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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371848

RESUMO

In contrast to the decreasing burden related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the burden related to dysglycemia and adiposity complications is increasing in Czechia, and local drivers must be identified. A comprehensive literature review was performed to evaluate biological, behavioral, and environmental drivers of dysglycemia and abnormal adiposity in Czechia. Additionally, the structure of the Czech healthcare system was described. The prevalence of obesity in men and diabetes in both sexes has been increasing over the past 30 years. Possible reasons include the Eastern European eating pattern, high prevalence of physical inactivity and health illiteracy, education, and income-related health inequalities. Despite the advanced healthcare system based on the compulsory insurance model with free-for-service healthcare and a wide range of health-promoting initiatives, more effective strategies to tackle the adiposity/dysglycemia are needed. In conclusion, the disease burden related to dysglycemia and adiposity in Czechia remains high but is not translated into greater CVD. This discordant relationship likely depends more on other factors, such as improvements in dyslipidemia and hypertension control. A reconceptualization of abnormal adiposity and dysglycemia into a more actionable cardiometabolic-based chronic disease model is needed to improve the approach to these conditions. This review can serve as a platform to investigate causal mechanisms and secure effective management of cardiometabolic-based chronic disease.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adiposidade/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/etnologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Prevalência , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444913

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a Korean population and examine whether the association can be altered by adjustment for intake of coffee additives. We conducted a case-control study involving 923 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls matched by sex and age (within 5 years). A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess coffee intakes. High coffee consumption was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer (≥3 cups/day vs. no drinks, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96). When we additionally controlled for consumption of coffee additives including sugar and cream, the inverse association became stronger (≥3 cups/day vs. no drinks, OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.14-0.33), and a significant inverse linear trend was shown (Ptrend < 0.0001). The inverse associations were observed for proximal (Ptrend = 0.0001) and distal (Ptrend = 0.0003) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (Ptrend < 0.0001) in the stratified analysis by anatomical sub-sites. Regarding sex, inverse associations between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer were found for men (Ptrend < 0.0001) and women (Ptrend = 0.0021). In the stratified analysis by obese status of subjects, inverse linear trends were observed in both non-obese and obese people (Ptrend < 0.0001). High coffee consumption may be associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in the Korean population and the degree of decrease in the odds of developing colorectal cancer changes by adjustment for intake of coffee additives.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Café/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Líquidos/etnologia , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371894

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the diet quality of pre-frail community-dwelling older adults to extend the evidence of nutrition in frailty prevention. Pre-frailty, the transition state between a robust state and frailty, was ascertained using the FRAIL scale. Socio-demographic, health status, and 24-h dietary recalls were collected from 465 community-dwelling adults aged 75+ (60 years for Maori and Pacific people) across New Zealand. Diet quality was ascertained with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Participants (median (IQR) age 80 (77-84), 59% female) had a moderately healthful diet, DQI-I score: 60.3 (54.0-64.7). Women scored slightly higher than men (p = 0.042). DQI-I components identified better dietary variety in men (p = 0.044), and dietary moderation in women (p = 0.002); both sexes performed equally well in dietary adequacy and poorly in dietary balance scores (73% and 47% of maximum scores, respectively). Low energy 20.3 (15.4-25.3) kcal/kg body weight (BW) and protein intakes 0.8 (0.6-1.0) g/kg BW were coupled with a high prevalence of mineral inadequacies: calcium (86%), magnesium (68%), selenium (79%), and zinc (men 82%). In conclusion, the diet quality of pre-frail older adults was moderately high in variety and adequacy but poor in moderation and balance. Our findings support targeted dietary interventions to ameliorate frailty.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/etnologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Valor Nutritivo/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444882

RESUMO

Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. This work attempted to use international food databases, additionally supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database of plant sterols, which would cover various kinds of foods and dishes consumed in Poland. The aim was to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. The median intake of plant sterols in the Polish population was 255.96 mg/day, and for men and women 291.76 and 230.61 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. The study found that plant sterol intake in Poland is comparable to other populations, and women's diets are more dense in plant sterols. Due to the lack of literature sources on plant sterol content in some foods, future studies should expand and complete the databases on plant sterol content in foods.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Fitosteróis/análise , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205144

