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1.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872374

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is causing global mortality and lockdown burdens. A compromised immune system is a known risk factor for all viral influenza infections. Functional foods optimize the immune system capacity to prevent and control pathogenic viral infections, while physical activity augments such protective benefits. Exercise enhances innate and adaptive immune systems through acute, transient, and long-term adaptations to physical activity in a dose-response relationship. Functional foods prevention of non-communicable disease can be translated into protecting against respiratory viral infections and COVID-19. Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper. Foods with antiviral properties include fruits, vegetables, fermented foods and probiotics, olive oil, fish, nuts and seeds, herbs, roots, fungi, amino acids, peptides, and cyclotides. Regular moderate exercise may contribute to reduce viral risk and enhance sleep quality during quarantine, in combination with appropriate dietary habits and functional foods. Lifestyle and appropriate nutrition with functional compounds may offer further antiviral approaches for public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Exercício Físico , Alimento Funcional , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets adapted for various reasons that may include religious, ethical, and health considerations have reasonable health benefits including weight loss, and favorable metabolic changes. However, studies that assessed health benefits associated with vegan diet practices during the Ethiopian Orthodox Christian (EOC) Lenten fasting remains limited. This study has, therefore, assessed how short-term vegan diet associated with metabolic traits, including weight, body mass index (BMI), circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), through longitudinal cross-sectional study design. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects (34 females and 41 males) with a mean age of [+SD] 27.3 + 5.8 years (range, 18 and 35) took part in the study. The study followed three assessment sessions: at baseline, during the Lenten (week 7), and 7 weeks after the end of the Lenten (week 14). An automatic chemistry analyzer (Mindray, BE-2000, China) used for lipid profile analysis. We used paired sample t-test in pre and post-performance and repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment between time points. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The EOC fasting with vegan diet induced significantly lower blood pressure, weight, BMI, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC: HDL-C ratios, during Lenten (that is vegan diet consumption), but a regain noted in these parameters 7-weeks after Lenten (that is omnivore diet). On gender differences, vegan diet associated with significantly lower blood pressure, TC, and LDL-C in females compared with age-matched male counterparts. Some methodological limitations of this study are discussed with particular reference to lack of a randomized control group and self-reported data that limit this study in establishing a causal relationship through observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: Vegan diet consumption even for short period corroborate ideal metabolic traits, with more favorable changes noted in women than age-matched men counterparts. These findings might help to define vegetarian diets as part of religious fasting (beyond its spiritual goals) as a non-pharmacological prescription in different populations, and our findings add to growing evidence in these subjects.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Vegana/métodos , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Vegetariana , Etiópia , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 725-734, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821049

RESUMO

The prognosis for phenylketonuria (PKU) has been improved by neonatal screening and dietary management via a low-phenylalanine diet. This treatment must be followed throughout life, which induces severe compliance problems. Drug treatment with sapropterin (or BH4) has come to help a reduced percentage of patients who respond to this drug. A subcutaneous enzyme therapy is available in the USA and has obtained European marketing authorization, but generates significant side effects, which limits its effectiveness. New therapeutic options for PKU are currently being developed, in particular gene therapy. The purpose of this article is to take stock of the pathophysiology and the various new therapeutic modalities currently in development.


Assuntos
Dieta , Terapia Genética , Fenilcetonúrias/terapia , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/uso terapêutico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Terapia Genética/tendências , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Prognóstico , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
4.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(2): 207-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674226

