Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.099
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414467

RESUMO

Rapid environmental change is a catalyst for human evolution, driving dietary innovations, habitat diversification, and dispersal. However, there is a dearth of information to assess hominin adaptions to changing physiography during key evolutionary stages such as the early Pleistocene. Here we report a multiproxy dataset from Ewass Oldupa, in the Western Plio-Pleistocene rift basin of Olduvai Gorge (now Oldupai), Tanzania, to address this lacuna and offer an ecological perspective on human adaptability two million years ago. Oldupai's earliest hominins sequentially inhabited the floodplains of sinuous channels, then river-influenced contexts, which now comprises the oldest palaeolake setting documented regionally. Early Oldowan tools reveal a homogenous technology to utilise diverse, rapidly changing environments that ranged from fern meadows to woodland mosaics, naturally burned landscapes, to lakeside woodland/palm groves as well as hyper-xeric steppes. Hominins periodically used emerging landscapes and disturbance biomes multiple times over 235,000 years, thus predating by more than 180,000 years the earliest known hominins and Oldowan industries from the Eastern side of the basin.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Meio Ambiente , Hominidae , Paleontologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Arqueologia , Biomarcadores , Carvão Vegetal , Dieta/história , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Plantas , Pólen , Tanzânia , Tecnologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347451

RESUMO

After the Battle Dunbar between English and Scottish forces in 1650, captured Scottish soldiers were imprisoned in Durham and many hundreds died there within a few weeks. The partial skeletal remains of 28 of these men were discovered in 2013. Building on previous osteological work, here we report wide-ranging scientific studies of the remains to address the following questions: Did they have comparable diet, health and disease throughout their lives? Did they have common histories of movement (or lack of movement) during their childhoods? Can we create a collective biography of these men? Strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel investigated childhood movement. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of incrementally sampled dentine addressed childhood diet and nutrition. Metaproteomic analysis of dental calculus investigated oral microbiomes and food residues; this was complemented by microscopic analysis of debris in calculus from ingested materials. Selected individuals were examined for dental microwear. The extent of hydroxylation of proline in collagen was examined as a potential biomarker for scurvy. An osteobiography for each man was created using the full range of data generated about him, and these were synthesised using an approach based on the historical method for a collective biography or prosopography. The childhood residences of the men were primarily within the Midland Valley of Scotland, though some spent parts of their childhood outside the British Isles. This is concordant with the known recruitment areas of the Scottish army in 1650. Their diets included oats, brassicas and milk but little seafood, as expected for lowland rather than highland diets of the period. Childhood periods of starvation or illness were almost ubiquitous, but not simultaneous, suggesting regionally variable food shortages in the 1620s and 1630s. It is likely there was widespread low-level scurvy, ameliorating in later years of life, which suggests historically unrecorded shortages of fruit and vegetables in the early 1640s. Almost all men were exposed to burnt plant matter, probably as inhaled soot, and this may relate to the high proportion of them with of sinusitis. Interpersonal violence causing skeletal trauma was rare. Based on commonalities in their osteobiographies, we argue that these men were drawn from the same stratum of society. This study is perhaps the most extensive to date of individuals from 17th century Scotland. Combined with a precise historical context it allows the lives of these men to be investigated and compared to the historical record with unprecedented precision. It illustrates the power of archaeological science methods to confirm, challenge and complement historical evidence.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Dieta/história , Ingestão de Energia , Militares , Escorbuto/metabolismo , Arqueologia , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia , Escorbuto/história , Escorbuto/patologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052915

