Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.436
Filtrar
1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505134

RESUMO

Twelve Angus steers (BW 452.8 ± 6.1 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were used to determine the impact of trace mineral (TM) source on digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition, ruminal soluble concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn, and relative binding strength of trace minerals located in the rumen insoluble digesta fraction. Steers were fed a medium-quality grass hay diet (DM basis: 10.8% CP, 63.1% neutral detergent fiber [NDF], 6.9 mg Cu/kg, 65.5 mg Mn/kg, and 39.4 mg Zn/kg) supplemented with protein for 21 d. Treatments consisted of either sulfate (STM) or hydroxy (HTM) sources (n = 6 steers/treatment) to provide 20, 40, and 60 mg supplemental Cu, Mn, and Zn/kg DM, respectively. Following a 21-d adaptation period, total fecal output was collected for 5 d. Dry matter (P < 0.07) and CP (P < 0.06) digestibility tended to be reduced, and NDF (P < 0.04) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (P < 0.05) digestibility were reduced in STM- vs. HTM-supplemented steers. On day 6, ruminal fluid was collected at 0, 2, and 4 h post-feeding and analyzed for VFA. There were no treatment x time interactions for VFA. Steers receiving HTM had less (P < 0.02) molar proportions of butyric acid and greater (P < 0.05) total VFA concentrations than STM-supplemented steers. Steers were then fed the same diet without supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 14 d. On day 15 steers received a pulse dose of 20 mg Cu, 40 mg Mn, and 60 mg Zn/kg DM from either STM or HTM (n = 6 steers/treatment). Ruminal samples were obtained at 2-h intervals starting at -4 and ending at 24 h relative to dosing. There was a treatment x time interaction (P < 0.03) for ruminal soluble Cu, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Ruminal soluble mineral concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for Cu at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h; for Mn at 4 and 6 h; and for Zn at 4, 6, and 8 h post-dosing in STM compared with HTM-supplemented steers. Copper concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) at 12 and 24 h and Zn concentrations in ruminal solid digesta were greater at 24 h in HTM-supplemented steers. Upon dialysis against Tris-EDTA, the percent Zn released from digesta was greater (P < 0.05) at 12 h (P < 0.03) and 24 h (P < 0.05), and the percent Cu released was greater (P < 0.02) at 24 h post-dosing in HTM steers when compared with STM-supplemented steers. Results indicate that Cu and Zn from HTM have low solubility in the rumen and appear to be less tightly bound to ruminal solid digesta than Cu and Zn from STM. The lower ruminal soluble concentrations of Cu and Zn in steers given HTM were associated with greater fiber digestibility.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Rúmen
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495169

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
5.
Microb Pathog ; 159: 105113, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333073

RESUMO

Improving the health and immunity of pets is a concern of the guardians, while maintaining the health of the animals directly impacts the owners' health and public health. The objective of this study was to produce a dog feed containing a microencapsulated phytogenic blend, as well as determine the impact of the additive on animal health and its intestinal microbiota. The composition included microencapsulated thymol, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde, at 300 mg/kg of feed. Ten male beagle dogs were divided into two groups, identified as follows: the control group (C; ingested the feed without the additive) and the treated group (T; consumed feed containing the phytogenic blend). The dogs received 300 g of feed/day divided into two meals. Greater neutrophil counts in group T and lymphocyte counts were observed at the end of the experiment, as well as levels of α2-globulins and γ-globulin, while ß1 and ß2-globulins levels were lower in group T. Serum nitrogen oxide levels were higher in group T. Levels of reactive oxygen species were lower in group T at days 30 and 45, unlike activity of glutathione peroxidase that was higher. We found less bacterial contamination in the feces of dogs in group T, i.e., total bacterial count, total coliform counts, and counts of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were lower on days 30 and 45. Phytogenic blend intake reduces bacterial counts in stool and improves antioxidant/oxidative status and immune responses.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Salmonella , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Fezes , Imunidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333648

