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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18323, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. PCOS has a significant negative impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological function of women, of which there are reports of high levels of depression in women with PCOS compared to those without PCOS. However, the evidence surrounding the effects of exercise and/or dietary intervention participation on the HRQoL of women with PCOS is limited. Therefore, our objective is to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions (definition include exercise-only, diet-only, exercise + diet and behavioral or combined) on health-related quality of life or general quality of life in women with PCOS. METHODS: We will conduct an update of systematic review and we will follow the recommendations and guidelines of the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P). We will search the studies in the following databases: MEDLINE. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, Cochrane Database (via Cochrane library), Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), and Google Scholar (advance). Manual search of the reference list of identified works, without language and year restrictions. The process of study selection and data extraction will be performed independently by 2 reviewers, with a third reviewer being responsible for the final decision in case of disagreement between the first two. We will use Egger funnel chart to evaluate possible publication biases, in addition, when possible we will perform a subgroup/meta-regression analysis. The strength of the evidence will be assessed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). PROTOCOL REGISTRY: PROSPERO number: CRD42019124176.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metanálise como Assunto , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1457, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary pattern for reducing the extent of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been well established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary patterns and adherence to WHO healthy diet in children and adolescents and their associations with MetS. METHODS: Subjects of this cohort study were selected from among children and adolescents of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants, aged 6-18 years (n = 424). Dietary measurements were collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined as the existence of at least 3 risk factors according to the Cook criteria. Diet was assessed based on dietary components of the WHO healthy diet. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of participants (42% boys and 57% girls) was 13.5 ± 3.7 years. The most consistency with the WHO healthy diet was observed for cholesterol, free sugar and protein consumption in both genders, and the least was for n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, trans-fatty acid and salt. Intake of SFA up to 12% of energy intake (third quartile) reduced the risk of MetS, compared to the first quartile. Subjects in the third quartile of n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid intake (6.2% of energy) showed the lowest odds ratio of MetS compared to the first quartile (OR: 0.18, CI: 0.04-0.66). In the adjusted model, the risk of MetS reduced across quartiles of MUFA intake by 60% (OR: 1, 0.40, 0.40, 0.42; P trend = 0.05). No significant trends were observed in the risk of MetS components across quartiles of the WHO healthy diet components. Three major dietary patterns were identified, the healthy, unhealthy and cereal/meat. An increased risk of MetS was observed in the highest quartile of unhealthy dietary pattern score compared to the lowest quartile (OR: 1, 0.81, 0.93, 2.49; P trend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the majority of our population did not meet some components of WHO healthy diet recommendations. The quality and quantity of fatty acid intakes were associated with risk of MetS. Adherence to unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with two-fold increase in MetS risk.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Política Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
3.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 180(4): 264-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding baked food into the diets of patients with cow's milk allergy (MA) and hen's egg allergy (EA) has several benefits. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine baked and unbaked food tolerance and evaluate the effectiveness of laboratory findings on the prediction of baked and unbaked food tolerance in patients with MA and EA. METHODS: Clinical outcomes of the patients with MA and EA who had been exposed to oral food challenge with baked food were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were evaluated. The median age of the study group was 22 months. Forty-nine and 42 patients had IgE-mediated MA and EA, respectively. While all patients with EA tolerated baked egg, 24.5% patients with MA could not tolerate baked cow's milk (BM). In patients with MA, BM tolerance showed negative association with milk-specific IgE, skin prick test (SPT), and prick-to-prick test (PTP), and the PTP was the most significant parameter (sensitivity 83.8%, specificity 91.7% for PTP ≤7 mm). Negative association was seen between milk-specific IgE, SPT, PTP, and unbaked milk (UBM) tolerance, and PTP was the most significant parameter (sensitivity 100%, specificity 55% for PTP ≤4 mm). In patients with EA, at the end of 6 months of baked hen's egg (BE) consumption, scrambled egg tolerance showed negative association with egg white-specific IgE level, egg white SPT and PTP. Egg white PTP was the most significant parameter (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 96.0% for PTP ≤5 mm). CONCLUSION: Specific-IgE, SPT, and PTP should be kept in mind as parameters that can be used to predict tolerance to BM and BE for patients with MA and EA.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Culinária/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/patologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/patologia , Animais , Galinhas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 887-893, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599256