RESUMO

The flanks of the Caucasus Mountains and the steppe landscape to their north offered highly productive grasslands for Bronze Age herders and their flocks of sheep, goat, and cattle. While the archaeological evidence points to a largely pastoral lifestyle, knowledge regarding the general composition of human diets and their variation across landscapes and during the different phases of the Bronze Age is still restricted. Human and animal skeletal remains from the burial mounds that dominate the archaeological landscape and their stable isotope compositions are major sources of dietary information. Here, we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data of bone collagen of 105 human and 50 animal individuals from the 5th millennium BC to the Sarmatian period, with a strong focus on the Bronze Age and its cultural units including Maykop, Yamnaya, Novotitorovskaya, North Caucasian, Catacomb, post-Catacomb and late Bronze Age groups. The samples comprise all inhumations with sufficient bone preservation from five burial mound sites and a flat grave cemetery as well as subsamples from three further sites. They represent the Caucasus Mountains in the south, the piedmont zone and Kuban steppe with humid steppe and forest vegetation to its north, and more arid regions in the Caspian steppe. The stable isotope compositions of the bone collagen of humans and animals varied across the study area and reflect regional diversity in environmental conditions and diets. The data agree with meat, milk, and/or dairy products from domesticated herbivores, especially from sheep and goats having contributed substantially to human diets, as it is common for a largely pastoral economy. This observation is also in correspondence with the faunal remains observed in the graves and offerings of animals in the mound shells. In addition, foodstuffs with elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope values, such as meat of unweaned animals, fish, or plants, also contributed to human diets, especially among communities living in the more arid landscapes. The regional distinction of the animal and human data with few outliers points to mobility radii that were largely concentrated within the environmental zones in which the respective sites are located. In general, dietary variation among the cultural entities as well as regarding age, sex and archaeologically indicated social status is only weakly reflected. There is, however, some indication for a dietary shift during the Early Bronze Age Maykop period.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Dieta/história , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Colágeno/análise , Pradaria , História Antiga , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Federação Russa
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5293, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116130

RESUMO

Pterosaurs, the first vertebrates to evolve active flight, lived between 210 and 66 million years ago. They were important components of Mesozoic ecosystems, and reconstructing pterosaur diets is vital for understanding their origins, their roles within Mesozoic food webs and the impact of other flying vertebrates (i.e. birds) on their evolution. However, pterosaur dietary hypotheses are poorly constrained as most rely on morphological-functional analogies. Here we constrain the diets of 17 pterosaur genera by applying dental microwear texture analysis to the three-dimensional sub-micrometre scale tooth textures that formed during food consumption. We reveal broad patterns of dietary diversity (e.g. Dimorphodon as a vertebrate consumer; Austriadactylus as a consumer of 'hard' invertebrates) and direct evidence of sympatric niche partitioning (Rhamphorhynchus as a piscivore; Pterodactylus as a generalist invertebrate consumer). We propose that the ancestral pterosaur diet was dominated by invertebrates and later pterosaurs evolved into piscivores and carnivores, shifts that might reflect ecological displacements due to pterosaur-bird competition.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/história , Dieta/veterinária , Ecossistema , Voo Animal , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Répteis/classificação , Répteis/fisiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/história , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 21921-21927, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839326

RESUMO

Diet provides critical information about the ecology and environment of herbivores. Hence, understanding the dietary strategies of fossil herbivores and the associated temporal changes is one aspect of inferring paleoenvironmental conditions. Here, we present carbon isotope data from more than 1,050 fossil teeth that record the dietary patterns of nine herbivore families in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (3.6 to 1.05 Ma) from the Shungura Formation, a hominin-bearing site in southwestern Ethiopia. An increasing trend toward C4 herbivory has been observed with attendant reductions in the proportions of browsers and mixed feeders through time. A high proportion of mixed feeders has been observed prior to 2.9 Ma followed by a decrease in the proportion of mixed feeders and an increase in grazers between 2.7 and 1.9 Ma, and a further increase in the proportion of grazers after 1.9 Ma. The collective herbivore fauna shows two major change points in carbon isotope values at ∼2.7 and ∼2.0 Ma. While hominin fossils from the sequence older than 2.7 Ma are attributed to Australopithecus, the shift at ∼2.7 Ma indicating the expansion of C4 grasses on the landscape was concurrent with the first appearance of Paranthropus The link between the increased C4 herbivory and more open landscapes suggests that Australopithecus lived in more wooded landscapes compared to later hominins such as Paranthropus and Homo, and has implications for key morphological and behavioral adaptations in our lineage.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Comportamento Alimentar , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Paleontologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 21978-21984, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839330