RESUMO

The excessive consumption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), two vital nutrients for living organisms, is associated with negative environmental and health impacts. While food production contributes to a large amount of N and P loss to the environment, very little N and P is consumed as food. Food habits are affected by multiple regulations, including the dietary restrictions and dictates of various religions. In this study, religion-sensitive N-Calculator and P-Calculator approaches were used to determine the impact of religious dietary culture on the food N and P footprints of India in the major religious communities. Using 2013 data, the food N footprint of Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists was 10.70, 11.45, 11.47, and 7.39 kg-N capita-1 year-1 (10.82 kg-N capita-1 year-1 was the national average), and the food P footprint was 1.46, 1.58, 1.04. and 1.58 kg-P capita-1 year-1 (1.48 kg-P capita-1 year-1 was the national average). The findings highlight the impact of individual choice on the N and P food footprints, and the importance of encouraging the followers of religion to follow a diet consistent with the food culture of that religion. The results of this study are a clear indication of the requirement for religion-sensitive analyses in the collecting of data pertinent to a particular country for use in making government policies designed to improve the recycling of food waste and the treatment of wastewater.


Assuntos
Cultura , Dieta/etnologia , Meio Ambiente , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Religião , Budismo , Cristianismo , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hinduísmo , Humanos , Índia , Islamismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923855

RESUMO

Poor dietary habits have been shown to be associated with a range of chronic diseases and can potentially be a major contributor to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) mortality. We therefore aimed to identify the prevailing dietary patterns among Chinese adults and to evaluate trends in dietary patterns from 1991 to 2015. We used data collected in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. We studied 29,238 adults aged 18 and above with complete demo-graphic and dietary data. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified: southern (high intakes of rice, vegetables, and pork), modern (high intakes of fruits, dairy products, cakes, cookies, and pastries), and meat (high intakes of organ meats, poultry, and other livestock meat). The southern pattern score decreased (mean ± SD scores in 1991: 0.11 ± 1.13; scores in 2015: -0.22 ± 0.93). The modern pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.44 ± 0.59; scores in 2015: 0.21 ± 1.01) and meat pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.18 ± 0.98; scores in 2015: 0.27 ± 0.91) increased. We observed that China has experienced a shift from traditional dietary patterns to western dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806427

RESUMO

In Qatar, Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most prevalent disorders. This study aimed to explore the gut microbiome's relation to the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy, dietary habits, and the HbA1c level in the pediatric T1DM subjects in Qatar. We recruited 28 T1DM subjects with an average age of 10.5 ± 3.53 years. The stool sample was used to measure microbial composition by 16s rDNA sequencing method. The results have revealed that the subjects who had undergone CSII therapy had increased microbial diversity and genus Akkermansia was significantly enriched in the subjects without CSII therapy. Moreover, genus Akkermansia was higher in the subjects with poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 7.5%). When we classified the subjects based on dietary patterns and nationality, Akkermansia was significantly enriched in Qataris subjects without the CSII therapy consuming Arabic diet than expatriates living in Qatar and eating a Western/mixed diet. Thus, this pilot study showed that abundance of Akkermansia is dependent on the Arabic diet only in poorly controlled Qataris T1DM patients, opening new routes to personalized treatment for T1DM in Qataris pediatric subjects. Further comprehensive studies on the relation between the Arabic diet, ethnicity, and Akkermansia are warranted to confirm this preliminary finding.


Assuntos
Akkermansia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/microbiologia , Dieta/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Catar
8.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175 Suppl 72: 27-56, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675083

RESUMO

The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Hominidae/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Paleontologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652952

RESUMO

This article aims to explore the food patterns of Chinese immigrants living in Spain and to understand the factors associated with these behaviors. This qualitative ethnographic study included 133 Chinese immigrants; using interviews with scripts were based on the National Health Survey of Spain. Three categories were defined: "Differences between Chinese food and Western food"; "Products and dishes consumed by Chinese immigrants" and "Modification of eating habits". Participants found a remarkable difference between eastern (i.e., vegetables and rice) and western (i.e., dairy, high-fat, bread) foods. They also experienced a change in their eating habits, mostly related to acculturation and lack of time. Chinese immigrants have different eating patterns as compared to the native population in Spain and this information could help in future healthcare strategies. Knowing the food culture could infer aspects, such as insertion or integration, and promoting health and well-being.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Dieta/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671993