RESUMO

Severe malnutrition is an important cause of death in children. According to new WHO-growth chart 2006, the proportion of children with severe wasting is 3.1% thus the total number being 4, 65000 (BDHS 2014). Overall risk of death among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is 9 times more than well nourished children. The death rate among hospitalized children of SAM was as high as 15%. Once properly treated, severely malnourished children would grow up leading a normal life. Severe malnutrition in children can be successfully treated by using WHO guidelines that have been shown to be feasible and sustainable even in small district hospital with limited resources. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2014 to September 2015. The trial enrolled 92 SAM patients (46 cases + 46 controls) aged 06 months to 59 months of either sex who meet the inclusion criteria consecutively. Enrolled children were randomized by lottery method into two groups, Group I and Group II. Patients in Group I was treated with F-75 and F-100 recipes and managed in two phases, initial stabilization phase with F-75 recipes then subsequently rehabilitation phase by F-100 recipes. Patients in Group II was treated with prepackaged F-75 & F-100 formulae and feeding was given in two phases i.e. initial stabilization phase and subsequently rehabilitation phase according to national guidelines for the management of severe malnourished children. Then play therapy was given for half an hour daily with red colored toy in Ashic play centre Dhaka Medical College Hospital for patients of both groups. The time (days) taken to return of appetite (mean±SD) was 5.1±1.16 and 4.8±1.34 in Group I and Group II respectively, disappearance of edema (mean±SD) 4.8±1.53 in and 4.9±1.05 for Group I Group II respectively, to gain target weight (mean±SD) 13.8±2.20 days and 13.5±1.74 days in Group I and Group II respectively, rate of weight gain (mean±SD) 17.70±7.07gm/kg/day for Group I and 16.20±4.63gm/kg/day for Group II. The side effects, diarrhea was equal in both group, vomiting was more in Group II, combined diarrhea and vomiting was more in Group I but the differences were not statistically significant. The treatment cost (mean±SD) was higher in Group II (97.2±78.24 BDT/child/day) than in Group I (58.5±54.36 BDT/child/day). Return of appetite and disappearance of oedema and target weight gain were similar in both groups but treatment cost was higher in Group II than Group I, which was statistically significant.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Bangladesh , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Humanos , Lactente , Ganho de Peso
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5231-5259, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men which remains a global public health issue. Treatment of prostate cancer is becoming increasingly intensive and aggressive, with a corresponding increase in resistance, toxicity and side effects. This has revived an interest in nontoxic and cost-effective preventive strategies including dietary compounds due to the multiple effects they have been shown to have in various oncogenic signalling pathways, with relatively few significant adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify such dietary components and micronutrients and define their prostate cancer-specific actions, we systematically reviewed the current literature for the pertinent mechanisms of action and effects on the modulation of prostate carcinogenesis, along with relevant updates from epidemiological and clinical studies. RESULTS: Evidence from various recent experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that select dietary micronutrients (i.e., lycopene, epigallocatechin gallate, sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol, resveratrol, quercetin, curcumin & piperine) and zinc play a key role in prostate cancer prevention and progression and therefore hold great promise for the future overall management of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: A formulation that comprises these micronutrients using the optimal, safest form and dosing should be investigated in future prostate cancer chemoprevention studies and as part of standard prostate cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Animais , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17528, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has shown beneficial effects on the lipid profile and inflammatory parameters in general population. Our goal is to analyze these changes together with those of intestinal microbiota in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients over 50 years of age. METHODS: Experimental single arm open study. HIV patients over the age of 50 with undetectable viral load were selected. EVOO was distributed among the patients so that each one consumed 50 g daily for 12 weeks. Lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), and intestinal microbiota composition were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Total cholesterol decreased significantly (5 mg/dL), and a nonsignificant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (12 mg/dL), triglycerides (21 mg/dL), and CRP (1.25 mg/dL) was observed. There was a significant increase in alpha diversity after the intervention in men and a decrease in proinflammatory genera such as Dethiosulfovibrionaceae was observed. Differences were also observed in the microbiota of men and women and according to the type of antiretroviral treatment. CONCLUSION: Sustained consumption of 50 g of EVOO in elderly HIV-infected patients might be associated with an improvement in lipid profile and alfa diversity of intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1145, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home gardens have been found to improve food security and dietary diversity in a wide range of settings. However, there is a need to place home gardens within the larger food and nutrition system landscapes that shape the construction of household diets. Myanmar offers a unique opportunity to study these research questions, given the decades of political isolation, high levels of food insecurity and poor nutrition levels. METHODS: The aim of our paper is to use household survey data from three distinctive agro-ecological settings in rural Myanmar to empirically analyse the role of home gardens in influencing household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Our analysis is based on unique survey data conducted in rural Myanmar. The sample includes 3230 rural households from three States/Districts (Magway, Ayeyarwady and Chin). Using information on two dimensions of food security, a series of variables capturing a household's self-reported food security status and coping strategies when food is not available; and a measure of household's dietary diversity based on 24-h recall data, we empirically estimate a household's probability of being food insecure and the diversity of their diets. RESULTS: There are statistically significant associations between access to home gardens and measures of food security and improved dietary diversity. In particular, for landless households, the ownership of home gardens/ fruits and vines is statistically significant and is associated with a 6.6 percentage points lower probability of a household having to change their diet, and a 7.9 percentage points lower probability of being in hunger. CONCLUSIONS: From a policy perspective, our results show that promoting home gardens among vulnerable households can improve food security and dietary diversity among vulnerable rural households in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Jardinagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1115-1124, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466151

