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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(11): 1296-1305, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760919

RESUMO

Development of therapeutic preparations involves several steps, starting with the synthesis of chemical compounds and testing them in different models for selecting the most effective and safest ones to clinical trials and introduction into medical practice. Cultured animal cells (both primary and transformed) are commonly used as models for compound screening. However, cell models display a number of disadvantages, including insufficient standardization (primary cells) and disruption of cell genotypes (transformed cells). Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) offers new possibilities for the development of high-throughput test systems for screening potential therapeutic preparations with different activity spectra. Due to the capacity to differentiate into all cell types of an adult organism, IPSCs are a unique model that allows examining the activity and potential toxicity of tested compounds during the entire differentiation process in vitro. In this work, we demonstrated the efficiency of IPSCs and their neuronal derivatives for selecting substances with the neuroprotective activity using two classes of compounds - melanocortin family peptides and endocannabinoids. None of the tested compounds displayed cyto- or embryotoxicity. Both melanocortin peptides and endocannabinoids exerted neuroprotective effect in the neuronal precursors and IPSC-derived neurons subjected to hydrogen peroxide. The endocannabinoid N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine exhibited the highest neuroprotective effect (~70%) in the differentiated cultures enriched with dopaminergic neurons; the effect of melanocortin Semax was ~40%. The possibility of using other IPSC derivatives for selecting compounds with the neuroprotective activity is discussed.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Corpos Embrioides/citologia , Corpos Embrioides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Melanocortinas/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 54, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IcarisideII (ICAII) could promote the differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to Schwann cells (SCs), leading to improvement of erectile function (EF) and providing a realistic therapeutic option for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of ADSCs and ICAII in this process remain largely unclear. METHODS: ADSCs were treated with different concentrations of ICAII. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to detect expressions of SCs markers, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and microRNA-let-7i (let-7i). Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the regulatory relationship between let-7i and STAT3. The detection of intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and the ratio of ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP) were used to evaluate the EF in bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rat models. RESULTS: ICAII promoted cell proliferation of ADSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein levels of SCs markers were increased by ICAII treatment in a dose-dependent manner in ADSCs. Moreover, let-7i was significantly decreased in ICAII-treated ADSCs and upregulation of let-7i attenuated ICAII-induced promotion of SCs markers. In addition, STAT3 was a direct target of let-7i and upregulated in ICAII-treated ADSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of STAT3 abated the let-7i-mediated inhibition effect on differentiation of ADSCs to SCs and rescued the ICAII-mediated promotion effect on it. Besides, combination treatment of ADSCs and ICAII preserved the EF of BCNI rat models, which was undermined by let-7i overexpression. CONCLUSION: ICAII was effective for preserving EF by promoting the differentiation of ADSCs to SCs via modulating let-7i/STAT3 pathway.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transfecção
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7475-7488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571859

RESUMO

Background: Wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis and the consequent aseptic loosening constitute the leading reasons for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Several studies have demonstrated that the macrophage polarization state and immune response play critical roles in periprosthetic osteolysis and tissue repair, but the immunomodulatory role of lithium chloride (LiCl), which has a protective effect on wear particle-induced osteolysis by suppressing osteoclasts and attenuating inflammatory responses, has never been investigated. Methods: In this work, the immunomodulatory capability of LiCl on titanium (Ti) nanoparticle-stimulated transformation of macrophage phenotypes and the subsequent effect on osteogenic differentiation were investigated. We first speculated that LiCl attenuated Ti nanoparticle-stimulated inflammation responses by driving macrophage polarization and generating an immune micro-environment to improve osteogenesis. Furthermore, a metal nanoparticle-stimulated murine air pouch inflammatory model was applied to confirm this protective effect in vivo. Results: The results revealed that metal nanoparticles significantly activate M1 phenotype (proinflammatory macrophage) expression and increase proinflammatory cytokines secretions in vitro and in vivo, whereas LiCl drives macrophages to the M2 phenotype (anti-inflammatory macrophage) and increases the release of anti-inflammatory and bone-related cytokines. This improved the osteogenic differentiation capability of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). In addition, we also provided evidence that LiCl inhibits the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in wear particle-treated macrophages. Conclusion: LiCl has the immunomodulatory effects to alleviate Ti nanoparticle-mediated inflammatory reactions and enhance the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs by driving macrophage polarization. Thus, LiCl may be an effective therapeutic alternative for preventing and treating wear debris-induced inflammatory osteolysis.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Cloreto de Lítio/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7123-7139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564869