RESUMO

Lifestyle choices significantly influence mental health in later life. In this study we investigated the effects of the Christian Orthodox Church (COC) fasting diet, which includes long-term regular abstinence from animal-based products for half the calendar year, on cognitive function and emotional wellbeing of healthy adults. Two groups of fasting and non-fasting individuals were evaluated regarding their cognitive performance and the presence of anxiety and depression using the Mini Mental Examination Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Data on physical activity, smoking, and vitamin levels were collected and correlated with mental health scoring. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine differences in the GDS scores between the two groups. Significantly lower levels of anxiety (7.48 ± 4.98 vs. 9.71 ± 5.25; p < 0.001) and depression (2.24 ± 1.77 vs. 3.5 ± 2.52; p < 0.001), along with better cognitive function (29.15 ± 0.79 vs. 28.64 ± 1.27; p < 0.001), were noticed in fasting compared to non-fasting individuals. GDS score was 31% lower (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.69, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.56-0.85) in the fasting group compared to the control, while vitamin and ferrum levels did not differ. The COC fasting diet was found to have an independent positive impact on cognition and mood in middle-aged and elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/psicologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Depressão/etiologia , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/etnologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572918

RESUMO

In this study, we compared the metabolic properties of the Asian staples rice and noodles, which are typically high in glycaemic index (GI), to two types of spaghetti. It is hypothesised that pasta can be a healthy replacement, particularly amongst the Asian population. Thirty Chinese and Indian subjects (17 men, 13 women; BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m2) participated in this randomised crossover trial. On seven occasions, they consumed a glucose reference drink (3 times), white rice, wheat-based mee pok noodles, semolina spaghetti and wholegrain spaghetti. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response over a period of 3 h. The current evaluation showed that semolina spaghetti and wholegrain spaghetti can be classified as low GI products, with a GI of 53 and 54, respectively, significantly lower than wheat based mee pok noodles (74) and rice (80) (p < 0.005). In addition, both spaghettis had a lower insulin response compared to rice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose or insulin response between semolina and wholegrain spaghetti. After controlling for gender, ethnicity, fat and fat free mass (kg), the glucose and insulin results did not change. In conclusion, wheat-based pasta can be helpful to modify the carbohydrate-rich Asian diet. Notably, there was no effect of gender, ethnicity and body composition on the glycaemic and insulinaemic response. We speculate that the starch-protein structure as a result of the spaghetti production process is a major driver of its favourable metabolic properties.


Assuntos
Dieta/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Farinha/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Índia , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Oryza , Triticum/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Prim Care ; 48(1): 67-81, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516425

RESUMO

This article describes hematologic, nutritional, allergic/asthmatic conditions, lead screening, and management of these among immigrants and refugees. Some of these conditions present more frequently or differently in the newcomer population. Early identification and treatment are key to improving health outcomes. Screening and treatment suggested in this article are based on current guidelines and are intended for primary care providers who are caring for refugee and immigrant patients, especially within a medical home. Special considerations include level of education, instruction, demonstration, and cultural humility.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Refugiados , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/etnologia , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/etnologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/etnologia , Características Culturais , Dieta/etnologia , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/etnologia , Testes de Função Renal , Chumbo/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Br J Nutr ; 125(3): 346-356, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684174