RESUMO

Sulfur is a key nutrient in swine diets and is associated with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, odor, and respiratory distress of animals. Due to potential increases in S levels in swine diets by using alternative feedstuffs, a feeding trial study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary S source has on manure slurry chemical properties and gas emissions. A total of 24 gilts averaging 139 kg BW were fed a control diet formulated with corn and soybean meal (CSBM) containing 1.80 g S kg-1 or diets containing 3.50 g S kg-1 feed as supplied by calcium sulfate (CaSO4), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or feather meal (CFM). Diets were fed for 41 d with an ADFI of 2.70 kg/d. Feces and urine were collected twice daily after each feeding and added to the manure storage containers. At the end of the study, manure slurries were monitored for gas emissions and chemical properties. Dietary S source had a significant effect on excretion of DM, C, N, and S in manure. Pigs fed the diets containing DDGS had significantly higher levels of NH3, VFAs, and phenols in manure compared to pigs fed the CSBM diet. Pigs fed diets with organic S (i.e., DDGS and CFM) had lower emissions of H2S compared to pigs fed the diet with inorganic sulfur (CaSO4). In contrast, there were no significant differences in C or N emissions as affected by dietary treatment. Odor and odorant emissions differed by dietary treatment, with pigs fed the CFM diet having the highest odor emissions as compared to pigs fed the control CSBM diet. Pigs fed diets containing CFM and DDGS had a greater percentage of their chemical odor associated with volatile organic compounds while animals fed the CSBM diet or the diet with CaSO4 had greater percentage associated with H2S emissions.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Enxofre/análise , Ração Animal , Animais , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Sus scrofa , Suínos
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 58, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficacious strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among youth are needed. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based youth empowerment intervention to reduce SSB consumption and obesity risk among a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of youth. METHODS: The H2GO! intervention was pilot-tested in an afterschool setting (Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC)) in Massachusetts, USA. One site was randomized to receive the intervention; the other site received standard programming. Youth ages 9-12 years and their parents/caregivers were eligible to participate. A total of N = 110 parent-child pairs (N = 55 parent-child pairs per site) were recruited. The 6-week intervention consisted of group-based weekly sessions delivered by trained BGC staff and youth-led activities that engaged parents. Child outcomes included self-reported SSB and water intake and measured body mass index z scores (zBMI). Parent outcomes included self-reported SSB and water intake, SSB purchasing, and availability of SSBs at home. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate intervention effects over time. RESULTS: The final analytic study sample consisted of 100 child participants (38% Black, 20% Hispanic, 13% White, 12% Multiracial, 11% Asian) and 87 parent participants (78.2% female; 78.2% reporting eligibility for the free-or-reduced price lunch program). 6-month retention rates were ≥ 82%. Intervention attendance rates among intervention child participants (N = 51) averaged 78.1% (SD = 10.3). Over half (56.0%) of child participants were overweight or obese at baseline. Relative to the comparison site, intervention site child participants had decreased SSB intake (ß = - 1.64; 95% CI: 2.52, - 0.76), increased water intake (ß = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.38, 2.23), and decreased zBMI (- 0.23 units; 95% CI: - 0.31, - 0.14) over 6 months (p < 0.001). Intervention parent participants also reported decreased SSB intake (ß = - 1.76; 95% CI: - 2.56, - 0.96) and increased water intake (ß = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40) than comparison parent participants at 6 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate the potential of a youth empowerment intervention on reducing SSB intake and zBMI among a diverse sample. Findings will guide a larger cluster-randomized controlled trial to test intervention efficacy on preventing childhood obesity, as well as inform future interventions that aim to target additional diet and physical activity behaviors through youth empowerment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02890056 . Registered 31 August 2016.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Promoção da Saúde , Criança , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 800-807, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412483