RESUMO

Background: Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are of considerable interest when used as a carrier for topical drugs for the skin, although little is known about their possible side effects. Therefore, our study was about the impact of 2nd and 3rd generation PAMAM dendrimers on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts cells. Methods: The effect of the tested compounds on collagen biosynthesis was determined using 5[3H]-proline incorporation bioassay. Morphological changes accompanying cell growth inhibition were observed using a confocal microscope. To evaluate the percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells and the cell growth dynamic of apoptotic features, we performed Annexin V/PI double staining assay, assessed caspase activity, and performed cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. The flow cytometry method was also used to determine the effect of dendrimers on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 IL-1ß). Results: The obtained results showed that as the concentration and the generation of dendrimers increased, collagen biosynthesis decreased. We also observed abnormalities in cell differentiation, which may have caused disturbed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We found that dendrimers cause chronic inflammation which may cause adverse changes in the skin, ultimately- leading to apoptosis in the case of dendrimers in lower concentrations or necrosis at higher concentrations (especially 3rd generation dendrimers). In addition, the inflammatory path induced by the tested compounds was caused by damage in the mitochondria, which we observed as a significant decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that PAMAM dendrimers can cause disorders of cell proliferation and differentiation and may be the cause of cell cycle deregulation and chronic adverse inflammation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/biossíntese , Dendrímeros/química , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorescência , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Necrose
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 803-809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476781

RESUMO

The use of injections to treat structural muscle injuries is controversially discussed. In our controlled in vitro study, we investigated the biological impact of Actovegin and Traumeel alone and in combination on primary human skeletal muscle cells. Cells were characterized by immunofluorescence staining for myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) and MyoD, and cultured with or without Actovegin and / or Traumeel. The effects of these agents were assayed by cell viability and gene expression of the specific markers MyoD, Myf5, neural adhesion molecule (NCAM), and CD31. Myotube formation was determined by myosin staining. Neither Actovegin nor Traumeel showed toxic effects or influenced cell viability significantly. High volumes of Actovegin down-regulated gene expression of NCAM after 3 days but had no effect on MyoD, Myf5, and CD31 gene expression. High volumes of Traumeel inhibited MyoD gene expression after 3 days, whereas after 7 days MyoD expression was significantly up-regulated. The combination of both agents did not significantly influence cell viability or gene expression. This is the first study demonstrating that Actovegin and Traumeel potentially modulate human skeletal muscle cells. The relevance of these in vitro findings has to be highlighted in further in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme/análogos & derivados , Minerais/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno CD56/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno CD56/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Heme/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína MyoD/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína MyoD/genética , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/genética , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/genética
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900347, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532890

RESUMO

Catechins in green tea are well-known to be effective in reducing the risk of obesity. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of catechins present in green tea on adipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte metabolism. Treatment of 3T3-L1 mouse adipocyte during differentiation adipocytes with (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and gallic acid (GA) resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of adipogenesis. Specifically, EGC increased adiponectin and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) transcription in mature adipocytes. Transcription levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were not significantly impacted by either of the compounds. These results suggest that the EGC is the most effective catechin having anti-obesity activity. Finally, EGC is an attractive candidate component for remodeling obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Células 3T3-L1 , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/química , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Chá/química
7.
Life Sci ; 235: 116817, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476309

RESUMO

AIMS: In the tumor microenvironment, dysregulated immune cells could promote tumor progression, invasion and metastasis, by establishing a symbiotic relationship with cancer cells. A pivotal role is played by monocyte recruitment and induction of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which provide immunosuppression and tumorigenesis. The effect of nemorosone, an antiproliferative phytocomponent present in Cuban Propolis, on TAM-induced tumor progression remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the symbiotic relationship between monocytic leukemia THP-1 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, and the role of nemorosone in preventing TAM-induced tumor growth. MAIN METHODS: Macrophage differentiation induced by HepG2-conditioned medium was assessed by flow cytometry, analysis of secreted molecules and cytokine expression. The effect of nemorosone and/or conditioned THP-1-medium on HepG2 proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation, cells cycle and migration assays. KEY FINDINGS: HepG2 cells induced THP-1 recruitment and differentiation to macrophages. When compared with control THP-1 cells, differentiated THP-1 showed a significant increase of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression (P < 0.01), and slightly induced HepG2 cells growth. This effect was counteracted by nemorosone, which also significantly inhibited colony formation (P < 0.01) and migratory capacity of HepG2 cells, driving a high percentage of cells (80%) to the G0/G1 phase. SIGNIFICANCE: HepG2-conditioned medium is a suitable model for THP-1 modulation and differentiation. Moreover, nemorosone significantly inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells, both in presence and absence of the soluble factors secreted by TAMs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of this natural compound in the HCC-TAM relationship.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células THP-1
8.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(8): 578-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. METHODS: In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage: (a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). RESULTS: In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5831-5848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534327