RESUMO

Pandemics have shaped humanity over and over again, but the coronavirus outbreak of 2019-2020 is in a world at the tipping point of catastrophic climate change. Its origins and distinction derive from over-population with inequity and an industrial revolution since the 17th century which has exploited fossil fuels as a globalised energy source, a period now described as the anthropocene. Asymptotic ecosystem loss and dysfunction, for people whose being is socioecological, makes ultimate survival tenuous. Microbial forms of life jump species when habitats are destroyed, or their host misused. Our innate immunity depends on our general health and fitness- social, mental, physical, and nutritional, in step with nature and its rhythms through walking in it, enjoying sunlight and sleep. Biodiversity and the associated benefit of food variety, after being breast-fed, is the key descriptor of a healthful, sustainable, accessible, and acceptable way of eating. How this pattern might contribute to our resilience in the face of a highly transmissible and biologically evasive virus is becoming clear. It may also be possible to compliment usefully preventive vaccination and therapeutic healthcare and rehabilitation through a greater understanding of our nutritional biology.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1073, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylmercury contamination of the environment represents a substantial environmental health concern. Human exposure to methylmercury occurs primarily through consumption of fish and marine mammals. Heavily exposed subgroups include sport or subsistence fishers residing in Arctic communities. We aimed to estimate the association of fish/whale consumption patterns of Canadian Arctic subsistence fishers with the internal dose of methylmercury as measured in hair. METHODS: This research was conducted within ongoing community projects led by the CANHelp Working Group in Aklavik and Fort McPherson, Northwest Territories and Old Crow, Yukon. We interviewed each participant using a fish-focused food-frequency questionnaire during September-November 2016 and collected hair samples concurrently. Methylmercury was measured in the full-length of each hair sample using gas chromatography inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression estimated beta-coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of fish/whale consumption on hair-methylmercury concentrations. RESULTS: Among 101 participants who provided hair samples and diet data, the mean number of fish/whale species eaten was 3.5 (SD:1.9). The mean hair-methylmercury concentration was 0.60 µg/g (SD:0.47). Fish/whale consumption was positively associated with hair-methylmercury concentration, after adjusting for sex, hair length and use of permanent hair treatments. Hair-methylmercury concentrations among participants who consumed the most fish/whale in each season ranged from 0.30-0.50 µg/g higher than those who consumed < 1 meal/week. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of Canadian Arctic subsistence fishers, hair-methylmercury concentration increased with fish/whale consumption, but the maximum concentrations were below Health Canada's 6.0 µg/g threshold for safe exposure.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cabelo/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Territórios do Noroeste , Estações do Ano , Baleias , Yukon
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1067, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) releases particulate matter (PM) into the ambient air. Human exposure to PM has been reported to induce adverse effects on cardiovascular health. However, the impact of PM on the cardiovascular health of e-waste recyclers in Ghana has not been studied. Although intake of micronutrient-rich diet is known to modify these PM-induced adverse health effects, no data are available on the relationship between micronutrient status of e-waste recyclers and the reported high-level exposure to PM. We therefore investigated whether the intake of micronutrient-rich diets ameliorates the adverse effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 on blood pressure (BP). METHODS: This study was conducted among e-waste and non-e-waste recyclers from March 2017 to October 2018. Dietary micronutrient (Fe, Ca, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cu) intake was assessed using a 2-day 24-h recall. Breathing zone PM2.5 was measured with a real-time monitor. Cardiovascular indices such as systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) were measured using a sphygmomanometer. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to estimate the joint effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary micronutrient intake on cardiovascular health outcomes. RESULTS: Fe was consumed in adequate quantities, while Ca, Se, Zn, Mg, and Cu were inadequately consumed among e-waste and non-e-waste recyclers. Dietary Ca, and Fe intake was associated with reduced SBP and PP of e-waste recyclers. Although PM2.5 levels were higher in e-waste recyclers, exposures in the control group also exceeded the WHO 24-h guideline value (25 µg/m3). Exposure to 1 µg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with an increased heart rate (HR) among e-waste recyclers. Dietary Fe intake was associated with a reduction in systolic blood pressure levels of e-waste recyclers after PM exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent adequate dietary Fe intake was associated with reduced effects of PM2.5 on SBP of e-waste recyclers overtime. Nonetheless, given that all other micronutrients are necessary in ameliorating the adverse effects of PM on cardiovascular health, nutrition-related policy dialogues are required. Such initiatives would help educate informal e-waste recyclers and the general population on specific nutrients of concern and their impact on the exposure to ambient air pollutants.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/métodos , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530969

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is among the most prevalent diseases in the world, affecting over 420 million people. The disease is marked by a poor metabolic effect of insulin leading to chronic hyperglycaemia, which can result in microvascular complications. It is widely known that postprandial glycaemia is reliant on the total carbohydrate content of a meal. However, the importance of the amount and the source of these carbohydrates remains controversial due to mechanisms other than insulin secretion. Oxidative stress, inflammation, pyruvate production and the quality of the intestinal microbiota, resulting in plasma lipopolysaccharides and short-chain fatty acids production, play an important role in blood sugar control and consequently in type 2 diabetes. Thus, we systematically reviewed the preclinical evidences on the impact of the amount and type of carbohydrate found in different diets and its influence on blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. We used a comprehensive and structured search in biomedical databases Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Web of Science, recovering and analyzing 27 original studies. Results showed that sucrose-rich diets deteriorated diabetic condition in animal models regardless of the total dietary carbohydrate content. On the other hand, fiber, particularly resistant starch, improved blood glucose parameters through direct and indirect mechanisms, such as delayed gastric emptying and improved gut microbiota. All studies used rodents as animal models and male animals were preferred over females. Improvements in T2DM parameters in animal models were more closely related to the type of dietary carbohydrate than to its content on a diet, i. e., resistant starch seems to be the most beneficial source for maintaining normoglycemia. Results show that current literature is at high risk of bias due to neglecting experimental methods.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502191