RESUMO

Sulfur is an essential nutrient for animal growth but is also associated with odor and morbidity of animals from swine operations. A study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing dietary S levels in swine diets on DM, pH, C, N, S, VFA, indole, and phenol concentrations in the manure, and on the emissions of C-, N-, and S-containing gases. A total of 24 gilts averaging 152 kg BW were fed diets containing 0.19, 0.30, 0.43, or 0.64% dietary S, as supplied by CaSO4, for 31 d, with an ADFI of 3.034 kg d-1. Feces and urine were collected after each feeding and added to manure storage containers. At the end of the study, manure slurries were monitored for gas emissions and chemical properties. Increasing dietary S lowered manure pH by 0.3 units and increased DM, N, and S by 10% for each 1.0 g S increase kg-1 feed intake. Increased dietary S increased NH3, sulfide, butanoic, and pentanoic acid concentrations in manure. Carbon and N emissions were not significantly impacted by dietary S, but S emissions in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) increased by 8% for each 1.0 g S increase kg-1 feed intake. Odor increased by 2% for each 1.0 g increase of S consumed kg-1 feed intake. Phenolic compounds and H2S were the major odorants emitted from manure that increased with increasing dietary S.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta/métodos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Enxofre/análise , Animais , Esterco/análise , Suínos
12.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up-to-date dietary data are required to understand the diverse nutritional challenges of pregnant women living in low-middle income countries (LMIC). To that end, dietary data were collected from 1st trimester pregnant women in rural areas of Guatemala, India, Pakistan, and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) participating in a maternal lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) Randomized Controlled Trial to examine dietary diversity (DD), usual group energy and nutrient intakes, and prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes. METHODS: Two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted in ~240 pregnant women/site (total n = 966) prior to 12-week gestation. Adequate DD was assessed, i.e., ≥5 major food groups consumed within the past 24 h. Median, Q1, Q3 intakes (without LNS) of energy, macronutrients, 12 micronutrients, and phytate were examined. The "at risk" prevalence of inadequate intakes were based on international guidelines for pregnant women. RESULTS: Dietary patterns varied widely among sites, with adequate DD reported: 20% (Pakistan), 25% (DRC), 50% (Guatemala), and 70% (India). Significantly higher intakes of most key nutrients were observed in participants with adequate DD. More than 80% of women in all sites had inadequate intakes of folate, vitamin B12, and choline, and >80% of women in India and DRC also had inadequate intakes of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B6. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the likely need for micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy, specifically multi-micronutrient interventions, and support the value of increasing DD as part of sustainable long-term nutrition programs for women of reproductive age in these poor rural settings in LMIC.


Assuntos
Dieta , Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Índia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Pobreza , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/dietoterapia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(3): 145-150, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325297