RESUMO

New approaches to the study of early hominin diets have refreshed interest in how and when our diets diverged from those of other African apes. A trend toward significant consumption of C4 foods in hominins after this divergence has emerged as a landmark event in human evolution, with direct evidence provided by stable carbon isotope studies. In this study, we report on detailed carbon isotopic evidence from the hominin fossil record of the Shungura and Usno Formations, Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia, which elucidates the patterns of C4 dietary utilization in the robust hominin Paranthropus The results show that the most important shift toward C4 foods occurred at ∼2.37 Ma, within the temporal range of the earliest known member of the genus, Paranthropus aethiopicus, and that this shift was not unique to Paranthropus but occurred in all hominins from this fossil sequence. This uptake of C4 foods by hominins occurred during a period marked by an overall trend toward increased C4 grazing by cooccurring mammalian taxa from the same sequence. However, the timing and geographic patterns of hominin diets in this region differ from those observed elsewhere in the same basin, where environmental controls on the underlying availability of various food sources were likely quite different. These results highlight the complexities of dietary responses by hominins to changes in the availability of food resources.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/história , Hominidae/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Plantas/química
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639959

RESUMO

Detailed information about the lives and deaths of children in antiquity is often in short supply. Childhood dietary histories are, however, recorded and maintained in the teeth of both juveniles and adults. Primary tooth dentinal collagen does not turn over, preserving a sequential record of dietary changes. The use of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of incrementally sampled dentin are used in the study of breastfeeding practices but evidence for the addition of weaning foods, both in terms of mode and, particularly, duration, has remained analytically inaccessible to date. Here, we demonstrate how the novel use hydrogen isotope (δ2H) values of sequentially micro-sampled dentin collagen, measured from individuals excavated from a Punic cemetery, in Sardinia, Italy, can serve as a proxy for weaning food type and duration in ancient childhood diet. The weaning rate and age, based on the decline in δ15N and δ13C values of permanent first molars and the concomitant increase in δ2H, appears to be broadly similar among six individuals. Hydrogen isotopes vary systematically from a low value soon after birth, rising through early childhood. The early post-birth values can be explained by the influence of 2H-depleted lipids from mother's breastmilk and the later δ2H rise is consistent with, among other things, a substantial portion of boiled foodstuffs, such as the higher δ2H values observed in porridge. Overall δ2H in dentin shows great promise to elucidate infant and childhood feeding practices, and especially the introduction of supplementary foods during the weaning process.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Aleitamento Materno/história , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno/análise , Dentina/química , Deutério/análise , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Desmame
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628680

RESUMO

Archaeology has yet to capitalise on the opportunities offered by bioarchaeological approaches to examine the impact of the 11th-century AD Norman Conquest of England. This study utilises an integrated multiproxy analytical approach to identify and explain changes and continuities in diet and foodways between the 10th and 13th centuries in the city of Oxford, UK. The integration of organic residue analysis of ceramics, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of human and animal bones, incremental analysis of δ13C and δ15N from human tooth dentine and palaeopathological analysis of human skeletal remains has revealed a broad pattern of increasing intensification and marketisation across various areas of economic practice, with a much lesser and more short-term impact of the Conquest on everyday lifestyles than is suggested by documentary sources. Nonetheless, isotope data indicate short-term periods of instability, particularly food insecurity, did impact individuals. Evidence of preferences for certain foodstuffs and cooking techniques documented among the elite classes were also observed among lower-status townspeople, suggesting that Anglo-Norman fashions could be adopted across the social spectrum. This study demonstrates the potential for future archaeological research to generate more nuanced understanding of the cultural impact of the Norman Conquest of England, while showcasing a method which can be used to elucidate the undocumented, everyday implications of other large-scale political events on non-elites.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Culinária/história , Dieta/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Cerâmica/análise , Feminino , Cabras , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Dente/química , Reino Unido
10.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576810