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) isotopic discrimination (i.e. the difference in natural 15N abundance between the animal proteins and the diet; Δ15N) is known to correlate with N use efficiency (NUE) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in ruminants. However, results from the literature are not always consistent across studies, likely due to isotopic discrimination pathways that may differ with the nature of diets. The objective of the present study was to assess at which level, from rumen to tissues, Δ15N originates and becomes related to NUE and FCE in fattening yearling bulls when they are fed two contrasted diets. Twenty-four Charolais yearling bulls were randomly divided into two groups and fed during 8 months, from weaning to slaughter, either 1) a high starch diet based on corn silage supplying a balanced N to energy ratio at the rumen level (starch) or 2) a high fiber diet based on grass silage supplying an excess of rumen degradable N (fiber). All animals were slaughtered and samples of different digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, ileal and fecal contents), animal tissues (duodenum, liver and muscle), blood and urine were collected for each animal. Ruminal content was further used to isolate liquid-associated bacteria (LAB), protozoa and free ammonia, while plasma proteins were obtained from blood. All samples along with feed were analyzed for their N isotopic composition. For both diets, the digestive contribution (i.e. the N isotopic discrimination occurring before absorption) to the Δ15N observed in animal tissues accounted for 65 ± 11%, leaving only one third to the contribution of post-absorptive metabolism. Concerning the Δ15N in digestive pools, the majority of these changes occurred in the rumen (av. Δ15N = 2.12 ± 0.66‰), with only minor 15N enrichments thereafter (av. Δ15N = 2.24 ± 0.41‰), highlighting the key role of the rumen on N isotopic discrimination. A strong, significant overall relationship (n = 24) between Δ15N and FCE or NUE was found when using any post-absorptive metabolic pool (duodenum, liver, or muscle tissues, or plasma proteins; 0.52 < r < 0.73; P ≤ 0.01), probably as these pools reflect both digestive and post-absorptive metabolic phenomena. Fiber diet compared to starch diet had a lower feed efficiency and promoted higher (P ≤ 0.05) Δ15N values across all post-absorptive metabolic pools and some digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, and ileal contents). The within-diet relationship (n = 12) between Δ15N and feed efficiency was not as strong and consistent as the overall relationship, with contrasted responses between the two diets for specific pools (diet x pool interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Our results highlight the contrasted use of N at the rumen level between the two experimental diets and suggests the need for different equations to predict FCE or NUE from Δ15N according to the type of diet. In conclusion, rumen digestion and associated microbial activity can play an important role on N isotopic discrimination so rumen effect related to diet may interfere with the relationship between Δ15N and feed efficiency in fattening yearling bulls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532069

RESUMO

Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection. In this context, alternatives related to nutritional therapy might help to control the infection. This narrative review proposes the importance and role of probiotics and diet as adjunct alternatives among the therapies available for the treatment of this new coronavirus. This review discusses the relationship between intestinal purine metabolism and the use of Lactobacillus gasseri and low-purine diets, particularly in individuals with hyperuricemia, as adjuvant nutritional therapies to improve the immune system and weaken viral replication, assisting in the treatment of COVID-19. These might be promising alternatives, in addition to many others that involve adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds from food.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dieta/métodos , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus gasseri/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Purinas/imunologia , Purinas/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/imunologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9422, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523012

RESUMO

Infant adiposity may be related to later metabolic health. Maternal metabolite profiling reflects both genetic and environmental influences and allows elucidation of metabolic pathways associated with infant adiposity. In this multi-ethnic Asian cohort, we aimed to (i) identify maternal plasma metabolites associated with infant adiposity and other birth outcomes and (ii) investigate the maternal characteristics associated with those metabolites. In 940 mother-offspring pairs, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified 134 metabolites in maternal fasting plasma at 26-28 weeks of gestation. At birth, neonatal triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured by trained research personnel, while weight and length measures were abstracted from delivery records. Gestational age was estimated from first-trimester dating ultrasound. Associations were assessed by multivariable linear regression, with p-values corrected using the Benjamini-Hochberg approach. At a false discovery rate of 5%, we observed associations between 28 metabolites and neonatal sum of skinfold thicknesses (13 amino acid-related, 4 non-esterified fatty acids, 6 xenobiotics, and 5 unknown compounds). Few associations were observed with gestational duration, birth weight, or birth length. Maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and diet quality during pregnancy had the strongest associations with the specific metabolome related to infant adiposity. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings and to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas
13.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378035

RESUMO

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Comportamento Sedentário , Betacoronavirus , Espaços Confinados , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-344364

