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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 481-504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006369

RESUMO

Autism has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018 has identified 1 in 59 children (1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls) has autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complex conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. It is important to understand how food can have an impact on their current and future health. Appealing food colors stimulate the consumption of different food products. Since 2011, it is evident that dyes are linked to harmful effects in children. Artificial dyes have neurotoxic chemicals that aggravate mental health problems. Many families with autistic children avoid food dyes in their diet in order to avoid behavioral issues. A study reported that there is a correlation between yellow dye and sleep disturbance. Food colors Blue 1 and 2, Green 3, Red 3, Yellow 5 and 6, Citrus Red 2, and Red 40 can trigger many behaviors in most kids. Artificial food color usually contains petroleum and is manufactured in a chemical process that includes formaldehyde, aniline, hydroxides, and sulfuric acids. Most impurities in the food color are in the form of salts or acids. Sometimes lead, arsenic, and mercury may be present as impurities. The U.S. FDA is yet to study the effects of synthetic dyes on behavior in children. A study conducted at Southampton University in England found a link between food dyes and hyperactive behavior in children. The research does not prove that food coloring actually causes autism spectrum disorder, but there seems to be a link. This chapter attempts to provide a broad review of the available literature on food color and the epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 505-523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interactions, verbal/nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors. Children with ASD are known to have several feeding problems that are believed to affect their nutritional and health status. AIM: The present study was designed to assess the food preferences in Omani children diagnosed with ASD compared with controls. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in which 375 children (males and females) aged between 4 and 13 years were recruited. The sample consisted of 163 children with ASD and a control group of 212 typically developing (TD) children. For each participant, demographic, anthropometric, and medical information and information regarding dietary intakes were gathered using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess their food preferences. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics of caregivers were similar in the two groups, while their perceptions based on several nutritional parameters were different. Children's age and body mass index (BMI) were similar in both groups, while the number of male children was higher in ASD group (P < 0.001). Problematic behaviors including food refusal and selectivity were significantly higher in ASD children than in TD children. Despite that, the children with ASD were found to consume mostly traditional Omani dishes. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that provides information on the eating habits and nutritional intake of Omani children diagnosed with ASD. The overall findings are promising and may contribute to further understanding of food preferences in children with ASD in Oman. Such information is highly valuable for the prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies among Omani children with autism by improving their diet quality.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Omã/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ ; 368: m34, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between several types of soy products and all cause and cause specific mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study, which includes 11 public health centre areas in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 92 915 participants (42 750 men and 50 165 women) aged 45 to 74 years. EXPOSURES: Intake of total soy products, fermented soy products (natto and miso), non-fermented soy products, and tofu from a five year survey questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality (cancer, total cardiovascular disease, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and injury) obtained from residential registries and death certificates. RESULTS: During 14.8 years of follow-up, 13 303 deaths were identified. In the multivariable adjusted models, intake of total soy products was not significantly associated with total mortality. Compared with the lowest fifth of total soy product intake, the hazard ratios in the highest fifth were 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.06, Ptrend=0.43) in men and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08, Ptrend=0.46) in women. Intake of fermented soy products was inversely associated with all cause mortality in both sexes (highest versus lowest fifth: 0.90 (0.83 to 0.97), Ptrend=0.05 in men, and 0.89 (0.80 to 0.98), Ptrend=0.01 in women). Natto showed significant and inverse associations with total cardiovascular disease related mortality in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study a higher intake of fermented soy was associated with a lower risk of mortality. A significant association between intake of total soy products and all cause mortality was not, however, observed. The findings should be interpreted with caution because the significant association of fermented soy products might be attenuated by unadjusted residual confounding.