RESUMO

The NO-DO, a weekly projection of the Franco regime, created as a diffusion service of obligatory exhibition in Spanish cinemas, constitutes the greatest audiovisual historical background for the contemporary history of Spain in the 20th century. The analysis and study of these newsreels and documentaries illustrate parallel to the political and socioeconomic evolution of that time, how the process of food and nutritional transition took place. The main objective of this work was to analyse and reflect on the image that these newsreels and documentaries offered to the Spanish population on the field of nutrition and the development of the different tendencies in the diet of this period. In order to carry out this study, an extensive list of descriptors specific to the discipline of nutrition and food was drawn up so that it could serve as a tool for searching for references collected both in newsreels and in documentaries, through the web search engine of the NO-DO on-line archive that is included in the Spanish Film Library's collection. Once the search was carried out and the exclusion criteria were applied, according to the subject of the study, there were analysed a total of 169 newsreels and 5 documentaries. The analysis of the results obtained allowed a general review of this era through the process of nutritional transition that the country experienced in these decades (1943-1981).


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Alimentos/história , Filmes Cinematográficos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Sistemas Políticos , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9793-9799, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284419

RESUMO

The development of pastoralism transformed human diets and societies in grasslands worldwide. The long-term success of cattle herding in Africa has been sustained by dynamic food systems, consumption of a broad range of primary and secondary livestock products, and the evolution of lactase persistence (LP), which allows digestion of lactose into adulthood and enables the milk-based, high-protein, low-calorie diets characteristic of contemporary pastoralists. Despite the presence of multiple alleles associated with LP in ancient and present-day eastern African populations, the contexts for selection for LP and the long-term development of pastoralist foodways in this region remain unclear. Pastoral Neolithic (c 5000 to 1200 BP) faunas indicate that herders relied on cattle, sheep, and goats and some hunting, but direct information on milk consumption, plant use, and broader culinary patterns is rare. Combined chemical and isotopic analysis of ceramic sherds (n = 125) from Pastoral Neolithic archaeological contexts in Kenya and Tanzania, using compound-specific δ13C and Δ13C values of the major fatty acids, provides chemical evidence for milk, meat, and plant processing by ancient herding societies in eastern Africa. These data provide the earliest direct evidence for milk product consumption and reveal a history of reliance on animal products and other nutrients, likely extracted through soups or stews, and plant foods. They document a 5,000-y temporal framework for eastern Africa pastoralist cuisines and cultural contexts for selection for alleles distinctive of LP in eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Dieta , Análise de Alimentos/história , Leite/química , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Bovinos , Cerâmica/história , Dieta/história , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Cabras , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Lactase/química , Lactose/química , Gado , Carne/análise , Ovinos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160202

RESUMO

The El Argar society of the Bronze Age in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (2200-1550 cal BCE) was among the first complex societies in Europe. Its economy was based on cereal cultivation and metallurgy, it was organized hierarchically, and successively expanded its territory. Most of the monumentally fortified settlements lay on steeply sloped mountains, separated by fertile plains, and allowed optimal control of the area. Here, we explore El Argar human diets, animal husbandry strategies, and food webs using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of charred cereal grains as well as human and animal bone collagen. The sample comprised 75 human individuals from the sites of La Bastida (n = 52) and Gatas (n = 23), 32 domesticated and wild animals as well as 76 barley and 29 wheat grains from two chronological phases of a total time span of ca. 650 years. The grains indicate extensive cereal cultivation under rain-fed conditions with little to moderate application of manure. Especially at La Bastida, crops and their by-products contributed significantly to the forage of the domesticated animals, which attests to a strong interrelation of cultivation and animal husbandry. Trophic level spacing and Bayesian modelling confirm that human diets were largely based on barley with some contribution of meat or dairy products. A cross-sectional analysis of bone collagen suggests that children were breastfed until about 1.5-2 years old, and infants from Gatas may have suffered from more metabolic stress than those at La Bastida. Adults of both sexes consumed similar diets that reflect social and chronological variation to some extent. Despite significantly higher δ13C and δ15N values at La Bastida than at Gatas, the isotopic data of the staple crops and domestic animals from both sites indicate that such differences do not necessarily correspond to different average human diets, but to agricultural strategies. These results urge for a reassessment of previous isotope studies in which only human remains have been taken into account. The study highlights that disentangling the complex influences on human isotope compositions requires a firm set of comparative data.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/história , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 582, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953510