RESUMO

Purpose: In order to accelerate the tendon-bone healing processes and achieve the efficient osteointegration between the tendon graft and bone tunnel, we aim to design bioactive electrospun nanofiber membranes combined with tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) to promote osteogenic regeneration of the tendon and bone interface. Methods: In this study, nanofiber membranes of polycaprolactone (PCL), PCL/collagen I (COL-1) hybrid nanofiber membranes, poly(dopamine) (PDA)-coated PCL nanofiber membranes and PDA-coated PCL/COL-1 hybrid nanofiber membranes were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The biochemical characteristics and nanofibrous morphology of the membranes, as well as the characterization of rat TSPCs, were defined in vitro. After co-culture with different types of electrospun nanofiber membranes in vitro, cell proliferation, viability, adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of TSPCs were evaluated at different time points. Results: Among all the membranes, the performance of the PCL/COL-1 (volume ratio: 2:1 v/v) group was superior in terms of its ability to support the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of TSPCs. No benefit was found in this study to include PDA coating on cell adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of TSPCs. Conclusion: The PCL/COL-1 hybrid electrospun nanofiber membranes are biocompatible, biomimetic, easily fabricated, and are capable of supporting cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of TSPCs. These bioactive electrospun nanofiber membranes may act as a suitable functional biomimetic scaffold in tendon-bone tissue engineering applications to enhance tendon-bone healing abilities.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Nanofibras/química , Células-Tronco/citologia , Tendões/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Osteogênese , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6019-6033, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534334

RESUMO

Objective: Icariin (IC) promotes osteogenic differentiation, and it may be a potential small molecule drug for local application in bone regeneration. Icariin-loaded hydroxyapatite/alginate (IC/HAA) porous composite scaffolds were designed in this study for the potential application of the sustainable release of icariin and subsequent bone regeneration. Methods: An icariin-loaded hydroxyapatite/alginate porous composite scaffold was prepared and characterized by SEM and HPLC for morphology and release behavior, respectively. The mechanical properties, degradation in PBS and cytotoxicity on BMSCs were also evaluated by MTT assay, compression strength and calculation of weight remaining ratio, respectively. Rabbit BMSCs were cocultured with IC/HAA scaffolds, and ALP activity and Alizarin Red staining were performed to evaluate osteogenic differentiation induction. The mRNA and protein expression level of an osteogenic gene was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In vivo animal models of critical bone defects in the radius of rabbit were used. Four and 12 weeks after the implantation of IC/HAA scaffolds in the bone defect, radiographic images of the radius were obtained and scored by using the Lane and Sandhu X-ray scoring system. Tissue samples were also evaluated using H&E and Masson staining, and an osteogenic gene and Wnt signaling pathway genes were detected. Results: A hydroxyapatite/alginate (HAA) porous composite scaffold-loaded icariin was fabricated using a freeze-drying method. Our data indicated that the icariin was loaded in alginate scaffold without compromising the macro/microstructure or mechanical properties of the scaffold. Notably, the IC/HAA promoted the proliferation of rBMSCs without exerting cytotoxicity on rBMSCs. In vivo, rabbit radius bone defect experiments demonstrated that the IC/HAA scaffold exhibited better capacity for bone regeneration than HAA, and IC/HAA upregulated the relative expression levels of an osteogenic gene and the Wnt signaling pathway genes. Most notably, the IC/HAA scaffold also inhibited osteoclast activity in vivo. Conclusion: Our data suggests a promising application for the use of HAA scaffolds to load icariin and promote bone regeneration in situ through mediation of the coupling processes of osteogenesis induction and osteoclast activity inhibition.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Tecidos Suporte/química , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Porosidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Coelhos , Rádio (Anatomia)/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Tumour Biol ; 41(9): 1010428319873749, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496424