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Mortalidade , Alimentos de Soja/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/mortalidade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 358, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous study has investigated the association between oolong tea consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we aim to elucidate the association between oolong tea consumption and ESCC and its joint effects with a novel composite index. METHODS: In a hospital-based case-control study, 646 cases of ESCC patients and 646 sex and age matched controls were recruited. A composite index was calculated to evaluate the role of demographic characteristics and life exposure factors in ESCC. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the point estimates between oolong tea consumption and risk of ESCC. RESULTS: No statistically significant association was found between oolong tea consumption and ESCC (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.94-2.05). However, drinking hot oolong tea associated with increased risk of ESCC (OR = 1.60, 95% Cl: 1.06-2.41). Furthermore, drinking hot oolong tea increased ESCC risk in the high-risk group (composite index> 0.55) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.93-5.11), but not in the low-risk group (composite index≤0.55) (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.74-1.83). Drinking warm oolong tea did not influence the risk of ESCC. CONCLUSIONS: No association between oolong tea consumption and risk of ESCC were found, however, drinking hot oolong tea significantly increased the risk of ESCC, especially in high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Chá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
5.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(5): 358-366, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671385

RESUMO

The high consumption of added sugars in the diet of the Argentine population and its consequent effect on health are current concerns both at the clinical and public health levels. The objective of this study was to determine the main sources of added sugars in the Argentine diet and to determine the proportional energy contribution of each of them. The sample consisted of 1266 individuals, representative of the country's urban population from 15 to 65 years old, stratified by region, age, gender and socio-economic level. Two 24-hour intake records and one socio-economic questionnaire were carried out. Among the total food and beverages consumed, 26.9% of added sugars was contributed by soft drinks and 23.8% by infusions. The third place, with 15.4%, was obtained by baked goods (bread, cookies, etc.) and the fourth, with 12%, from ready-to-prepare juices, ahead of sweets, candies and dairy products. Men, compared to women, consumed significantly more added sugars in soft drinks (32.6 vs. 22.1%) and women more in infusions (25.5% vs. 21.8%), baked goods, sugar and honey. The lower income population consumed significantly more sugar in infusions at the expense of "mate" (21.4 vs. 7 g/day) and no differences were observed in the consumption of soft drinks by socio-economic level (32.9 vs. 34.4 g/day). Urgent measures based on education could improve the consumption habits of added sugars and the health of the population.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Açúcares da Dieta , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Argentina , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1478, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) has increased rapidly in Vietnam. This study aimed to elucidate the factors influencing OW/OB among secondary schoolchildren. METHOD: A survey was conducted in January 2014 in four randomly selected state schools in two Hanoi urban districts, and 821 students in grade six (11-12 years old) participated. Definitions of OW/OB followed the World Health Organization standard cut-offs. RESULTS: Overall, 4.1% of children were underweight, 59.7% were normal weight, 17.1% were overweight, and 19.1% were obese. The odds of OW/OB were lowest among children whose parents had college/university degrees [father (aOR =0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.00); mother (aOR =0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.97)] compared with those whose parents had only a primary education. Children with an OW/OB family history had an increased risk of OW/OB. Other associated factors include parental OW/OB and birth weight (BW). The odds of OW/OB were highest among children with parents with OW/OB [father (aOR =2.022, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04); mother (aOR =2.83, 95% CI: 1.51-5.30)] compared with those with normal-weight parents. Children with both parents having OW/OB [both parents (aOR =6.59, 95% CI: 1.28-33.87) had the highest risk, followed by one parent (aOR =2.22, 95% CI: 1.50-3.27)] and then neither parent having OW/OB. Moreover, high-birth-weight children [BW ≥ 3500 g (aOR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15)] had greater odds than did normal-birth-weight children. Children who slept 11 h per day [8-11 h (aOR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.81) or more (aOR =0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87)] had lower OW/OB odds than those who slept 8 h or less. Children with specific positive lifestyle behaviours had lower risk of OW/OB than those who did not engage in positive lifestyle behaviours. The odds were lower among children who exercised for weight reduction (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.11-0.23), lowered food intake (aOR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.09-0.17), and added vegetables to their diet (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19-0.35). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that parents and children with OW/OB parents or a high BW should be educated to prevent OW/OB at an early stage. Positive lifestyle behaviours should be adopted by the students.