RESUMO

At a time when the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) are pervasively recognised, a paradoxical observation is the decreasing adherence to this dietary pattern in its native countries. This study aims to investigate temporal trends in adherence to the MD among adolescents (10-19 years old) in Lebanon. Data were drawn from three national cross-sectional surveys conducted at three points in time: 1997 (n 2004), 2009 (n 3656) and 2015 (n 1204). Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, and adherence to the MD was assessed using two country-specific indexes: the composite Mediterranean diet (c-MED) index and Lebanese Mediterranean diet (LMD) index. Significant decreases in c-MED and LMD scores and in the proportion of adolescents adhering to the MD were observed between 1997 and 2015, with more consistent results among females (P < 0·05). Projections for the year 2030 showed further decreases, with less than a quarter of adolescents remaining adherent to the MD. Based on linear regression analyses, belonging to the year 2009 was associated with significantly lower MD scores compared with 1997, even after adjustment for potential covariates (c-MED ß = -0·16, 95 % CI -0·30, -0·01; LMD ß = -0·42, 95 % CI -0·67, -0·17). Similar results were obtained when comparing survey year 2015 with 1997 (c-MED score ß = -0·20, 95 % CI -0·33, -0·06; LMD score ß = -0·60, 95 % CI -0·82, -0·37). Findings highlight the erosion of the MD among Lebanese adolescents and underline the need for a comprehensive food system approach that fosters the promotion of the MD as a nutritionally balanced and sustainable dietary pattern.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/normas , Dieta/tendências , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino
14.
Med Anthropol ; 40(1): 79-97, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275461

RESUMO

Nutrition policymakers frequently treat their knowledge of nutrition as acultural and universal. We analyze food guidelines in Mexico and Guatemala to draw attention to embedded, but often unrecognized, cultural values of standardization and individual responsibility. We suggest that nutrition policy would be improved by attending to the cultural values within nutrition science, and that nutrition guidelines should attend not only to other people's cultures but to what we are calling "cultures of nutrition." We conclude by offering an example of an adaptive approach to policy-making that may be useful for handling situations where many different cultures of nutrition collide.


Assuntos
Dieta/etnologia , Política Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Antropologia Médica , Guatemala/etnologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , México/etnologia
15.
Nutr Rev ; 79(7): 814-823, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341894

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan is not as disastrous as it is in other Western countries, possibly because of certain lifestyle factors. One such factor might be the seaweed-rich diet commonly consumed in Japan. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the cell surface and downregulates ACE2, likely elevating the ratio of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to ACE2. The overreaction of the immune system, combined with the cytokine storm and ACE dominance, is purported to cause the condition of COVID-19 patients to deteriorate rapidly. Dietary seaweeds contain numerous components, including ACE inhibitory peptides, soluble dietary fibers (eg, fucoidan, porphyran), omega-3 fatty acids, fucoxanthin, fucosterol, vitamins D3 and B12, and phlorotannins. These components exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects directly as well as indirectly through prebiotic effects. It is possible that ACE inhibitory components could minimize the ACE dominance caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, dietary seaweeds might confer protection against COVID-19 through multiple mechanisms. Overconsumption of seaweeds should be avoided, however, as seaweeds contain high levels of iodine.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Alga Marinha , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antivirais , COVID-19/etnologia , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/métodos , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1409-1414, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274358

RESUMO

Social disparities in the US and elsewhere have been terribly highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic but also an outbreak of state-sponsored violence. The field of nutrition, like other areas of science, has commonly used 'race' to describe research participants and populations, without the recognition that race is a social, not a biologic, construct. We review the limitations of classifying participants by race, and recommend a series of steps for authors, researchers and policymakers to consider when producing and reading the nutrition literature. We recommend that biomedical researchers, especially those in the field of nutrition, abandon the use of racial categories to explain biologic phenomena but instead rely on a more comprehensive framework of ethnicity; that authors consider not just race and ethnicity but many social determinants of health, including experienced racism; that race and ethnicity not be conflated; that dietary pattern descriptions inform ethnicity descriptions; and that depersonalizating language be avoided.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/etnologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/ética , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , COVID-19/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/classificação , Dieta/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/classificação , Variação Genética , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Fenótipo , Racismo/etnologia , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374877

RESUMO

Indigenous Solomon Islanders, like many living in Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS), are currently experiencing the global syndemic-the combined threat of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change. This mixed-method study aimed to assess nutrition transitions and diet quality by comparing three geographically unique rural and urban indigenous Solomon Islands populations. Participants in rural areas sourced more energy from wild and cultivated foods; consumed a wider diversity of foods; were more likely to meet WHO recommendations of >400g of non-starchy fruits and vegetables daily; were more physically active; and had significantly lower body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) when compared to urban populations. Urban populations were found to have a reduced ability to self-cultivate agri-food products or collect wild foods, and therefore consumed more ultra-processed foods (classified as NOVA 4) and takeout foods, and overall had less diverse diets compared to rural populations. Clear opportunities to leverage traditional knowledge and improve the cultivation and consumption of underutilized species can assist in building more sustainable and resilient food systems while ensuring that indigenous knowledge and cultural preferences are respected.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Melanesia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Populacionais/etnologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114384