RESUMO

Differentiation therapy is directed to the self-renewing cancer stem cells, as well as their progeny transit amplifying cells, to force them to mature to terminal differentiation. Differentiation therapy is effective in treatment of neuroblastomas and myeloid leukemias. Checkpoint inhibition therapy removes blocks to cancer reactive T-killer cells and allows them to react to malignant cells and limit the growth of cancer. The percentage of patients with a given cancer that responds to either therapy is less than hoped for, and the duration of response is variable. Multiplying the response rate (percentage of patients responding to therapy) by the duration of response may be used to derive a survival score for patients treated with differentiation therapy or checkpoint inhibition. By this criterion, differentiation therapy gives better survival scores than checkpoint inhibition. Yet, checkpoint inhibition is considered a great success, mostly because it may be applied to many different types of cancer, and differentiation therapy is considered relatively ineffective because it is limited to a few specific cancers. On the other hand, the cost of checkpoint inhibition treatment is 10-20 times more per patient than that of differentiation therapy. Hopefully, future combined treatments and advances in both approaches will increase the effectiveness of these cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4687-4698, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Propagermanium (PG) inhibits the CCL2/CCR2 axis, and has been shown to function as an immune modulator. This study investigated its anti-tumor mechanism in patients with refractory cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers and 23 patients with refractory oral (n=8) or gastric (n=15) cancer received PG (30 mg/day). We performed flow cytometry (FCM) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vitro killing assays. RESULTS: FCM revealed that CD16+/CD56Dim NK cells (i.e., mature, cytolytic subset) increased, and the apoptosis induction rate of cancer cells increased after PG administration. Among gastric cancer patients, median OS was 172.0 days. Two patients showed complete remission of lung or liver metastasis. Survival of patients with oral cancer also tended to be prolonged. CONCLUSION: PG induces NK cell maturation, and may potentiate anti-tumor activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4757-4766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Azacitidine (AZA) is a hypomethylating agent used in myeloid neoplasms, however, approximately half of patients show treatment failure or relapse. This in vitro study investigated the effect of the combination of AZA with the natural compound curcumin (CUR) in increasing its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the effects of AZA plus CUR on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines (U-937, HL-60, K-562, and OCI-AML3) and bone marrow samples of patients. RESULTS: The results showed a synergy between AZA and CUR in all leukemic lines and in most leukemic samples, with a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis compared to the activity of each drug separately. In addition, AZA plus CUR showed low cytotoxicity in healthy samples. CONCLUSION: A remarkable antioncogenic effect of the combination of AZA plus CUR was shown, providing a basis for future studies analyzing the clinical efficacy of these drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
14.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(9): 675-680, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550857

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of programmed cell death factor 4 (PDCD4) on arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-induced cell growth and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in neuroblastoma. Methods: The PDCD4 overexpression vector was transfected into neuroblastoma cells and detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot. As(2)O(3) was used to treat PDCD4 overexpressing neuroblastoma cells. MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation. Colony formation assay was used to determine the cell clone forming ability. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the expression of NF-κB p65 and cleaved caspase-3 protein in cells. Results: The transfection of PDCD4 overexpression vector significantly increased the expression level of PDCD4 in neuroblastoma cells. The cell survival rates of the control group, PDCD4 group, As(2)O(3) group and As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were 100%, (72.14±5.20)%, (62.58±3.14)% and (40.87±2.47)%, respectively. The colony formation rates in these four groups were (91.25±8.36)%, (65.32±7.14)%, (57.23±5.28)% and (37.14±3.64)%, respectively. In addition, the cell apoptotic rates of these four groups were (3.57±0.24)%, (28.64±3.20)%, (36.41±4.58)% and (49.65±5.27)%, respectively. Therefore, overexpression of PDCD4 in the absence or presence of As(2)O(3) inhibited cell proliferation and clone formation ability, while promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the control group, PDCD4 group, As(2)O(3) group and As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were 0.21±0.03, 0.30±0.02, 0.43±0.05 and 0.57±0.06, respectively. And the expression levels of NF-κB p65 protein were 0.68±0.04, 0.52±0.03, 0.43±0.04, and 0.32±0.02, respectively. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of NF-κB p65 protein in PDCD4 group, As(2)O(3) group and As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), whereas the expression level of cleaved Caspase-3 protein was significantly increased (P<0.05). The changes in As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were more significant than those in PDCD4 group and As(2)O(3) groups (both P<0.05). Conclusion: PDCD4 enhances the inhibitory effect of As(2)O(3) on the growth and NF-κB signaling pathway in neuroblastoma cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5581-5594, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413564

