pregnant women will be included in our study and randomized into 2 groups: regular exercise and control groups. The informed consent will be acquired in each patient. Body weight, body fat, fasting and 2 h glucose level in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin resistance index, and lipid profiles were compared. We also evaluated their physical activities with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), their dietary habits with modified Adult Dietary Behavior Assessment Scale, and depression condition with Postpartum Depression Screen Scale (PDSS). The significance level was defaulted as P < .05. RESULTS: Results will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: Our study aims to systematically assess the effects of regular exercise for overweight and obese gravidas, which will be provided clinical guidance for overweight and obese gravidas.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Jejum/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(3): 69-74, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476311

RESUMO

According to the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, persons should consume fruits and vegetables as part of a healthy eating pattern to reduce their risk for diet-related chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity.* A healthy diet is important for healthy growth in adolescence, especially because adolescent health behaviors might continue into adulthood (1). The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends minimum daily intake of 1.5 cups of fruit and 2.5 cups of vegetables for females aged 14-18 years and 2 cups of fruit and 3 cups of vegetables for males aged 14-18 years.† Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, few adolescents consume these recommended amounts (2-4). In 2013, only 8.5% of high school students met the recommendation for fruit consumption, and only 2.1% met the recommendation for vegetable consumption (2). To update the 2013 data, CDC analyzed data from the 2017 national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) to describe the percentage of students who met intake recommendations, overall and by sex, school grade, and race/ethnicity. The median frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption nationally were 0.9 and 1.1 times per day, respectively. Nationally, 7.1% of students met USDA intake recommendations for fruits (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.0-10.3) and 2.0% for vegetables (upper 95% confidence limit = 7.9) using previously established scoring algorithms. State-specific estimates of the percentage of students meeting fruit intake recommendations ranged from 4.0% (Connecticut) to 9.3% (Louisiana), and the percentage meeting vegetable intake recommendations ranged from 0.6% (Kansas) to 3.7% (New Mexico). Additional efforts to expand the reach of existing school and community programs or to identify new effective strategies, such as social media approaches, might help address barriers and improve adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Verduras , Adolescente , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2031669, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404619

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship of dietary niacin intake with the risk of hypertension remains unknown. Objective: To determine the prospective association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension, and examine factors that may modify the association among Chinese adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study of 12 243 Chinese adults used dietary intake data from 7 rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in combination with a weighing inventory taken over the same 3 days at the household level. Statistical analysis was conducted from May 2020 to August 2020. Exposures: Dietary intake. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, diagnosis by physician, or current antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up. Results: The mean (SD) age of the study population was 41.2 (14.2) years, and 5728 (46.8%) of participants were men. The mean (SD) dietary niacin intake level was 14.8 (4.1) mg/d. A total of 4306 participants developed new-onset hypertension during a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 6.1 (3.6-11.3) years. When dietary niacin was assessed in quartiles, the lowest risk of new-onset hypertension was found in participants in quartile 3 (14.3 to <16.7 mg/d; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) compared with those in quartile 1 (<12.4 mg/d). Consistently in the threshold analysis, for every 1 mg/d increase in dietary niacin, there was a 2% decrease in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00) in those with dietary niacin intake less than 15.6 mg/d, and a 3% increase in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04) in participants with dietary niacin 15.6 mg/d or greater. Based on these results, there was a J-shaped association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension in the general population of Chinese adults, with an inflection point at 15.6 mg/d and a minimal risk at 14.3 to 16.7 mg/d (quartile 3) of dietary niacin intake. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study provide some evidence for maintaining the optimal dietary niacin intake levels for the primary prevention of hypertension.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Niacina/análise , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
7.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(4): 100737, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic's mental health consequences remain unknown. AIM: To assess the mental health status of ambulatory cardiometabolic patients during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Spanish speaking Latin American countries. METHODS: Cardiometabolic patients without COVID-19 evidence in 13 Latin American countries answered a survey between June 15th and July 15th, 2020. The Diagnosis Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition was used to identify the presence of major depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The sample included 4216 patients, 1590 (37.71%; IC95% 36.24-39.19) were considered suffering major depression. Female gender, consuming ≥5 medications day, physical activity <100 minutes weekly, low fruits and vegetables intake, poor treatment adherence, reduced food consumption were independently associated to the presence of major depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The CorCOVID Latam Psy study showed that one-third of the Latin American Spanish speaking population is suffering from major depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e22717, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is not a treatment for COVID-19, but it is a modifiable contributor to the development of chronic disease, which is highly associated with COVID-19 severe illness and deaths. A well-balanced diet and healthy patterns of eating strengthen the immune system, improve immunometabolism, and reduce the risk of chronic disease and infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effect of diet, nutrition, obesity, and their implications for COVID-19 mortality among 188 countries by using new statistical marginalized two-part models. METHODS: We globally evaluated the distribution of diet and nutrition at the national level while considering the variations between different World Health Organization regions. The effects of food supply categories and obesity on (as well as associations with) the number of deaths and the number of recoveries were reported globally by estimating coefficients and conducting color maps. RESULTS: The findings show that a 1% increase in supplementation of pulses reduced the odds of having a zero death by 4-fold (OR 4.12, 95% CI 11.97-1.42). In addition, a 1% increase in supplementation of animal products and meat increased the odds of having a zero death by 1.076-fold (OR 1.076, 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and 1.13-fold (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.0-1.28), respectively. Tree nuts reduced the odds of having a zero death, and vegetables increased the number of deaths. Globally, the results also showed that populations (countries) who consume more eggs, cereals excluding beer, spices, and stimulants had the greatest impact on the recovery of patients with COVID-19. In addition, populations that consume more meat, vegetal products, sugar and sweeteners, sugar crops, animal fats, and animal products were associated with more death and less recoveries in patients. The effect of consuming sugar products on mortality was considerable, and obesity has affected increased death rates and reduced recovery rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are differences in dietary patterns, overall, unbalanced diets are a health threat across the world and not only affect death rates but also the quality of life. To achieve the best results in preventing nutrition-related pandemic diseases, strategies and policies should fully recognize the essential role of both diet and obesity in determining good nutrition and optimal health. Policies and programs must address the need for change at the individual level and make modifications in society and the environment to make healthier choices accessible and preferable.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
9.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(1): 44-61, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402237