RESUMO

Truck drivers are at increased risk of diet- and physical activity-related chronic diseases. Despite this, there is a paucity of data about Australian truck drivers' diet and physical activity behaviors. A multiple choice and short response survey was distributed to truck drivers attending an Australian Truck Show. The survey asked about self-reported health, source of health information, number of serves of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy food, and sugary drink consumed per day, and frequency of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. The survey was completed by 231 truck drivers---almost all were male, with a mean age of 46 (range 20 to 71) years. Over 85% of survey respondents worked more than 9 hrs per day. Nearly 75% acknowledged the need to make changes to improve their health. Half consumed fewer serves of fruit and 88% consumed fewer serves of vegetables than national recommendations. Over 63% consumed at least one serve of unhealthy foods per day, and 65% drank at least one can of sugary drink per day. Most (80%) undertook less than moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity levels provided in national recommendations. Of concern, almost 90% of drivers had above the recommended body mass index---approximately 60% were obese. This is almost double the proportion found in the general population. These findings highlight the importance of health promotion to help drivers make better choices about their health behaviors, which are often underpinned by the limitations of their work environment. Health promotion in transport industry workplaces should be an important topic for future research.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Queensland/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195630

RESUMO

The population of older adults is growing globally. This increase has led to an accumulation of chronic illnesses, so-called age-related diseases. Diet and nutrition are considered the main drivers of the global burden of diseases, and this situation applies especially to this population segment. It relates directly to the development of coronary heart disease, hypertension, some types of cancer, and type 2 diabetes, among other diseases, while age-associated changes in body composition (bone and muscle mass, fat, sarcopenia) constitute risk factors for functional limitations affecting health status and the quality of life. Older adults present eating and swallowing problems, dry mouth, taste loss, and anorexia among other problems causing "anorexia of aging" that affects their nutritional status. The strategies to overcome these situations are described in this study. The impact of oral food processing on nutrition is discussed, as well as approaches to improve food acceptance through the design of innovative foods. These foods should supply a growing demand as this group represents an increasing segment of the consumer market globally, whose needs must be fulfilled.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Dieta/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anorexia/dietoterapia , Anorexia/etiologia , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/dietoterapia , Sarcopenia/etiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208042

RESUMO

Dietary sulfur amino acid restriction, also referred to as methionine restriction, increases food intake and energy expenditure and alters body composition in rodents, resulting in improved metabolic health and a longer lifespan. Among the known nutrient-responsive signaling pathways, the evolutionary conserved integrated stress response (ISR) is a lesser-understood candidate in mediating the hormetic effects of dietary sulfur amino acid restriction (SAAR). A key feature of the ISR is the concept that a family of protein kinases phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), dampening general protein synthesis to conserve cellular resources. This slowed translation simultaneously allows for preferential translation of genes with special sequence features in the 5' leader. Among this class of mRNAs is activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), an orchestrator of transcriptional control during nutrient stress. Several ATF4 gene targets help execute key processes affected by SAAR such as lipid metabolism, the transsulfuration pathway, and antioxidant defenses. Exploration of the canonical ISR demonstrates that eIF2 phosphorylation is not necessary for ATF4-driven changes in the transcriptome during SAAR. Additional research is needed to clarify the regulation of ATF4 and its gene targets during SAAR.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/deficiência , Dieta/métodos , Metionina/deficiência , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208133

RESUMO

Growing evidence support association between polyphenol intake and reduced risk for chronic diseases, even if there is a broad debate about the effective amount of polyphenols able to exert such protective effect. The present systematic review provides an overview of the last 10-year literature on the evaluation of polyphenol intake and its association with specific disease markers and/or endpoints. An estimation of the mean total polyphenol intake has been performed despite the large heterogeneity of data reviewed. In addition, the contribution of dietary sources was considered, suggesting tea, coffee, red wine, fruit and vegetables as the main products providing polyphenols. Total flavonoids and specific subclasses, but not total polyphenols, have been apparently associated with a low risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, large variability in terms of methods for the evaluation and quantification of polyphenol intake, markers and endpoints considered, makes it still difficult to establish an evidence-based reference intake for the whole class and subclass of compounds. Nevertheless, the critical mass of data available seem to strongly suggest the protective effect of a polyphenol-rich dietary pattern even if further well targeted and methodologically sound research should be encouraged in order to define specific recommendations.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos
17.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208151