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different proportions of 'Au Grazer' sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don], a legume rich in condensed tannins (CT), on nutrient intake and digestibility, and to estimate methane (CH4) emissions and 13C isotopic composition (δ13CCH4) from beef steers consuming a forage-based diet. Twenty-five Angus-crossbred steers were distributed in a randomized complete block design (344 ± 48 kg initial BW), and randomly assigned to one of five treatments: 0SL, 25SL, 50SL, 75SL, and 100SL, diets containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of SL hay, respectively, mixed with 'Tifton-85' bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp.). The study was carried out for two experimental periods of 21-d each. The statistical model included the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of block, experimental period, and their interaction. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber was linearly decreased (P < 0.001) by the inclusion of SL. No effects were observed for total CH4 emissions per day, nor for CH4 relative to organic matter intake or digestible organic matter with the inclusion of SL. However, emission of CH4 in relation to intake of CT was affected by treatment (P < 0.001). A linear (P < 0.001) decrease and a quadratic effect (P < 0.001) were observed for δ13C of diets and gas, respectively, in which diets and enteric CH4 with greater inclusion of SL were more depleted in 13C. Moreover, the difference in δ13C between diets and gas (Δδ13C) had a linear decrease (P = 0.001) with the inclusion of SL. The model developed to predict the C3 proportions in the enteric CH4 fitted to predicted values (P < 0.0001). Therefore, greater proportions of SL resulted in lesser CH4 emission when CT intake was considered and the isotopic composition from enteric CH4 was able to predict the contribution of SL in the emissions.


Assuntos
Lespedeza , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cynodon , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metano , Rúmen
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 444, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420099

RESUMO

This study was conducted in White Leghorn layers to ascertain the effect of boron (B) supplementation to calcium (Ca) inadequate diet under standard managemental practices. A total of 80 commercial White Leghorn hens, 25 weeks old with a uniform body weight, were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups of 20 hens/replicates in each dietary group viz., normal calcium (NC)/Ca adequate, low calcium (LC)/Ca-inadequate, normal calcium with 40 ppm B (NCB) and low calcium with 40 ppm B (LCB). Dietary level of Ca was maintained at two levels, 100 (normal) and 90% (inadequate) of the requirement. Supplementation of B at 40 ppm improved (P < 0.01) egg production of layers from third month of trial as compared to un-supplemented group. Feed conversion ratio of layers was positively (P < 0.05) influenced by B supplementation in Ca-inadequate diet. Egg shell thickness of layers was found to be higher (P < 0.001) in groups supplemented 40 ppm B, irrespective of the level of Ca in the diets. Cracked egg production was also significantly (P < 0.01) lower in B-supplemented groups compared to Ca-inadequate group. Boron supplementation improved Ca retention irrespective of dietary Ca level. Low-Ca diet without boron supplementation resulted in lower retention (P < 0.05) of magnesium and boron. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 ppm B to Ca-inadequate diet ameliorated the lower laying performance in layers and confirms the usefulness of B in such abiotic stress situations.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Galinhas , Animais , Boro , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Oviposição , Óvulo
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101369, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333388

RESUMO

Compounds in microalgae-derived feed ingredients in poultry diets may improve intestinal physiology and immunity to protect against damage induced by physiological and pathogen challenges, but mechanisms are examined sparingly. The study objective was to evaluate changes to intestinal morphology, permeability, and systemic immunity in broilers fed a proprietary microalgae ingredient during 2 separate challenge studies. In study 1, two replicate 28 d battery cage trials used 200 Ross 308 broilers each (n = 400) fed a control diet ± 0.175% algae ingredient. Half of the birds were subjected to a 12 h feed restriction challenge and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) intestinal permeability assay on d 28. Study 2 used 800 broilers randomly assigned to the same dietary treatments and housed in floor pens for 42 d. At d 14, intestine and spleen samples were collected from 10 birds/ diet. Half of the remainder was orally inoculated with 10X Coccivac-B52 vaccine in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment design (diet and Eimeria inoculation). The FITC-D assay was conducted at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d post-inoculation (pi) while intestinal and spleen samples were collected at 3, 7, 14, and 28 dpi for histomorphology and flow cytometric immune cell assessment. Study 1 validated intestinal leakage via FITC-D absorbance induced by feed restriction but showed no algae-associated protective effects. In study 2, algae preserved intestinal integrity during coccidiosis (P = 0.04) and simultaneously protected jejunal villus height as early as 7dpi (P < 0.0001), whereas intestinal damage resolution in control birds did not occur until 14 dpi. Algae inclusion increased splenic T cells in unchallenged broilers at d 14 by 29.6% vs. control (P < 0.0001), specifically γδ T cell populations, without impacting performance (P < 0.03). During Eimeria challenge, splenic T cells in algae-fed birds did not show evidence of recruitment to peripheral tissues, while control birds showed a 16.7% reduction compared to their uninoculated counterparts from 3 to 7 dpi (P < 0.0001). This evidence suggests the algae ingredient altered the immune response in a manner that reduced recruitment from secondary lymphoid organs in addition to protecting intestinal physiology.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade , Intestinos
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340123