RESUMO

Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder due to the existence of BCR-ABL fusion protein that allows the cells to keep proliferating uncontrollably. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors can inhibit the activity of BCR-ABL fusion protein to trigger the cells apoptosis, drug resistance or intolerance exists in part of CML patients. Arsenic sulfide in its raw form (r-As4S4) can be orally administrated and certain therapeutic effects have been found out in the treatment of hematologic malignancies through inducing cell apoptosis. Methods: In this work, a water-dissolvable arsenic sulfide nanoformualtion (ee-As4S4) composed of As4S4 particulates with 470 nm in diameter and encapsulated by a kind of hydrophilic polymer was fabricated and applied to the CML cell line K562, K562/AO2 and primary cells from the bone marrow of CML patients. Results: Results showed that instead of inhibiting the activity of BCR-ABL, ee-As4S4 induced direct degradation of BCR-ABL in K562 cells within 6 hr incubation, followed by the occurrence of erythroid differentiation in K562 after 72 hr incubation, evidenced by the significantly upregulated CD235a and benzidine staining, which was not detectable with r-As4S4. The ee-As4S4-induced erythroid differentiation was also observed in K562/AO2 cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells of CML patients. Mechanistic studies indicated that ee-As4S4 induced autophagy by downregulating the level of intracellular ROS and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α significantly, which led to the subsequent degradation of BCR-ABL. When the concentration was increased, ee-As4S4 induced much more significant apoptosis and cell cycle arrest than r-As4S4, and the cytotoxicity of the former was about 178 times of the latter. Conclusion: ee-As4S4 was capable of inducing significant erythroid differentiation of CML cells by inducing the direct degradation of BCR-ABL; the new effect could improve hematopoietic function of CML patients as well as inhibit the leukemic cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Células Eritroides/citologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Eritroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Eritroides/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5697-5711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413570