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a growing healthcare problem. Identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of COPD is urgent, and the scientific community has begun to pay close attention to diet as an integral part of COPD management, from prevention to treatment. This review summarizes the evidence from observational and clinical studies regarding the impact of nutrients and dietary patterns on lung function and COPD development, progression, and outcomes, with highlights on potential mechanisms of action. Several dietary options can be considered in terms of COPD prevention and/or progression. Although definitive data are lacking, the available scientific evidence indicates that some foods and nutrients, especially those nutraceuticals endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and when consumed in combinations in the form of balanced dietary patterns, are associated with better pulmonary function, less lung function decline, and reduced risk of COPD. Knowledge of dietary influences on COPD may provide health professionals with an evidence-based lifestyle approach to better counsel patients toward improved pulmonary health.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/dietoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 214-222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the bioavailability and biological incorporation of nonheme iron from staple food diets in healthy young urban Chinese women and determined the relevant effects of typical regional patterns of staple foods in South and North China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two young urban Chinese women aged 20-23 years were enrolled and randomly allocated to two groups, with rice (rice group) and steamed buns (steamed buns group) as the staple food, respectively. Each participant received three meals daily containing approximately 3.25 mg of stable 57FeSO4 for 2 consecutive days, along with daily intravenous injection of approximately 2.0 mg of 58FeSO4. Nonheme iron absorption and infused iron incorporation rates were assayed. RESULTS: In all participants, the rice group, and the buns group, nonheme iron intake was 7.2±1.6, 5.9±0.6, and 8.4±1.2 mg, respectively; mean 57FeSO4 absorption rate was 22.2%±9.6%, 22.2%±10.6%, and 22.2%±8.9%, respectively; and the mean infused 58FeSO4 incorporation rate was 91.6%±8.2%, 93%±7.3%, and 90%±9.1%, respectively. No substantial differences existed in the nonheme iron intakes and the 57FeSO4 absorption and 58FeSO4 incorporation rates between the rice and buns groups (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The bioavailability and incorporation rates of nonheme iron from representative comprehensive Chinese diets in healthy young urban Chinese women were evaluated. Our results can facilitate the establishment of dietary reference intake for iron in Chinese women.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Ferro na Dieta/metabolismo , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Feminino , Humanos , Ferroproteínas não Heme/metabolismo , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 260-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oats contain antioxidant phytochemicals that may help reduce inflammation as well as oxidative stress. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of oat porridge consumption on inflammatory marker levels and oxidative stress in Thai adults with high blood lipid levels. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A randomized crossover study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemic adults were randomly assigned to a 4-week daily consumption of oat or rice porridge. After 4 weeks, they were switched to alternate intervention arms for 4 weeks. At baseline, before and after each intervention period, inflammatory markers including hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1 and antioxidant status markers including ORAC, FRAP, and MDA of all subjects were measured. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, levels of hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were significantly decreased after oat porridge consumption (mean change: -0.6±0.9 mg/L, -26.9±27.6 pg/mL, -56.3±27.6 pg/mL, and - 9.7±11.6 pg/mL, p<0.05 for all, respectively). In addition, consumption of oat porridge also increased antioxidant capacity; ORAC and FRAP levels (mean change: 2.7±1.0 µmol of Trolox/L and 2.4±0.8 µmol of Fe2+/L, p<0.001, respectively). However, MCP-1 and MDA levels were not affected. Consumption of rice porridge did not lead to significant changes in these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of 70 grams oat porridge containing 3 grams ß-glucan for 4 weeks may help reduce markers of inflammation and oxidation in hypercholesterolemic adults. Therefore, oat may be an appropriate dietary recommendation for individuals with hypercholesterolemia.


Assuntos
Avena , Dieta/métodos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
20.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 266-275, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The association between black-colored foods (black foods) such as black beans, known for their high antioxidant capacity, and the prevention of metabolic diseases has been explored, but not in a large population. Therefore, this study examined relationships between the consumption of black foods and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Data from 9,499 40-65-year old subjects (3,675 men and 5,824 women) from the 2010-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in the analysis. Black food consumption was estimated using 24-h dietary recall data, and analyses were performed according to black food consumer and non-consumer groups. RESULTS: The average total consumption of black foods was higher in women than men. The total black food consumer group in women had a 24% reduced risk of abdominal obesity than the non-consumer group (p=0.007). Furthermore, waist circumference decreased significantly with an increase in total black food consumption in women. High consumption of total black foods and black beans reduced the risk of abdominal obesity by 26% (p for trend=0.012) and 29% (p for trend=0.003) compared with no consumption. No risk factors for metabolic syndrome were associated with black food consumption in men. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, black foods, including black beans, may have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome components, especially abdominal obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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