RESUMO

Comminuting the ingested material in the stomach and fermentation in the large intestine of ostriches, allows an efficient utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs. The entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of 61 adult ostriches (both sexes; av. age of 15 mo), which had previously been fed a ration consisting of either haylage and pelleted compound feed (HP) or haylage, corn silage and pelleted compound feed (HCP), was the subject of the present investigations. The weight of the different compartments of the GIT was measured. The digesta was differentiated into inorganic and organic substances. Wet sieving was used to separate the collected stones (>19 mm), small stones (1 mm), and sand (<1 mm). Ostriches fed the HCP diet had a significantly higher empty gizzard weight (3,435 g) compared to those fed the HP diet (3,064 g). Additionally, the weight of the empty cecum (left and right parts) was increased (P < 0.05) for ostriches fed the HCP diet (107 and 122 g, respectively) in comparison to those fed the HP diet (93.4 and 108 g, respectively). The weight of pure digesta in the gizzard and left or right cecum for ostriches fed the HP diet was higher (1,640, 448, and 471 g, respectively) compared to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). The contents of crude ash and HCl-insoluble ash in the digesta of all the GIT compartments were higher for ostriches fed the HP diet in comparison to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). Independent of the type of the offered diet, the large stones occurred only in the proventriculus and gizzard (2.71 and 4.76%, respectively), while sand dominated in the distal colon (30.3%). The high proportion of stones in the gizzard form the "mechanical equipment" which enables the animals to grind basic feed such as corn silage or haylage, and these are almost completely excreted as sand. Continuous stone replacement for ostriches is necessary but the amount mostly depends on the type of feed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Struthioniformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Estômago
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101304, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343906

RESUMO

Long-term and graded dose of astaxanthin supplementation in laying hen's diet was assessed for egg fortification. Five groups of laying hens with 8 replications each were fed for 24 wk with diet supplemented astaxanthin at 0 mg/kg (control), 7.1 mg/kg, 14.2 mg/kg, 21.3 mg/kg, and 42.6 mg/kg (Basal, A7, A14, A21, and A42, respectively). The performance of laying hens, egg quality, astaxanthin concentration as well as conversion efficiency and geometric isomers proportion in yolks were assessed on wk 8 and 24. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear and quadratic regression analyses were used to evaluate the dose effect. In parallel, the Student's t test compared the values between wk 8 and wk 24 of test within a group. Overall, the results revealed that neither production performance nor egg physical quality was affected by astaxanthin dose level and feeding duration. Following the supplementation dose, the redness of yolks (a*) increased (P < 0.001). But, the a* score in A42 (23.48) was just 3-folds the a* score in A7 (8.89). Concentration of astaxanthin in eggs was dose-level dependent showing a linear relationship (P < 0.001) with a slight declination observed in all groups on wk 24 compared to wk 8. The deposition rate of astaxanthin into egg yolk was higher in A21 and A42. The proportion of geometric isomers in egg yolk were not affected by the feeding duration. As the supplementation dose increased, all-trans isomer proportion gradually decreased in the egg yolk, while 13-cis isomer proportion rose. It was concluded that astaxanthin is an efficient carotenoid for egg fortification, which can be supplemented in diet up to 42.6 mg/kg for 24 wk without compromising the performance of laying hens or physical quality of eggs. This appreciably affects the egg yolk color and confers a better accumulation of total astaxanthin and cis isomers into eggs as the supplementation dose increases.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo , Ovos , Feminino , Óvulo , Xantofilas
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358951