RESUMO

Purpose: Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) ions have been used as promising bioactive ions in the surface chemistry modification of titanium (Ti) bone implants to increase bone regeneration capacity. However, it is not clear which (Ca or Mg) plays the more important role in the early osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) when applied to the surface of commercially available microstructured Ti implants. This study investigated the relative effect of these two ions on the early osteogenic functionality of primary mouse bone marrow MSCs in order to obtain insights into the surface design of Ti implants with enhanced early osteogenic capacity. Methods and results: Wet chemical treatment was performed to modify a microrough Ti implant surface using Ca or Mg ions. Both the Ca and Mg-incorporated surfaces accelerated early cellular events and the subsequent osteogenic differentiation of MSCs compared with an unmodified microrough Ti surface. Surface Mg modification exhibited a more potent osteoblast differentiation-promoting effect than the Ca modification. Surface Mg incorporation markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of ß-catenin. Conclusion: These results indicate that alteration of the surface chemistry of microstructured Ti implants by wet chemical treatment with Mg ions exerts a more effect on promoting the early osteogenic differentiation of MSCs than Ca ions by enhancing early cellular functions, including focal adhesion development and stabilization of intracellular ß-catenin.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Magnésio/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Próteses e Implantes , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Cátions Bivalentes/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesões Focais/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química , Difração de Raios X , beta Catenina/metabolismo
17.
Cell Prolif ; 52(5): e12669, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate whether exosomes derived from miR-375-overexpressing human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) could enhance bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exosomes enriched with miR-375 (Exo [miR-375]) were generated from hASCs stably overexpressing miR-375 after lentiviral transfection and identified with transmission electron microscopy, nanosight and western blotting. The construction efficiency of Exo (miR-375) was evaluated with qRT-PCR and incubated with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to optimize the effective dosage. Then, the osteogenic capability of Exo (miR-375) was investigated with ALP and ARS assays. Furthermore, dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanism of miR-375 in osteogenic regulation. Finally, Exo (miR-375) were embedded with hydrogel and applied to a rat model of calvarial defect, and µ-CT analysis and histological examination were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Exo (miR-375) in bone regeneration. RESULTS: miR-375 could be enriched in exosomes by overexpressing in the parent cells. Administration of Exo (miR-375) at 50 µg/mL improved the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. With miR-375 absorbed by hBMSCs, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) was inhibited by binding to its 3'UTR, and recombinant IGFBP3 protein reduced the osteogenic effects triggered by Exo (miR-375). After incorporated with hydrogel, Exo (miR-375) displayed a slow and controlled release, and further in vivo analysis demonstrated that Exo (miR-375) enhanced the bone regenerative capacity in a rat model of calvarial defect. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study demonstrated that exosomes derived from miR-375-overexpressing hASCs promoted bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Exossomos/transplante , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/química , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Crânio/patologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Fraturas Cranianas/patologia , Fraturas Cranianas/terapia
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4095-4100, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethacridine is used as a topical antiseptic as well as for second-trimester abortion. Recent studies showed that ethacridine is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and an activator of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). This study examined the effects of ethacridine on thyroid cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133 and SW1736) and thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with ethacridine. Viability, clonogenicity, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis were evaluated. The expression of thyroid differentiation markers (TTF-1, PAX8, and NIS) was determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Ethacridine suppressed cell growth and clonogenic ability of thyroid cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). No cell-cycle arrest was found, but ethacridine dose-dependently induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells (p<0.001). The PAX8 and NIS expressions were significantly increased in SW1736 (3.41-fold and 1.53-fold, respectively) and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells (2.73-fold and 4.12-fold, respectively). CONCLUSION: Ethacridine elicits apoptotic cell death in thyroid cancer cells and promotes differentiation in a subset of thyroid follicular cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etacridina/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Simportadores/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Fator Nuclear 1 de Tireoide/genética
19.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(2): 337-354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The availability of truly maturated cardiomyocytic subtypes is a major prerequisite for cardiovascular cell replacement therapies. Pluripotent stem cells provide a suitable source for the development of new strategies to overcome enormous hurdles such as yield, purity and safety of in vitro generated cells. METHODS: To address these issues, we have refined existing forward programming protocols by combining forced exogenous overexpression of the early cardiovascular transcription factor Nkx2.5 with a αMHC-promoter-based antibiotic selection step. Additionally, we applied small molecules such as ascorbic acid to enhance cardiomyogenic differentiation efficiency. Subsequently, we evaluated the cell fate of the resulting cardiomyocytes on the mRNA as well as protein levels. The latter was performed using high-resolution confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we examined the response of the cells` beating activities to pharmacological substance administration. RESULTS: Our results reveal an apparent influence of Nkx2.5 on the cell fate of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Resulting single cells exhibit characteristics of early ventricular cardiomyocytes, such as sarcomeric marker expression, spontaneous beating frequency, and distinct L-type calcium channel occurrence. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we demonstrate cardiovascular subtype forward programming of ESCs using a combination of transcription factors along with small molecule administration. However, our findings also underline current assumptions, that a terminal maturation of PSC derived cardiomyocytes in vitro is still an unsolved problem which urgently needs to be addressed in the field.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Proteína Homeobox Nkx-2.5/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Proteína Homeobox Nkx-2.5/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Homeobox Nkx-2.5/genética , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Verapamil/farmacologia
20.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2136-2140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399190

RESUMO

A regulatory T (Treg) cell/T helper 17 (Th17) cell imbalance is involved in many autoimmune diseases. Rapamycin (Rapa), a clinically used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation but promote Treg cell generation. In this study, we aimed to study the mechanism of Rapa acting on Treg and Th17 cell differentiation. Purified mouse CD4+CD25- T cells were stimulated and polarized in vitro to generate Th17 or Treg cells in the presence or absence of Rapa. We first confirmed that Rapa inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells and greatly promoted Treg cell generation in vitro. As metabolic pathways play a key role in T cell differentiation, we then detected the metabolic programs in Rapa-treated T cells. We found that Rapa blocked glycolysis in induced Th17 cells, evidenced by reduced glucose uptake, and inhibited expression of glucose transporter 1 and the rate-limiting enzyme HK2. In addition, the expression of c-Myc and of HIF-1α transcription factor, which regulate many genes involved in glycolysis, were inhibited by Rapa. Conversely, Rapa promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) metabolism in differentiated Treg cells, with the elevation of FAO product ß-hydroxybutyrate, and increased expression of ATGL and CPT1A, the key enzymes of FAO in differentiated Treg cells. The expression of phospho-AMPKα, the key signal in the regulation of FAO, was also promoted in Rapa-treated induced Treg cells. Together, these findings indicated that Rapa abrogated glycolysis in Th17 cells but facilitated FAO in induced Treg cells, which may underlie the mechanism by which Rapa regulates the Treg/Th17 balance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
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