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has engulfed the world, affecting more than 180 countries. As a result, there has been considerable economic distress globally and a significant loss of life. Sadly, the vulnerable and immunocompromised in our societies seem to be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 complications. Global public health bodies and governments have ignited strategies and issued advisories on various handwashing and hygiene guidelines, social distancing strategies, and, in the most extreme cases, some countries have adopted "stay in place" or lockdown protocols to prevent COVID-19 spread. Notably, there are several significant risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection. These include the presence of poor nutritional status and pre-existing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, and various other diseases that render the patient immunocompromised. These diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, which may be a common feature of these NCDs, affecting patient outcomes against COVID-19. In this review, we discuss some of the anti-inflammatory therapies that are currently under investigation intended to dampen the cytokine storm of severe COVID-19 infections. Furthermore, nutritional status and the role of diet and lifestyle is considered, as it is known to affect patient outcomes in other severe infections and may play a role in COVID-19 infection. This review speculates the importance of nutrition as a mitigation strategy to support immune function amid the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying food groups and key nutrients of importance that may affect the outcomes of respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Inflamação/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
17.
Cancer Cell ; 37(6): 767-785, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413275

RESUMO

The concept that dietary changes could improve the response to cancer therapy is extremely attractive to many patients, who are highly motivated to take control of at least some aspect of their treatment. Growing insight into cancer metabolism is highlighting the importance of nutrient supply to tumor development and therapeutic response. Cancers show diverse metabolic requirements, influenced by factors such as tissue of origin, microenvironment, and genetics. Dietary modulation will therefore need to be matched to the specific characteristics of both cancers and treatment, a precision approach requiring a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that determine the metabolic vulnerabilities of each cancer.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Estado Nutricional
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e15773, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy nutrition contributes to the worldwide rising prevalence of noncommunicable diseases. As most adverse reproductive outcomes originate during the periconception period, effective interventions targeting this period are needed. Therefore, we developed the lifestyle intervention Smarter Pregnancy to empower women to adapt a healthy diet prior to conception and during early pregnancy and performed a randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this trial were to investigate compliance and effectiveness in women using the Smarter Pregnancy program. METHODS: Women aged between 18 and 45 years who were contemplating pregnancy or <13 weeks pregnant and their male partners living in the urban area of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were eligible for participation. After baseline screening, the intervention group received personal online coaching based on identified inadequate intakes of vegetables, fruits, and folic acid supplements. The sum of these risk factors was used as a dietary risk score (DRS), ranging from 0 (healthy) to 9 (unhealthy). The control group did not receive coaching. We applied an intention-to-treat principle and used a multivariable linear regression model to evaluate the change in DRS after 24 weeks. Compliance was defined as the percentage of women who completed the screening questionnaire at 24 weeks. RESULTS: Of women recruited, 81.2% (177/218) completed the program (intervention: 91/218, 83.5%; control: 86/218, 78.9%; P=.95). After 24 weeks, the reduction in DRS of women in the intervention group was significantly larger than in the control group (ß=.75, 95% CI 0.18-1.34). This reduction was mainly due to increased vegetable intake (ß=.55, 95% CI 0.25-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: The high compliance and the larger improvements in nutritional behaviors, especially vegetable intake, in women in the intervention group emphasizes the effectiveness of empowering women by using the lifestyle change intervention Smarter Pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register: NL3927; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/3927. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s12884-017-1228-5.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e15497, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presently, dietary management approaches are mostly oriented toward using calorie-counting and diet-tracking tools that draw our attention away from the nutritional value of our food. To improve individuals' dietary behavior, primarily that of people with type 2 diabetes, a simple technique is needed to increase their understanding of the nutritional content of their food. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to design, develop, and evaluate a customized nutrient-profiling tool called EasyNutrition. EasyNutrition was built to introduce the new concept of nutrient profiling by applying the Intelligent Nutrition Engine, an algorithm that we developed for ranking different food recipes based on their nutritional value. This study also aimed to investigate the efficacy of EasyNutrition in lowering glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and improving dietary habits among people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We evaluated the utility of EasyNutrition using design science research in three sequential stages. This paper has elaborated on the third stage to investigate the efficacy of EasyNutrition in managing type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a diabetes treatment center (n=28). The intervention group utilized EasyNutrition over 3 months, whereas participants in the control group utilized the standard of care provided by the center. Dietary habits and HbA1c levels were measured to capture any change before and after experimenting with EasyNutrition. RESULTS: The intervention group (n=9) exhibited a statistically significant change between the pre- and postexposure results of their HbA1c (t9=2.427; P=.04). Their HbA1c dropped from 8.13 to 6.72. This provided preliminary evidence of the efficacy of using a customized nutrient-profiling app in reducing HbA1c for people with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the evidence base that a nutrient-profiling strategy may be a modern adjunct to diabetes dietary management. In conjunction with reliable dietary education provided by a registered dietician, EasyNutrition may have some beneficial effects to improve the dietary habits of people with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466598

RESUMO

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Comportamento Sedentário , Betacoronavirus , Espaços Confinados , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Fatores de Risco
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