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was developed to model performance depression in heat stress (HS), to analyze the influence of HS type (cyclic or constant), and to assess the correlation between dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and HS in broilers. Two databases (Dat) with performance and temperature were constructed (initial phase - up to 21 d of age - 14 articles, 7,667 animals, average replicate number treatment-ARN/T, 5 and growing phase - over 21 d of age - 74 articles and 25,145 broilers, ARN/T, 7). The criteria for article selection were (1) experiments using at least 2 temperatures (thermoneutral and high temperature); (2) results of ADFI and ADG; (3) feed and water ad libitum during the experiment. Each treatment was classified as cyclic or constant HS and the HS group response was calculated relative to the thermoneutral group. Performance was evaluated as raw data or as relativized information (indicated as "HS effect or ≠"), expressed as a percentage of the difference between results. The models to predict "HS effect" showed that for the initial phase, only ADG was influenced by HS, while for the grower phase, prediction equations were created for ADFI and ADG. Considering the simplest models, there was a reduction of 1.4% in ADFI and 2.1% in ADG for each unit (°C) above the upper critical temperature for broilers older than 21 d. Feed conversion (FC) was not affected by HS in any of the studied phases. Constant HS proved to be more negative than cyclic HS to broiler performance after 21 d of age. The relation between DEB and performance of broilers under HS was analyzed considering broilers over 21 d of age, and very weak correlations were observed. It was concluded that HS affects broilers over 21 d more, although FC is not affected. ADFI is the most important variable affected by HS and the relation between the DEB of the diet and HS is very weak. The empirical models generated in this study accurately predicted ADG and ADFI of broilers exposed to HS and can be used to minimize those effects on poultry production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358954

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of glycerol monolaurate (GML) supplementation on egg production, biochemical indices, and gut microbiota of broiler breeders at the late stage of production. Total of 180 healthy Qingyuan Partridge broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) corn-soybean meal based diet, and 2) basal diet supplemented with 300 mg glycerol monolaurate/kg. Each treatment group had 6 replicates with 15 birds within each replicate. The experiment started at wk 33 and lasted for 8 weeks. Feed conversion rate, egg weight, egg shape index, shell breaking strength, and shell thickness were not different between control and treatment groups. Supplementation of GML significantly decreased the egg breaking rate. All blood chemical indices and antioxidant parameters were not affected by GML except total antioxidant capacity which increased significantly with GML supplementation. Alpha diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, Ace, goods_coverage, and PD_whole tree) were not different between the 2 groups. Composition of cecal microbiota was not affected by GML supplementation except Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria at phylum level. Overall, supplementation of glycerol monolaurate at 300 mg/kg level improved eggshell quality but its effect on cecal microbiota composition was limited on broiler breeders at the late stage of production.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lauratos , Monoglicerídeos , Óvulo
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101358, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358955

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) or Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and the cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 360 male, 1-day-old Cobb 500 birds were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group was fed a basal diet; the B. subtilis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. subtilis; the B. licheniformis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. licheniformis. Results showed that chickens supplemented with either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had comparatively higher (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain, whereas no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in feed efficiency. Concentrations of serum IgA, IgY, and IgM, as well as anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and proinflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation. Moreover, chickens fed with diets supplemented by either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had greater antioxidant capacity, indicated by the notable increases (P < 0.05) in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, along with decrease (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde. Compared to the control group, levels of SCFA, excluding acetic and propionic acid, in cecal content had improved (P < 0.05) by adding B. licheniformis, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in acetic and butyric acid was observed with B. subtilis supplementation. Microbial analysis showed that both B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation could increase butyrate-producing bacteria such as Alistipes and Butyricicoccus, and decrease pathogenic bacteria such as the Synergistetes and Gammaproteobacteria. In summary, dietary supplemented with B. subtilis or B. licheniformis improved growth performance, immune status, and antioxidant capacity, increased SCFA production, and modulated cecal microbiota in chickens. Moreover, B. licheniformis was more effective than B. subtilis with the same supplemental amount.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bacillus subtilis , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Masculino
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358957