RESUMO

Individuals' perceptions of their food environments are a mediator between exposure to the environment and people's interaction with it. The Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) are valid and reliable measures to assess food environments. In Spain, there is no adapted instrument to measure the perceived obesogenic environment. This article aims to adapt and evaluate the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for a Spanish context (NEMS-P-MED). The Spanish version has 32 questions to measure the perception about availability, accessibility and marketing of 3 types of environment: home, shops and restaurants. We assess feasibility, construct validity and internal consistency reliability through a sample of 95 individuals. The internal consistency was acceptable for most items (Cronbach's alpha coefficients range from 0.6 to 0.9), similar to that of the original scale. The NEMS-P-MED has been shown to be valid and, on certain items reliable, and was useful to assess the population's perceptions of the food environment in the home, restaurants and food stores in a Spanish context. Adapting standardized measurement tools to specific contexts to assess the perceived and observed characteristics of food environments may facilitate the development of effective policy interventions to reduce excess weight.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/psicologia , Dieta/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Dieta/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Traduções
19.
Ethn Dis ; 30(4): 651-660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989365

RESUMO

Background: African Americans and other persons of African descent in the United States are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Discrimination is associated with higher CVD risk among US adults; however, this relationship is unknown among African immigrants. Methods: The African Immigrant Health Study was a cross-sectional study of African immigrants in Baltimore-Washington, DC, with recruitment and data collection taking place between June 2017 and April 2019. The main outcome was elevated CVD risk, the presence of ≥3 CVD risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, overweight/obesity, tobacco use, and poor diet. The secondary outcomes were these six individual CVD risk factors. The exposure was discrimination measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale; summed scores ≥2 on each item indicated frequent experiences of discrimination. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of elevated CVD risk, adjusting for relevant covariates. Results: We included 342 participants; 61% were females. The mean (±SD) age was 47(±11) years, 61% had at least a bachelor's degree, 18% had an income <$40,000, and 49% had lived in the US ≥15 years. Persons with frequent experiences of discrimination were 1.82 times (95%CI: 1.04-3.21) more likely to have elevated CVD risk than those with fewer experiences. Resilience did not moderate the relationship between CVD risk and discrimination. Conclusion: African immigrants with frequent experiences of discrimination were more likely to have elevated CVD risk. Targeted and culturally appropriate interventions are needed to reduce the high burden of CVD risk in this population. Health care providers should be aware of discrimination as a meaningful social determinant of CVD risk. At the societal level, policies and laws are needed to reduce the occurrence of discrimination among African immigrants and racial/ethnic minorities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Dieta/etnologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etnologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Prevalência , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Estados Unidos
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899839

RESUMO

Multiple studies have demonstrated strong links between diet and anemia, but few have explored the impact of food groups on hemoglobin (Hb). We analyzed the correlation between Ghanaian diet and Hb levels to explore reduction of anemia prevalence through dietary interventions. Demographics, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), and blood samples were obtained from 140 volunteers (ages 18-65) in five locations across Ghana. Hb was measured; estimated iron consumption was calculated. FFQ items were grouped by food type, and a regression analysis was performed to determine the most important dietary predictors of Hb. Moreover, 47% of total participants were anemic; 64% of females and 28% of males. Hb levels were highest in Mole (13.9 g/dL, SD = ±1.9), independent of sex distribution. The regression model revealed a 62.7% adjusted correlation between food groups and Hb levels. Animal foods (ß = 0.016, t = 5.08, p < 0.01) and plant protein (ß = 0.013, t = 2.86, p < 0.01) were the most influential groups to Hb levels. It is of vital importance to emphasize the benefits of consuming animal foods and plant proteins within the Ghanaian population. The ease of access to plant proteins makes it likely that this food group will be most influential and have the greatest impact in reduction of anemia in the Ghanaian population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Dieta/etnologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Ferro/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Ferropriva/etnologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Proteínas Animais da Dieta/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Geografia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
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