RESUMO

Objectives: We examined perceived behavior change since implementation of physical distancing restrictions and identified modifiable (self-rated health, resilience, depressive symptoms, social support and subjective wellbeing) and non-modifiable (demographics) risk/protective factors. Methods: A representative US sample (N = 362) completed an online survey about potential risk/protective factors and health behaviors prior to the pandemic and after implemented/recommended restrictions. We assessed change in perceived health behaviors prior to and following introduction of COVID-19. We conducted hierarchical linear regression to explore and identify risk/protective factors related to physical activity, diet quality, and social isolation. Results: There have been substantial decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior and social isolation, but no changes in diet quality since COVID-19. We identified modifiable and non-modifiable factors associated with each health behavior. Conclusions: Negative effects indicate the need for universal intervention to promote health behaviors. Inequalities in health behaviors among vulnerable populations may be exacerbated since COVID-19, suggesting need for targeted invention. Social support may be a mechanism to promote health behaviors. We suggest scaling out effective health behavior interventions with the same intensity in which physical distancing recommendations were implemented.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(1): 65-70, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To undertake a census of the healthfulness of food venues providing lunch or dinner meals in a rural Australian setting and compare healthfulness by remoteness, using two measurement tools. METHODS: A census of the rural local government area food venues was undertaken using two validated tools: the Healthfulness Rating Classification System (HRCS) and the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-R). Data were collected covering an area of 3,438 square kilometres in Victoria, Australia, with a population of >21,000. Healthfulness by remoteness was described and variability between tools was explored. RESULTS: Data were collected from all 95 eligible food venues. Both tools classified the food venues as relatively unhealthy. The mean HRCS score was -2.9 (unhealthy) and the mean NEMS-R score was 10.8 (SD 7.0; possible range -27 to 64). There were no significant differences in healthiness of venues by remoteness (as measured by the Modified Monash Model), although the outer-rural region had lower scores. CONCLUSIONS: This census of a rural food retail environment showed low access to healthy menu options along with minimal provision of nutrition information and promotion of healthy food in food venues. This environment has the potential to affect the dietary intake of more than 21,000 rural-dwelling Australians and action to improve rural food environments is desperately needed. Implications for public health: If unhealthful rural food environments are not addressed, inequalities in the diet-related disease burden for rural Australians will continue to persist. This study shows that interventions are needed for independent venues that could be targeted by researchers, local health promotion officers, community nutritionists or community education programs.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Almoço , Refeições , População Rural , Meio Social
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321930