RESUMO

Growth performance, organ weight, ceca digesta short chain fatty acids (SCFA), jejunal histomorphometry, tibia ash, apparent retention (AR) of components and caloric efficiency were investigated in broiler chicken strains differing in growth rate fed diets with multienzyme supplement (MES). The strains differed in estimated time to reach 2.1 kg BW: 37, 43, 47, and 50 d and were designated C, F, J, and N, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet was formulated for 2-phase program (starter and grower) and fed without or with MES containing phytase, protease and fiber-degrading enzymes. A total of 640-day-old chicks (42.3 + 0.01 g/bird) were housed in cages (5 cockerels and 5 pullets/cage) and allocated to give 8 replicates/ strain and diet combination. Equal amount of feed was fed based on observed ad-libitum intake of C strain in the starter (d 0-14) and grower (d 15-28). Body weight was monitored, grab excreta samples taken and at completion of allocated feed one bird per cage necropsied for samples. With exception of P, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and ceca digesta acetic acid, there was no (P > 0.05) interaction between strain and MES on examined responses. Strains differed (P < 0.01) on growth, FCR, gizzard weight, tibia ash, breast weight, ceca digesta concentration of lactic, propionic, and isobutyric acid and caloric efficiency. The final body weight (BW) was 1,344, 1,134, 959, and 916 g/bird for C, F, J, and N, respectively. Corresponding caloric efficiency was 4,930, 5,807, 6,680 and 7,199 kcal/kg BW gain, respectively. Birds fed MES had higher BW gain (P < 0.05) in grower phase, larger gizzard, higher AR of CP, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and Ca than non-MES birds. In conclusion, growth rate influenced organ attributes, nutrient, and caloric utilization. Enzyme supplementation improved growth in grower phase and nutrient utilization independent of strain, suggesting that effects of feed enzymes are not influenced by inherent growth rate.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Soja , Zea mays
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101372, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364120

RESUMO

The global poultry trend toward the more responsible use of antibiotics is becoming recurrent and has demanded the need to generate new natural alternatives. Probiotics have gained importance as an option to use as growth promoters. This study aimed to evaluate Bacillus subtillis QST713 as a substitute for an antibiotic growth promoter (BMD). A total of 150 male broilers were assigned to three dietary treatments: 1) control diet (CO), 2) control diet + 500 g/t of BMD (AGP), and 3) control diet + 100 g/t of B. subtilis QST713 (PB), respectively. Each treatment was monitored for 5 wk for the productive variables: body weight, accumulated feed consumption, food conversion, and European efficiency factor. At the end of each week, fresh fecal samples were cultured and quantified for E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. At the end of the trial, blood samples were analyzed for hemogram and intestinal samples (anterior portion) for histomorphometry. The data were statistically analyzed with an analysis of variance and subjected to a least significant difference test (Tukey). The zootechnical yields were similar in the AGP and PB groups (P ˃ 0.05); both superior to the control group. In the hematological profiles, no difference was observed between the experimental groups. E. coli and Enterococcus counts were significantly lower (P ˂ 0.05), and Lactobacillus counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) higher in the PB group, relative to CO and AGP groups. No differences (P ˃ 0.05) were found in bacterial counts between the CO and AGP groups. The intestinal mucosa and villi in the PB group were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) longer and with less deeper crypts than CO and AGP groups. We conclude that B. subtillis QST713, used at the suggested commercial dose (100 g/ton), is an effective growth-promoting alternative to BMD that modulates the microbiota and intestinal architecture, thus producing zootechnical yields consistent with BMD.


Assuntos
Bacitracina , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacillus subtilis , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli , Masculino
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333604

RESUMO

Obesity and estrogen reduction are known to affect the gut microbiota and gut microbial-derived metabolites in some species, but limited information is available in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary macronutrient profile on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota, and fecal metabolites of adult female dogs after spay surgery. Twenty-eight adult intact female beagles (age: 3.02 ± 0.71 yr, BW: 10.28 ± 0.77 kg; BCS: 4.98 ± 0.57) were used. After a 5-wk baseline phase (week 0), 24 dogs were spayed and randomly allotted to one of three experimental diets (n = 8 per group): 1) control (CO) containing moderate protein and fiber (COSP), 2) high-protein, high-fiber (HPHF), or 3) high-protein, high-fiber plus omega-3 and medium-chain fatty acids (HPHFO). Four dogs were sham-operated and fed CO (COSH). All dogs were fed to maintain BW for 12 wk after spay and then allowed to consume twice that amount for 12 wk. Fecal samples were collected at weeks 0, 12, and 24 for digestibility, microbiota, and metabolite analysis. All data were analyzed using repeated measures and linear mixed models procedure of SAS 9.4, with results reported as a change from baseline. Apparent organic matter and energy digestibilities had greater decreases in HPHF and HPHFO than COSH and COSP. Increases in fecal acetate, total short-chain fatty acids, and secondary bile acids were greater and decreases in primary bile acids were greater in HPHF and HPHFO. Principal coordinates analysis of weighted UniFrac distances revealed that HPHF and HPHFO clustered together and separated from COSH and COSP at weeks 12 and 24, with relative abundances of Faecalibacterium, Romboutsia, and Fusobacterium increasing to a greater extent and Catenibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella 9, Eubacterium, and Megamonas decreasing to a greater extent in HPHF or HPHFO. Our results suggest that high-protein, high-fiber diets alter nutrient and energy digestibilities, fecal metabolite concentrations, and fecal gut microbiota, but spay surgery had minor effects. Future research is needed to investigate how food intake, nutrient profile, and changes in hormone production influence gut microbiota and metabolites of dogs individually and how this knowledge may be used to manage spayed pets.