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1359, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related behaviours such as physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, alcohol use, and inadequate sleep are significant predictors of adverse health outcomes. Health promotion strategies often focus on one behavior, though research suggests health-related behaviours tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationships between health-related behaviours in the Canadian adult population. METHODS: Data from cycles 3 (2012-2013) and 4 (2014-2015) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey were pooled to describe health-related behaviours (current smoking status, high-risk alcohol use, fruit and vegetable intake, inadequate sleep, and physical activity) among adults according to sex, age group, household education, and income adequacy. Logistic regression was used to test for relationships between health-related behaviours. RESULTS: Findings indicated that adverse health-related behaviours co-occur frequently, with approximately half of Canadians reporting two or more adverse health-related behaviours. Overall, Canadian men were more likely to report adverse health-related behaviours compared to women, with the exception of inadequate sleep. Smoking status, fruit and vegetable intake, sleep and physical activity exhibited an income and education gradient. Sex-based patterns in grouping of behaviours were present such that adverse health-related behaviours were associated with current smoking among men and with high-risk alcohol use among women. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that health-related behaviours should be considered in both isolation and combination when designing intervention strategies. Sex-specific patterns of how these behaviours co-occur must also be taken into account.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição por Sexo , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1361, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CM) is defined as having a diagnosis of at least two of stroke, heart disease, or diabetes, and is an emerging health concern, but the prevalence of CM at a population level in Canada is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify the: 1) prevalence of CM in Canada; and 2) association between CM and lifestyle behaviours (e.g., physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and stress). METHODS: Using data from the 2016 Canadian Community Health Survey, we estimated the overall and group prevalence of CM in individuals aged ≥50 years (n = 13,226,748). Multiple logistic regression was used to quantify the association between CM and lifestyle behaviours compared to a group without cardiometabolic conditions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CM was 3.5% (467,749 individuals). Twenty-two percent (398,755) of people with diabetes reported having another cardiometabolic condition and thus CM, while the same was true for 32.2% (415,686) of people with heart disease and 48.4% (174,754) of stroke survivors. 71.2% of the sample reported eating fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The odds of individuals with CM reporting zero minutes of physical activity was 2.35 [95% CI = 1.87 to 2.95] and having high stress was 1.89 [95% CI = 1.49 to 2.41] times the odds of the no cardiometabolic condition reference group. The odds of individuals with all three cardiometabolic conditions reporting zero minutes of physical activity was 4.31 [95% CI = 2.21 to 8.38] and having high stress was 3.93 [95% CI = 2.03 to 7.61]. CONCLUSION: The number of Canadians with CM or at risk of CM is high and these individuals have lifestyle behaviours that are associated with adverse health outcomes. Lifestyle behaviours tend to diminish with increasing onset of cardiometabolic conditions. Lifestyle modification interventions focusing on physical activity and stress management for the prevention and management CM are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190009.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the salt intake in the Brazilian population according to their urinary sodium excretion. METHODS: The National Health Survey (2013) aimed to gather data on the health of adults (≥ 18 years) through a random selection of households. In each household, one adult was selected to have their biological data collected (anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood and urine tests). The urine sample was sent to a central laboratory to determine sodium (ion-selective electrode) and creatinine (Jaffé method) concentrations. Sodium excretion was estimated with the Tanaka equation. RESULTS: Urinary sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured in 8,083individuals (58% women). The mean salt intake was estimated at 9.34 g/day (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 9.27 - 9.41) and was higher in males (9.63 g/day; 95%CI 9.52 - 9.74) than in females (9.08 g/day; 95%CI 8.99 - 9.17). Wefound no significant differences regarding age group, ethnicity, or schooling. Salt intake was higher in the Southeast and South regions and lower in the Northeast and North. Only 2.4% (95%CI 2.0 - 2.8) of the sample consumed less than 5 g/day, and 58.2% (95%CI 56.7 - 59.6) of participants had an estimated intake of 8 to 12 g/day. CONCLUSION: The mean salt intake in the Brazilian population is approximately twice the recommended by the World Health Organization (5g/day).Given the association of high salt intake with hypertension and decreased renal function, these data indicate the need to adopt comprehensive public policies to reduce the consumption in the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 728-732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the situations of dietary microelements intakes among elderly people in different areas of Zhejiang Province, and analyze the food sources of microelements. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in Zhejiang Province. 832 elderly people( 434 male, 398 female, age was( 68. 02±6. 68) years) were from large cities, small-medium cities and rural counties. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information to analyze dietary intakes among elderly people of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and their sources in different areas. RESULTS: The elderly people'intakes of Mn was 4. 86( 3. 44, 6. 45) mg/d, Cu was 1. 69( 1. 13, 2. 27) mg/d, and Se was36. 85( 21. 32, 54. 21) µg/d, those were generally low. The intake of Zn was 10. 15( 7. 94, 12. 62) mg/d in males, was low as well. Intakes of Mn, Cu, Se were significantly different in different areas, small-medium cities had highest intakes of Mn( 5. 87 mg/d)and Cu( 1. 88 mg/d), large cities had a highest intake of Se( 45. 47 µg/d). The food sources of microelements were slightly variant. Rural counties had less fungi and algae sources of Fe and Mn than large cities and small-medium cities. The Cu from vegetables were higher than dried legumes and the Se from poultry and poultry products were higher than eggs in rural counties. The Zn from fish, shellfish and mollusk were higher than dried legumes in large cities. CONCLUSION: The insufficient status of microelements intakes among elderly people in Zhejiang Province was serious, and there were differences among elderly people from different areas in intakes and food sources of microelements.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/análise , Idoso , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 757-764, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between lifestyle and dietary factors and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma( ESCC) in three different sections of the esophagus. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2016, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted, and a total of 550 patients with ESCC and gender and age( ±3 age) frequency-matched 550 cancer-free control subjects were recruited in this study. Odds ratios( ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals( CIs) were calculated by using unconditional binary or multinomial logistic regression. Multiple correspondence analysis( MCA) was applied to illustrate the influence of the risk factors on different sections of the esophagus. RESULTS: Tea drinking was associated with lower risk of upper( Ut) and lower thoracic( Lt) ESCC( OR = 0. 40, 95% CI 0. 22-0. 73; OR= 0. 50, 95% CI 0. 31-0. 81; for Ut and Lt, respectively), and lower intake of vegetables increased the risk of Ut and Lt ESCC( OR = 3. 93, 95% CI 1. 61-9. 61; OR =2. 68, 95% CI 1. 30-5. 53; for Ut and Lt, respectively). Intake of hot food, hard food and lower intake of fruits were associated with an elevated risk of the ESCC in all subsites( P<0. 05). The strength of association between drinking and ESCC was lower in middle thoracic( Mt) compared with the Lt ESCC( OR = 0. 58, 95% CI 0. 35-0. 98). Moreover, this reduction of association strength were also found in eating hot food( OR = 0. 45, 95%CI 0. 27-0. 76) and lower intake of vegetables( Ut OR = 0. 44, 95% CI 0. 20-0. 99). However, the association between lower intake of fruits and the Mt ESCC risk was stronger compared with Lt ESCC( OR = 1. 66, 95% CI 1. 08-2. 55). In additional, the association between lower intake of fruits and the Ut ESCC risk was stronger compared with Mt ESCC. Joint category plot of MCA also identified the heterogeneous associations between risk factors and different sections of the esophagus. CONCLUSION: Differences in risk factors of ESCC in different subsites, intake of hot food, hard food, and lower intake of vegetables were common risk factors for three subsites of ESCC.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco
12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 700-705, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the status and trend of energy and macronutrient intake among elderly aged 60 and older years old in nine provinces( autonomous region) of China. METHODS: The data of China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2015 were used, which elderly ≥60 years old were selected as the subjects. The 3-consecutive day 24-hour dietary recall was used to collect information on food intake, the condiment intake was collected by weighting and bookkeeping method. Food consumption was converted into energy and various nutrient intakes by food composition table. RESULTS: The intakes of energy was 1706. 8 kcal/d, protein, fat and carbohydrates was 52. 2 g/d, 61. 4 g/d and 219. 3 g/d respectively in 2015. The percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 12. 3%, 33. 3% and 53. 0%respectively. Compared with 1991, the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate decreased352. 3 kcal/d, 11. 5 g/d and 89. 8 g/d respectively. The percentage of energy from fat increased 9. 0 percentage points, carbohydrates decreased 8. 7 percentage points and protein was not changing. In 2015, the intakes of protein and carbohydrates had urbanrural differences. The elderly at the high income level had high intakes of protein and fat, the carbohydrates intake at low level. The main source of energy, protein and fat is grain, other food and edible oil respectively. CONCLUSION: The elderly of Chinese nine provinces( autonomous region) need to increase energy consumption, reduce the fat intake. We should guide rural and low-income elderly people to choose more economical and accessible food to meet their nutritional needs through food substitution. Focus on changes in blood lipids that may result from excessive intake of animal food in urban and high-income elderly people.