RESUMO

In the first two years of life, exposure to wholegrain foods may help establish life­long consumption patterns associated with reduced risk of chronic disease, yet intake data are lacking for this age group. This cross­sectional analysis aimed to determine intakes and food sources of wholegrains in a cohort of 828 Australian children aged 12-14 months, and to identify determinants of wholegrain intake. Three non­consecutive days of dietary intake data were collected using a 24­h recall and 2­day estimated food record. The multiple source method was used to estimate usual wholegrain intake, and the multivariable general linear model procedure used to identify associations between usual wholegrain intake and socio­demographic determinants. The mean wholegrain intake was 19.5 (±14) g/day, and the major food sources were ready to eat breakfast cereals (40%) breads and bread rolls (26.6%), flours and other cereal grains (9.4%), and commercial infant foods (8.3%). Lower wholegrain intakes were observed for children whose mothers were born in China (p < 0.001) and other Asian countries (p < 0.001), with the exception of India (p = 0.193); those with mothers aged less than 25 years (p = 0.001) and those with two or more siblings (p = 0.013). This study adds to the weight of global evidence highlighting the need to increase children's intake of foods high in wholegrain, including in the first few years of life.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
12.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 40, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concern in Japan. The effects of the relationship between eating behavior and nutritional intake on MetS remained unclear. To evaluate nutrition's role in preventing or exacerbating MetS, we examined the associations among eating behavior, nutritional intake, and MetS for the baseline study in the cohort subjects undergone health checkups. METHODS: Four thousand and four hundred forty-seven Japanese men and women were enrolled at the Saku Central Hospital. They received an anthropometric and clinical examination and were assessed for present illness, lifestyle factors such as physical activity, smoking, drinking, and dietary habits at the enrollment. Eating behavior was analyzed by the Sakata's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Dietary assessment was made using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Two thousand and six hundred two men and 1844 women aged more than 20 were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age in men and women were 59.2 and 58.4 years old and the mean body mass index (BMI) were 23.7 and 22.3 kg/m2, respectively. The percentages of MetS were 20.6 in men and 6.1 in women. In some nutrients, significantly higher energy-adjusted intakes in subjects without MetS than with Mets appeared both in men and women after age adjustment. After adjusting by age, energy-adjusted intake beverages in men and cereals in women were significantly higher in subjects with MetS than those without MetS. The scores of all the categories in eating behavior were significantly worse in subjects with MetS than those without MetS. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in dietary intake between subjects with Mets and without Mets were relatively small. The scores of all the categories in eating behavior were worse in subjects with MetS than without MetS. It was suggested that the problem lay in the quality of diet, not in the quantity, caused by bad eating habits. The potential influence of eating behavior and nutritional intake on MetS was presented in men and women.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382750

RESUMO

Laryngeal inflammation causes not only benign diseases of the larynx, such as laryngitis and granuloma, but also malignancy. Dietary factors are known to control or modulate the inflammatory reaction in the body. To date, the association between laryngeal inflammation and dietary factors has not been reported using nationwide population-based data. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between several dietary factors and inflammatory laryngeal disease in the Korean population. This study analyzed the data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys which is cross-sectional nationwide-population-based study. Association between the dietary nutrient intake and the prevalence of inflammatory laryngeal diseases was analyzed in 21,116 participants who underwent a laryngoscopy and filled in the dietary intake questionnaires. Of the 21,116 participants included in the analysis, 758 (3.59%) were diagnosed with inflammatory laryngeal disease. Prevalence of inflammatory laryngeal disease was higher in men (4.58%) than in women (2.84%). The mean age of patients was 53.77 years. When analyzing the risk using propensity score matching, ILD group tend to consume more coffee and to intake less fiber and iron than normal group. On Logistic regression analysis, an increased intake of carbohydrate, fiber, and iron was associated with lowered risk of having ILD in female. The association between inflammatory laryngeal disease and dietary factors was prominent in the group aged ≥50 years and female. Increased intake of fiber, iron, and vitamin A were associated with lower risk in the group aged ≥50 years. In female, increased intake of fiber, iron were associated with lower risk of having ILD. In the group aged ≤50 years, only an increased consumption of makgeolli, Korean traditional rice wine, was associated with a higher risk of ILD.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Laringite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais
14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(12): e21733, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet-tracking mobile apps have gained increased interest from both academic and clinical fields. However, quantity-focused diet tracking (eg, calorie counting) can be time-consuming and tedious, leading to unsustained adoption. Diet quality-focusing on high-quality dietary patterns rather than quantifying diet into calories-has shown effectiveness in improving heart disease risk. The Healthy Heart Score (HHS) predicts 20-year cardiovascular risks based on the consumption of foods from quality-focused food categories, rather than detailed serving sizes. No studies have examined how mobile health (mHealth) apps focusing on diet quality can bring promising results in health outcomes and ease of adoption. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to design a mobile app to support the HHS-informed quality-focused dietary approach by enabling users to log simplified diet quality and view its real-time impact on future heart disease risks. Users were asked to log food categories that are the main predictors of the HHS. We measured the app's feasibility and efficacy in improving individuals' clinical and behavioral factors that affect future heart disease risks and app use. METHODS: We recruited 38 participants who were overweight or obese with high heart disease risk and who used the app for 5 weeks and measured weight, blood sugar, blood pressure, HHS, and diet score (DS)-the measurement for diet quality-at baseline and week 5 of the intervention. RESULTS: Most participants (30/38, 79%) used the app every week and showed significant improvements in DS (baseline: mean 1.31, SD 1.14; week 5: mean 2.36, SD 2.48; 2-tailed t test t29=-2.85; P=.008) and HHS (baseline: mean 22.94, SD 18.86; week 4: mean 22.15, SD 18.58; t29=2.41; P=.02) at week 5, although only 10 participants (10/38, 26%) checked their HHS risk scores more than once. Other outcomes, including weight, blood sugar, and blood pressure, did not show significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that our logging tool significantly improved dietary choices. Participants were not interested in seeing the HHS and perceived logging diet categories irrelevant to improving the HHS as important. We discuss the complexities of addressing health risks and quantity- versus quality-based health monitoring and incorporating secondary behavior change goals that matter to users when designing mHealth apps.