Assuntos
Digestão , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Cães , Fezes , Feminino , Nutrientes
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333630

RESUMO

Grain-based ingredients are replaced in part by pulse ingredients in grain-free pet foods. Pulse ingredients are lower in methionine and cysteine, amino acid (AA) precursors to taurine synthesis in dogs. Although recent work has investigated plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations when feeding grain-free diets, supplementation of a grain-free diet with various nutrients involved in the biosynthesis of taurine has not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementing a complete grain-free dry dog food with either methionine (MET), taurine (TAU), or methyl donors (choline) and methyl receivers (creatine and carnitine; CCC) on postprandial AA concentrations. Eight healthy Beagle dogs were fed one of the three treatments or the control grain-free diet (CON) for 7 d in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. On day 7, cephalic catheters were placed and one fasted sample (0 min) and a series of nine post-meal blood samples were collected at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the PROC GLIMMIX function in SAS (Version 9.4). Dogs fed MET had greater plasma and whole blood methionine concentrations from 30 to 360 min after a meal (P < 0.0001) and greater plasma homocysteine concentrations from 60 to 360 min after a meal (P < 0.0001) compared with dogs fed CON, TAU, and CCC. Dogs fed TAU had greater plasma taurine concentrations over time compared with dogs fed CON (P = 0.02) but were not different than dogs fed MET and CCC (P > 0.05). In addition, most AAs remained significantly elevated at 6 h post-meal compared with fasted samples across all treatments. Supplementation of creatine, carnitine, and choline in grain-free diets may play a role in sparing the methionine requirement without increasing homocysteine concentrations. Supplementing these nutrients could also aid in the treatment of disease that causes metabolic or oxidative stress, including cardiac disease in dogs, but future research is required.


Assuntos
Metionina , Taurina , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Grão Comestível , Homocisteína
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343289

RESUMO

Sows mated in summer produce a greater proportion of born-light piglets (<1.1 kg) which contributes to increased carcass fatness in the progeny population. The reasons for the low birth weight of these piglets remain unclear, and there have been few successful mitigation strategies identified. We hypothesized that: 1) the low birth weight of progeny born to sows mated in summer may be associated with weight loss during the previous summer lactation; and 2) increasing early gestation feed allowance for the sows with high lactational weight loss in summer can help weight recovery and improve progeny birth weight. Sows were classified as having either low (av. 1%) or high (av. 7%) lactational weight loss in their summer lactation. All the sows with low lactational weight loss (LLStd) and half of the sows with high lactational weight loss received a standard gestation feeding regime (HLStd) (2.6 kg/d; day 0-30 gestation), whereas the rest of the sows with high lactational weight loss received a compensatory feed allowance (HLComp) (3.5 kg/d; day 0-30 gestation). A comparison of LLStd (n = 75) versus HLStd sows (n = 78) showed that this magnitude of weight loss over summer lactation did not affect the average piglet or litter birth weight, but such results may be influenced by the higher litter size (P = 0.030) observed in LLStd sows. A comparison of HLStd versus HLComp (n = 81) sows showed that the compensatory feeding increased (P = 0.021) weight gain of gestating sows by 6 kg, increased (P = 0.009) average piglet birth weight by 0.12 kg, tended to reduce (P = 0.054) the percentage of born-light piglets from 23.5% to 17.1% but reduced the litter size by 1.4 (P = 0.014). A subgroup of progeny stratified as born-light (0.8-1.1 kg) or -normal (1.3-1.7 kg) from each sow treatment were monitored for growth performance from weaning until 100 kg weight. The growth performance and carcass backfat of progeny were not affected by sow treatments. Born-light progeny had lower feed intake, lower growth rate, higher G:F, and higher carcass backfat than born-normal progeny (all P < 0.05). In summary, compensatory feeding from day 0 to 30 gestation in the sows with high weight loss during summer lactation reduced the percentage of born-light progeny at the cost of a lower litter size, which should improve growth rate and carcass leanness in the progeny population born to sows with high lactational weight loss.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Perda de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343290