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes , Idoso , Animais , China , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 552-559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between different kinds of dietary fatty acids intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). METHODS: A 1↿ frequency matched case-control study was conducted among 546 NAFLD patients diagnosed by ultrasound as case group, 546 people without NAFLD randomly selected and matched by sex and age(±5) as control group from April 2015 to August 2017 in Nanping first hospital. The data was obtained from participants using structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. Information on dietary intake was collected using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Residual method was used to derive energy-adjusted variable, unconditional Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios(OR) and their 95% CI. RESULTS: The NAFLD group consumed a significantly higher amount of fatty acid(FAs), saturated fatty acid(SFAs), mono-unsaturatedfattyacids(MUFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs), n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, C16↿, C18↿, C16↿, C18↿, C18↿ and C18↿. Multivariate unconditional Logistic regression analysis indicated that daily intake of total fatty acids, MUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, C18↿, C18↿ more than 98. 96 g/d, 38. 83 g/d, 26. 23 g/d, 33. 55 g/d and 24. 91 g/d respectively, were the risk factors for NAFLD. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI were 2. 26(1. 49-3. 44), 1. 93(1. 29-2. 88), 5. 13(3. 40-7. 76), 1. 82(1. 22-2. 79) and 5. 24(3. 40-7. 76). Daily intake of C20↿, C22↿ in 0. 07-0. 09 g/d, 0. 01-0. 02 g/d were the protective factors for NAFLD. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI were 0. 58(0. 39-0. 85) and 0. 64(0. 43-0. 94). CONCLUSION: Daily intake of total fatty acids, MUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, C18↿, C18↿ more than 98. 96, 38. 83, 26. 23, 33. 55 and 24. 91 g/d respectively, were the risk factors for NAFLD. Daily intake of C20↿, C22↿ in 0. 07-0. 09 g/d, 0. 01-0. 02 g/d respectively, were the protective factors for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo
14.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 560-572, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the dietary intake quantity and quality of high school students in Shanghai education. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, Shanghai center for Disease Control and Prevention, divided the school into three levels(urban area, suburban area and rural area) according to the economic level and population composition of the street where the school was located. The probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select 19 high schools, from which 9 boys and 9 girls from same class were randomly recruited for each grade. A total of 1026 students were recruited. The survey included general situation questionnaire and dietary inquiry. Participants were required to complete the standardized questionnaire form through face-to-face interviews with trained interviewers. Chinese Dietary Guidelines(2016) was used to evaluate dietary quantity while China healthy diet index(CHDI) was used to evaluate dietary quality. RESULTS: The medians of intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, meat/livestock, fish/shrimp, eggs, milk and milk products, bean and bean products, cooking oil, cooking salt were 313. 8, 189. 7, 66. 3, 179. 2, 34. 7, 48. 9, 133. 3, 33. 3, 27. 1 and 6. 0 g/d within high school students, respectively. In both boys and girls, the medians of intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products were lower than reference standard and meat/livestock was higher(P<0. 05). The intake differences among different area's high school students upon grain, vegetables, fruits, poultry/livestock, fish/shrimp, dairy products, beans/nuts, cooking oil, cooking salt were statistically significant(P<0. 05). The CHDI median total score of high school students was 68. 5 in Shanghai. 75. 2% of the CHDI total scores were between 60 and 80. The vegetable score, dark vegetable score, fruit score and total CHDI score in boys were significantly lower than those in girls(P<0. 05). The urban area CHDI score was significantly higher than suburban's and countryside's(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Both dietary structure and dietary quality are inappropriate and unfit within high school students in Shanghai, the urban area's condition is better than another two. We suggest to increase intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products while decrease poultry/livestock's consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Verduras , Animais , China , Cidades , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 526-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine nuts consumption in a sample of Chinese elderly residents. METHODS: Samples from 2015 China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study were used. A total of 5071 participants aged 60 years old and above were included in the final analysis. Three consecutive 24 h recalls were used to collect dietary consumption data. Average daily nuts intake was calculated. Then compared with recommended intake level of Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents(2016). Logistic regression was applied to analyze key factors affecting the consumption of nuts intake. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of nuts consumption among elderly residents in 15 provinces was 17. 8%. The P90 nuts intake was 13. 6 g/d in the whole population and 16. 7 g/d in P50 in the consuming group. There were 81. 