Assuntos
Dieta , Cardiopatias , Aplicativos Móveis , Peso Corporal , Dieta/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
15.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198215

RESUMO

COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of many and may have influenced dietary habits through factors such as food security status and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to identify dietary habits and their associations with food insecurity and attitudes among adults living in the United States within three months post-mandated quarantine. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2020. Participants (n = 3133) responded to a 71-item questionnaire regarding demographics (n = 7), health information (n = 5), lifestyle habits (n = 8), dietary habits (n = 37), food attitudes (n = 8), and food security status (n = 6). Frequency counts and percentages were tabulated, and multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine associations using STATA v14 at a statistical significance level of p < 0.05. Results showed that most participants indicated no change in dietary habits (43.6-87.4%), yet participants reported increased consumption of sweets (43.8%) and salty snacks (37.4%). A significant positive association for food attitude scores (1.59, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.70; p < 0.001) and food security scores (1.19, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.45; p < 0.001) on total dietary habit scores was found. Future extensive population studies are recommended to help public health authorities frame actions to alleviate the impact that mandated quarantine has on dietary habits.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207742

RESUMO

The present study aimed at identifying psychological and psychosocial variables that might predict weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in patients affected by overweight/obesity with and without a psychiatric diagnosis. An online survey was administered between 25 April and 10 May 2020, to investigate participants' changes in dietary habits during the lockdown period. 110 participants were recruited and allocated to two groups, 63 patients had no psychiatric diagnosis; there were 47 patients with psychiatric diagnosis. ANOVA analyses compared the groups with respect to psychological distress levels, risk perception, social support, emotion regulation, and eating behaviors. For each group, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted, including the factors that were found to significantly differ between groups. Weight gain during lockdown was reported by 31 of the participants affected by overweight/obesity without a psychiatric diagnosis and by 31 patients with a psychiatric diagnosis. Weight gain predictors were stress and low depression for patients without a psychiatric diagnosis and binge eating behaviors for patients with a psychiatric diagnosis. Of patients without a psychiatric diagnosis, 60% reported much more frequent night eating episodes. The risk of night eating syndrome in persons affected by overweight/obesity with no psychiatric diagnosis should be further investigated to inform the development of tailored medical, psychological, and psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Betacoronavirus , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1475, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, a high-sodium diet is the most important dietary risk factor and is known to cause a range of health problems. This study aimed to forecast Japan's disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) for chronic diseases that would be associated with high-sodium diet in different future scenarios of salt intake. We modelled DALY forecast and alternative future scenarios of salt intake for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), and stomach cancer (SC) from 2017 to 2040. METHODS: We developed a three-component model of disease-specific DALYs: a component on the changes in major behavioural and metabolic risk predictors including salt intake; a component on the income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate under 25 years; and an autoregressive integrated moving average model to capture the unexplained component correlated over time. Data on risk predictors were obtained from Japan's National Health and Nutrition Surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. To generate a reference forecast of disease-specific DALY rates for 2017-2040, we modelled the three diseases using the data for 1990-2016. Additionally, we generated better, moderate, and worse scenarios to evaluate the impact of change in salt intake on the DALY rate for the diseases. RESULTS: In our reference forecast, the DALY rates across all ages were predicted to be stable for CVDs, continuously increasing for CKDs, and continuously decreasing for SC. Meanwhile, the age group-specific DALY rates for these three diseases were forecasted to decrease, with some exceptions. Except for the ≥70 age group, there were remarkable differences in DALY rates between scenarios, with the best scenario having the lowest DALY rates in 2040 for SC. This represents a wide scope of future trajectories by 2040 with a potential for tremendous decrease in SC burden. CONCLUSIONS: The gap between scenarios provides some quantification of the range of policy impacts on future trajectories of salt intake. Even though we do not yet know the policy mix used to achieve these scenarios, the result that there can be differences between scenarios means that policies today can have a significant impact on the future DALYs.