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to (1) determine net energy (NE) values of soybean meal (SBM), Napus canola meal (NCM), Juncea canola meal (JCM), field pea, and wheat millrun (WM) using indirect calorimetry, and (2) compare the determined NE values with the calculated NE values of the same feedstuffs based on a prediction equation. In experiment 1, six ileal-cannulated barrows (31 kg) were fed five diets in 5 × 6 Youden square to give six replicates per diet. Diets were cornstarch-based diets containing SBM, NCM, JCM, field pea, or WM. The SBM was included as a reference. In experiment 2, six ileal-cannulated barrows (70 kg) were fed a N-free diet for determining energy digestibility and NE values of test feedstuffs fed in experiment 1 by difference method. The NE values of test feedstuffs were also calculated from the digestible energy (DE) values and analyzed macronutrient content of the test feedstuffs. On dry matter (DM) basis, SBM, NCM, JCM, field pea, and WM contained 51%, 41%, 42%, 28%, and 18% crude protein; 1.52%, 2.95%, 2.36%, 1.33%, and 3.12% ether extract; 2.93%, 0.14%, 1.44%, 36.7%, and 28.7% starch; and 5.30%, 21.0%, 13.4%, 9.49%, and 16.1% acid detergent fiber, respectively. The determined NE value for SBM (2.29 Mcal/kg) did not differ from that of NCM (1.72 Mcal/kg DM) or JCM (2.14 Mcal/kg DM). The NCM and JCM did not differ in NE value. Also, the determined NE value did not differ between field pea (2.00 Mcal/kg) and WM (2.55 Mcal/kg). The calculated NE values for SBM (2.18 Mcal/kg DM), NCM (1.73 Mcal/kg DM), and JCM (1.86 Mcal/kg DM) did not differ from the corresponding determined NE values of the same feedstuffs. However, the calculated NE value for field pea (2.51 Mcal/kg DM) was greater (P = 0.004) than the determined NE value of field pea, whereas the calculated NE value for WM (2.27 Mcal/kg DM) tended to be lower (P = 0.054) than the determined NE value of WM. In conclusion, the NE value for SBM and canola meals can be predicted based on the DE value and the macronutrient composition of the same feedstuffs. However, the NE value for field pea and WM may not be predicted precisely based on the DE value and the macronutrient composition of the same feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Digestão , Triticum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Refeições , Ervilhas , Soja , Suínos
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350937

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that hybrid rye can replace a part of the corn in gestation and lactation diets without negatively affecting sow and litter performance. For each phase, a corn-soybean meal diet and three diets in which hybrid rye replaced 25%, 50%, or 75% of corn were formulated. Two hundred sows were randomly allotted by parity to the four treatments. Results indicated that diet did not affect body weight or average daily gain (ADG) of sows or number of pigs born. The number of pigs weaned, litter weaning weight, and litter ADG increased and then decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye in diets increased. Pig mortality and number of crushed pigs tended (quadratic, P < 0.10) to be reduced as hybrid rye was added to the diet. Serum cytokines did not differ among treatments on day 105 of gestation or in pigs on the day of weaning, but interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-18 on day 13 of lactation increased and then decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye inclusion increased in diets. Milk urea N increased (linear, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye was included in the diet, but no other differences in milk composition were observed. Overall, replacing 25% or 50% of corn with hybrid rye resulted in improved lactation performance, and replacing 75% of corn with hybrid rye resulted in sow and litter performance that was not different from that of sows fed control diets.


Assuntos
Lactação , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gravidez , Secale , Suínos , Desmame
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...