RESUMO

Reconstructing diet is critical to understanding hominin adaptations. Isotopic and functional morphological analyses of early hominins are compatible with consumption of hard foods, such as mechanically-protected seeds, but dental microwear analyses are not. The protective shells surrounding seeds are thought to induce complex enamel surface textures characterized by heavy pitting, but these are absent on the teeth of most early hominins. Here we report nanowear experiments showing that the hardest woody shells - the hardest tissues made by dicotyledonous plants - cause very minor damage to enamel but are themselves heavily abraded (worn) in the process. Thus, hard plant tissues do not regularly create pits on enamel surfaces despite high forces clearly being associated with their oral processing. We conclude that hard plant tissues barely influence microwear textures and the exploitation of seeds from graminoid plants such as grasses and sedges could have formed a critical element in the dietary ecology of hominins.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Hominidae/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Dente/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , História Antiga , Sementes/química , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990948

RESUMO

A multidisciplinary approach, combining stable isotope analysis from bone proteins and investigations on dental calculus using DNA analysis, light microscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, was applied to reconstruct dietary and medicinal habits of the individuals recovered in the cemetery of the Castle of Santa Severa (7th-15th centuries CE; Rome, Italy). Stable isotope analysis was performed on 120 humans, 41 faunal specimens and 8 charred seeds. Dental calculus analyses were carried out on 94 samples. Overall, isotope data indicated an omnivorous diet based on C3-terrestrial protein, although some individuals possessed carbon values indicative of C4 plant consumption. In terms of animal protein, the diet was probably based on cattle, sheep, pig and chicken products, as witnessed by the archaeozoological findings. Evidence from calculus suggested the consumption of C3 cereals, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, milk and dairy products. Secondary metabolites of herbs and wine were also detected. The detection of marine fish ancient DNA, as well as of ω3 fatty acids in calculus, hypothesized the consumption of marine foodstuffs for this coastal population, despite the lack of a clear marine isotopic signal and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in plant tissues. Moreover, the knowledge of ethnopharmacological tradition and the application of medicinal plants (e.g. Punica granatum L., Ephedra sp. L.) were also identified. The detection of artemisinin, known to have antimalarial properties, led to hypothesize the presence of malaria in the area. Altogether, the combined application of microscopy and biomolecular techniques provided an innovative reconstruction of Medieval lifeways in Central Italy.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Cemitérios , DNA Antigo/análise , Dieta/história , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , História Medieval , Humanos , Roma
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(1): 142-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A multi-isotope study was conducted on individuals buried at Skriðuklaustur monastery (AD 1493-1554) to investigate their geographic origins and dietary composition. Comparative material from individuals excavated from Skeljastaðir, an inland farm site was also analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone collagen was extracted from 50 humans (Skriðuklaustur and Skeljastaðir) and 25 animals (Skriðuklaustur) and analyzed for δ13 C, δ15 N, and δ34 S. Dental enamel samples from 31 individuals (Skriðuklaustur) were also analyzed for 87 Sr/86 Sr, δ18 O, δ13 C, and trace elements (Pb, Sr, Zn, Ba). RESULTS: The mean value determined from individuals from Skriðuklaustur (n = 36) was δ13 C = -18.7 ± 0.8‰, δ15 N = 12.8 ± 1.1‰, and δ34 S = 9.0 ± 1.6‰, whereas at Skeljastaðir (n = 14), it was δ13 C = -20.5 ± 0.8‰, δ15 N = 7.8 ± 0.9‰, and δ34 S = 9.4 ± 1.6‰. At Skriðuklaustur, human dental enamel samples (n = 31) provided a 87 Sr/86 Sr range of 0.7060-0.7088, δ18 Ophosphate from 13.9 to 16.1‰ and δ13 Ccarbonate from -16.6 to -12.9‰. Inferred drinking water (δ18 Odw ) values range from -12.3 to -8.9‰. Sr concentrations range from 25.8 to 156.7 ppm, Ba from 0.11 to 0.81 ppm, Zn from 43.8 to 145.8 ppm, and Pb from 0.13 to 9.40 ppm. DISCUSSION: A combination of results indicates that the people from Skriðuklaustur were born in Iceland, but some lived inland during childhood while others lived closer to the coast. Since Skriðuklaustur was a hospital, these individuals may have sought medical treatment at the monastery. The δ13 C and δ15 N values determined from bone collagen indicate that the people residing at Skriðuklaustur consumed a diet high in marine protein, while those residing at Skeljastaðir exhibit values more consistent with terrestrial resources.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Migração Humana/história , Arqueologia , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Islândia , Isótopos/análise , Masculino , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16658, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723157