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tendências , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Western dietary habits, coupled with a sedentary lifestyle, are potential contributors to the prevalence and rapid increase in the incidence of obesity in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the association between students' weight status and their eating behaviors and practices. Another aim was to assess students' awareness of the health risks associated with obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 416 (53% male and 47% female) undergraduate students, aged 18-26 years old, between January 6 and April 6, 2019, from colleges of Health Sciences at Jazan University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A). Students completed a self-administered questionnaire and recorded their measured anthropometric parameters. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight (20.4%) and obesity (14.9%) were relatively high among the participants. There were statistically significant associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and the different settings of food consumption (i.e., dining on a table (or) in the Islamic way: squatting on the ground) (p<0.001)). BMI was also associated with students' dietary habits regarding consuming food, snacks, and drinking carbonated beverages while watching television (p<0.001), as well as consuming the same pattern of food/drink while watching television, playing video games on mobile phones or computers (p<0.001). Nearly most of the students were oblivious to the fact that metabolic syndrome, reproductive disorders, respiratory disorders along with liver and gallbladder diseases are some of the health risks associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity and overweight were reasonably high in our study sample and were affected by several factors related to students' eating behaviors and practices. This warrants the need for rigorous and frequent health education interventions on healthy eating behaviors, dietary practices, with an emphasis on the importance of adopting an active, healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Computadores , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 208-218, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fruit and vegetable intake has been reported as one of the significant protective factors against the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study aimed to assess the possible preventive effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on developing CVD. METHODS: A total of 398 participants (205 cases and 193 controls) referred for elective coronary angiography with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease to Prince Hamza Hospital in Amman were enrolled in this case-control study. Dietary data were collected separately from each patient using interview-based food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings of the present study revealed that a total consumption of 3 servings of vegetable per day decreased significantly the risk of CVD to about 54% (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97, p = 0.033). Consumption of banana was found to reduce the risk of CVD to about 44% and 62% when consuming 1-2 and 3-6 servings/week, respectively, with p-value for trend 0.004. For the vegetables, the consumption of grape leaves and stuffed vegetables in general was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD. Increasing cauliflower consumption of 1-2 servings per week decreased CVD risk to about 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). Consuming up to 3-6 servings per week of mixed vegetables (OR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01-0.83) and onion (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22-0.80) revealed an inverse association with CVD development. CONCLUSIONS: Adding to the present evidence, consumption of some fruits and vegetables could be considered as preventive factor against developing CVD. However, the association of consuming vegetables with preventing CVD was higher than the fruit consumption.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Verduras , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide population has been increasingly exposed to ultra-processed foods, which are associated with obesity. Adolescence is a transition period of life and WHO recommends the surveillance of risk factors to the adolescents' health, such as diet, because experiences in this phase can result in health risks. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends in food consumption of adolescents from Brazilian capitals according to sociodemographic variables, based on data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE). METHODS: Data from in 2009, 2012 and 2015 of a total of 173,310 9th graders enrolled in public and private schools in Brazilian capitals and in the Federal District were assessed. Food consumption was assessed from regular consumption (five or more times a week) of healthy eating markers (beans; vegetables; fruit) and unhealthy eating markers (sweets; soft drinks; fried salty snacks). For sociodemographic variables, we considered macro regions; age; race/ skin color; gender; school administrative status. We assessed these markers trends for the population and, additionally, the analyses were stratified by gender, race/ skin color, and school administrative status. Statistical significance of the temporal trends was assessed by linear regression model. RESULTS: Over six years, three types of change in Brazilian adolescents' diet were observed: decreasing regular consumption of beans, sweets and soft drinks, increasing regular consumption of vegetables, and stable consumption of fruit and fried salty snacks. CONCLUSION: Brazilian adolescents' diet composition has changed in a short period, and therefore it is necessary to monitor it to propose actions aimed at this public.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Brasil , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/ética , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo
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