1% of the whole population achieved the recommendation of dietary guidelines. The Logistic analysis showed that the group of young age, high education level and urban residents had more nuts consumed. CONCLUSION: Nuts consumption rate was low among Chinese elderly residents. The intake was insufficient in the whole. Age, education level and area were key factors that influenced nuts consumption of the elderly.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Nozes , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2178-2188, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and all-cause mortality and to examine the effect of theoretical iso-caloric non-processed foods substitution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of 11,898 individuals (mean age 46.9 years, and 50.5% women) were selected from the ENRICA study, a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population. Dietary information was collected by a validated computer-based dietary history and categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Total mortality was obtained from the National Death Index. Follow-up lasted from baseline (2008-2010) to mortality date or December 31th, 2016, whichever was first. The association between quartiles of consumption of ultra-processed food and mortality was analyzed by Cox models adjusted for the main confounders. Restricted cubic-splines were used to assess dose-response relationships when using iso-caloric substitutions. RESULTS: Average consumption of ultra-processed food was 385 g/d (24.4% of the total energy intake). After a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (93,599 person-years), 440 deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (and 95% CI) for mortality in the highest versus the lowest quartile of ultra-processed food consumption was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.01-2.07; P trend=.03) in percent of energy and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05; P trend=.03) in grams per day per kilogram. Isocaloric substitution of ultra-processed food with unprocessed or minimally processed foods was associated with a significant nonlinear decrease in mortality. CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with higher mortality in the general population. Furthermore, the theoretical iso-caloric substitution ultra-processed food by unprocessed or minimally processed foods would suppose a reduction of the mortality risk. If confirmed, these findings support the necessity of the development of new nutritional policies and guides at the national and international level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01133093.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17271, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red and (particularly) processed meats are high in cholesterol and saturated and solid fatty acids. Their consumption is considered one of the risk factors for metabolic disorders. Numerous studies demonstrated a possible association between red meat consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this protocol, we propose a systematic review of the literature to examine the associations of red meat consumption with CVD incidence and mortality, and explore the potential dose-response relationship. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane (CENTRAL), WHOLIS, PAHO, and Embase. We will include prospective epidemiological studies (longitudinal cohort). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Four independent researchers will conduct all evaluations. Disagreements will be referred to a fifth reviewer. We will summarize our findings using a narrative approach and tables to describe the characteristics of the included studies. The heterogeneity between trial results will be evaluated using a standard chi-squared test with P < .05. We will conduct the study in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P). RESULTS: This review will evaluate the association between red meat consumption and incidence of CVD and mortality (primary outcome measures). The secondary outcome measure will include the dose-response effect. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of the association between red meat consumption and incidence of CVD and mortality and the dose-response effect through a systematic review and meta-analysis. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019100914.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17543, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593134

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the adaptation process of the alimentary tract after distal gastrectomy and understand the impact of remnant stomach volume (RSV) on diet recovery.One year after gastrectomy, although patients' oral intake had increased, the RSV was decreased and small bowel motility was enhanced. Patients with a larger RSV showed no additional benefits regarding nutritional outcomes.We prospectively enrolled patients who underwent distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction to treat gastric cancer at a tertiary hospital cancer center between September 2009 and February 2012. Demographic data, diet questionnaires, computed tomography (CT), and contrast fluoroscopy findings were collected. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the RSV calculated using CT gastric volume measurements (large vs small). Dietary habits and nutritional status were compared between the groups.Seventy-eight patients were enrolled. Diet volume recovered to 90% of baseline by the 36 postoperative month, and RSV was 70% of baseline at 6 months after surgery and gradually decreased over time. One year after surgery, small bowel transit time was 75% compared to the 1st postoperative month (P < .05); however, transit time in the esophagus and remnant stomach showed no change in any studied interval. Compared to patients with a small RSV, those with a large RSV showed no differences in diet volume, habits, or other nutritional benefits (P > .05).Diet recovery for distal gastrectomy patients was achieved by increased small bowel motility. The size of the remnant stomach showed no positive impact on nutritional outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Coto Gástrico/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastroenterostomia/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 82, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests eating home-prepared food (HPF) is associated with increased dietary quality, while dietary quality varies across socio-demographic factors. Although it has been hypothesised that variation in HPF consumption between population sub-groups may contribute to variation in dietary quality, evidence is inconclusive. This study takes a novel approach to quantifying home-prepared food (HPF) consumption, and describes HPF consumption in a population-representative sample, determining variation between socio-demographic groups. It tests the association between HPF consumption and dietary quality, determining whether socio-demographic characteristics moderate this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of UK survey data (N = 6364, aged≥19; collected 2008-16, analysed 2018). High dietary quality was defined as 'DASH accordance': the quintile most accordant with the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet. HPF consumption was estimated from 4-day food diaries. Linear regressions were used to determine the association between HPF consumption and socio-demographic variables (household income, education, occupation, age, gender, ethnicity and children in the household). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance. Interaction terms were introduced, testing for moderation of the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance by socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: HPF consumption was relatively low across the sample (Mean (SD) % of energy consumption = 26.5%(12.1%)), and lower among white participants (25.9% v 37.8 and 34.4% for black and Asian participants respectively, p < 0.01). It did not vary substantially by age, gender, education, income or occupation. Higher consumption of HPF was associated with greater odds of being in the most DASH accordant quintile (OR = 1.2 per 10% increase in % energy from HPF, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Ethnicity was the only significant moderator of the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance, but this should be interpreted with caution due to high proportion of white participants. CONCLUSIONS: While an association exists between HPF consumption and higher dietary quality, consumption of HPF or HPF's association with dietary quality does not vary substantially between socio-demographic groups. While HPF may be a part of the puzzle, it appears other factors drive socio-demographic variation in dietary quality.


Assuntos
Culinária , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Características da Família , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1098, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood represents a critical period for the establishment of long-lasting healthy dietary habits. Limited knowledge exists on how to successfully increase vegetable consumption among preschool children. The overall aim of the present study was to improve vegetable intake among preschool children in a kindergarten-based randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The target group was preschool children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in two counties in Norway. Data about child intake of vegetables were collected by three methods. First, parents filled in a web-based questionnaire of the child's vegetable intake. Second, among a subsample, trained researchers observed children's vegetable intake in the kindergarten. Thirdly, a parental web-based 24-h recall assessing the child's vegetable intake was filled in. For allocation of kindergartens to intervention and control groups, a stratified block randomization was used. Multiple intervention components were implemented from September 2015 to February 2016 and components focused at influencing the four determinants availability, accessibility, encouragement and role modelling. The effect of the intervention from baseline (spring 2015) to follow-up 1 (spring 2016) was assessed by mixed-model analysis taking the clustering effect of kindergartens into account. RESULTS: Parental consent was obtained for 38.8% of the children (633 out of 1631 eligible children). Based on the observational data in the kindergarten setting (n 218 in the control group and n 217 in the intervention group), a tendency to a small positive effect was seen as a mean difference of 13.3 g vegetables/day (95% CI: - 0.2, 26.9) (P = 0.054) was observed. No significant overall effects were found for the total daily vegetable intake or for the parental reported frequency or variety in vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the observational data in the kindergarten setting, a tendency to a small positive effect was seen with a mean difference of about 13 g vegetables/day, while no other effects on child vegetable intake were found. Additionally, further research to understand the best strategies to involve parents in dietary interventions studies is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials ISRCTN51962956 . Registered 21 June 2016 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Verduras , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Observação , Pais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas
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