RESUMO

Freshwater and marine fish have been important components of human diets for millennia. The Great Lakes of North America, their tributaries and smaller regional freshwater bodies are important Native American fisheries. The ethnohistorical record, zooarchaeological remains, and isotopic values on human bone and tooth collagen indicate the importance of fish in fourteenth- through seventeenth-century ancestral Wendat diets in southern Ontario, which is bordered by three of the Great Lakes. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was the primary grain of Native American agricultural systems in the centuries prior to and following sustained European presence. Here we report new Bayesian dietary mixing models using previously published δ13C and δ15N values on ancestral Wendat bone and tooth collagen and tooth enamel. The results confirm previous estimates from δ13C values that ancestral Wendat diets included high proportions of maize but indicate much higher proportions of fish than has previously been recognized. The results also suggest that terrestrial animals contributed less to ancestral Wendat diets than is typically interpreted based on zooarchaeological records.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/história , Pesqueiros/história , Peixes/fisiologia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Zea mays/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos
19.
Commun Biol ; 2: 408, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728419

RESUMO

Angiosperms and their insect pollinators form a foundational symbiosis, evidence for which from the Cretaceous is mostly indirect, based on fossils of insect taxa that today are anthophilous, and of fossil insects and flowers that have apparent anthophilous and entomophilous specializations, respectively. We present exceptional direct evidence preserved in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, 100 mya, for feeding on pollen in the eudicot genus Tricolporoidites by a basal new aculeate wasp, Prosphex anthophilos, gen. et sp. nov., in the lineage that contains the ants, bees, and other stinging wasps. Plume of hundreds of pollen grains wafts from its mouth and an apparent pollen mass was detected by micro-CT in the buccal cavity: clear evidence that the wasp was foraging on the pollen. Eudicots today comprise nearly three-quarters of all angiosperm species. Prosphex feeding on Tricolporoidites supports the hypothesis that relatively small, generalized insect anthophiles were important pollinators of early angiosperms.


Assuntos
Pólen , Vespas/fisiologia , Âmbar/história , Animais , Dieta/história , Fósseis , História Antiga , Magnoliopsida/ultraestrutura , Mianmar , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Polinização/fisiologia , Preservação Biológica , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/classificação , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(39): 19380-19385, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501337

RESUMO

Food and diet were class markers in 19th-century Ireland, which became evident as nearly 1 million people, primarily the poor and destitute, died as a consequence of the notorious Great Famine of 1845 to 1852. Famine took hold after a blight (Phytophthora infestans) destroyed virtually the only means of subsistence-the potato crop-for a significant proportion of the population. This study seeks to elucidate the variability of diet in mid-19th-century Ireland through microparticle and proteomic analysis of human dental calculus samples (n = 42) from victims of the famine. The samples derive from remains of people who died between August 1847 and March 1851 while receiving poor relief as inmates in the union workhouse in the city of Kilkenny (52°39' N, -7°15' W). The results corroborate the historical accounts of food provisions before and during the famine, with evidence of corn (maize), potato, and cereal starch granules from the microparticle analysis and milk protein from the proteomic analysis. Unexpectedly, there is also evidence of egg protein-a food source generally reserved only for export and the better-off social classes-which highlights the variability of the prefamine experience for those who died. Through historical contextualization, this study shows how the notoriously monotonous potato diet of the poor was opportunistically supplemented by other foodstuffs. While the Great Irish Famine was one of the worst subsistence crises in history, it was foremost a social disaster induced by the lack of access to food and not the lack of food availability.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários/química , Dieta/história , Fome Epidêmica/história , Pobreza/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálculos Dentários/história , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/história , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/história , Feminino , Fósseis , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...