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1.
Yi Chuan ; 41(12): 1119-1128, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857283

RESUMO

Porcine skeletal muscle development is a complex biological process, and differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells is an important part of skeletal muscle development. In recent years, it has been found that lncRNA plays an important role in the differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells. Here we investigate the effect of lncRNA TCONS_00815878 on the differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells. We first used qRT-PCR to detect the expression levels of TCONS_00815878 in six tissues (heart, spleen, lung, kidney, back muscles and leg muscles) of Yorkshire piglets within seven days of birth. At the same time, the expression levels of TCONS_00815878 at five different time points from the embryonic stage to the postnatal stage (35 d, 45 d, 55 d of embryos, and 7 d, 200 d of postpartum leg muscles) were examined. The expression of the differentiation marker genes MyoD, MyoG and MyHC was examined by knocking down TCONS_00815878 in porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). The target gene of TCONS_00815878 was predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and the function and pathway of its target gene were predicted online using DAVID software. The results showed that TCONS_00815878 had the highest expression level in pig myocardium and leg muscles. Within seven days after birth, TCONS_00815878 increased in the muscle tissue of pigs, and reached the peak of expression level on the 7th day. During the process of proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, the expression level of TCONS_00815878 increased during the differentiation stage and peaked at 30 h of differentiation. After knocking down TCONS_00815878, the expression levels of MyoD, MyoG and MyHC were decreased, but the expression level of MyoD was significantly decreased (P<0.05). In addition, functional predictions revealed that the target gene of TCONS_00815878 is enriched in multiple biological processes, such as glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism, related to skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation. This study speculates that lncRNA TCONS_00815878 may promote the differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético , RNA Longo não Codificante , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Suínos
2.
Genes Dev ; 33(17-18): 1117-1135, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481536

RESUMO

T-cell development in mammals is a model for lineage choice and differentiation from multipotent stem cells. Although T-cell fate choice is promoted by signaling in the thymus through one dominant pathway, the Notch pathway, it entails a complex set of gene regulatory network and chromatin state changes even before the cells begin to express their signature feature, the clonal-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) for antigen. This review distinguishes three developmental modules for T-cell development, which correspond to cell type specification, TCR expression and selection, and the assignment of cells to different effector types. The first is based on transcriptional regulatory network events, the second is dominated by somatic gene rearrangement and mutation and cell selection, and the third corresponds to establishing a poised state of latent regulator priming through an unknown mechanism. Interestingly, in different lineages, the third module can be deployed at variable times relative to the completion of the first two modules. This review focuses on the gene regulatory network and chromatin-based kinetic constraints that determine activities of transcription factors TCF1, GATA3, PU.1, Bcl11b, Runx1, and E proteins in the primary establishment of T-cell identity.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Cromatina/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hematopoese , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/citologia , Timo/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Genes Dev ; 33(19-20): 1367-1380, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488578

RESUMO

Fat storage in adult mammals is a highly regulated process that involves the mobilization of adipocyte progenitor cells (APCs) that differentiate to produce new adipocytes. Here we report a role for the broadly conserved miR-26 family of microRNAs (miR-26a-1, miR-26a-2, and miR-26b) as major regulators of APC differentiation and adipose tissue mass. Deletion of all miR-26-encoding loci in mice resulted in a dramatic expansion of adipose tissue in adult animals fed normal chow. Conversely, transgenic overexpression of miR-26a protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity. These effects were attributable to a cell-autonomous function of miR-26 as a potent inhibitor of APC differentiation. miR-26 blocks adipogenesis, at least in part, by repressing expression of Fbxl19, a conserved miR-26 target without a previously known role in adipocyte biology that encodes a component of SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. These findings have therefore revealed a novel pathway that plays a critical role in regulating adipose tissue formation in vivo and suggest new potential therapeutic targets for obesity and related disorders.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1313-1322, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545082

RESUMO

This study investigated whether overexpression of paired-related homeobox 1 (prrx1) can successfully induce differentiation of brown adipose-derived stem cells (BADSCs) into sinus node-like cells. The experiments were performed in two groups: adenovirus-green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) group and Ad-prrx1 group. After 5-7 days of adenoviral transfection, the expression levels of sinus node cell-associated pacing protein (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 [HCN4]) and ion channel (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit [Cacna1g]), as well as transcription factors (T-box 18 [TBX18], insulin gene enhancer binding protein 1 [ISL-1], paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 [pitx2], short stature homeobox 2 [shox2]), were detected by western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunofluorescence assay was carried out to detect whether prrx1 was coexpressed with HCN4, TBX18, and ISL-1. Finally, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record pacing current hyperpolarization-activated inward current (If). The isolated cells were CD90+, CD29+, and CD45-, indicating that pure BADSCs were successfully isolated. After 5-7 days of Ad transfection into cells, the mRNA levels and protein levels of pacing-related factors (TBX18, ISL-1, HCN4, shox2, and Cacna1g) in Ad-prrx1 group were significantly higher than those in Ad-GFP group. However, the expression level of pitx2 was decreased. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that prrx1 was coexpressed with TBX18, ISL-1, and HCN4 in the Ad-prrx1 group, which did not appear in the Ad-GFP group. Whole-cell patch clamps were able to record the If current in the experimental group rather than in the Ad-GFP group. Overexpression of prrx1 can successfully induce sinus node-like cells.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/fisiologia , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/citologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Animais , Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nó Sinoatrial/citologia , Transfecção
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6151-6163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447557

RESUMO

Background: Precise control and induction of the differentiation of stem cells to osteoblasts by artificial biomaterials are a promising strategy for rapid bone regeneration and reconstruction. Purpose: In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-loaded hydroxyapatite (HA-Au) nanocomposites were designed to guide the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through the synergistic effects of both AuNPs and HA. Materials and methods: The HA-Au nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by several analytical techniques. Cell viability and proliferation of hMSCs were characterized by CCK-8 test. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscope. For the evaluation of osteogenic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and staining, Alizarin red staining, and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis were performed. In order to examine specific signaling pathways, RT-PCR and Western blotting assay were performed. Results: The results confirmed the successful synthesis of HA-Au nanocomposites. The HA-Au nanoparticles showed good cytocompatibility and internalized into hMSCs at the studied concentrations. The increased level of ALP production, deposition of calcium mineralization, as well as the expression of typical osteogenic genes, indicated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Moreover, the incorporation of Au could activate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, which seemed to be the molecular mechanism underlying the osteoinductive capability of HA-Au nanoparticles. Conclusion: The HA-Au nanoparticles exerted a synergistic effect on accelerating osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, suggesting they may be potential candidates for bone repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/enzimologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética
7.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1244-1255, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431722

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) recognize the microbial metabolite 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU) presented by the MHC class Ib molecule, MR1. MAIT cells acquire effector functions during thymic development, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Here we used single-cell RNA-sequencing to characterize the developmental path of 5-OP-RU-specific thymocytes. In addition to the known MAIT1 and MAIT17 effector subsets selected on bone-marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, we identified 5-OP-RU-specific thymocytes that were selected on thymic epithelial cells and differentiated into CD44- naive T cells. MAIT cell positive selection required signaling through the adapter, SAP, that controlled the expression of the transcription factor, ZBTB16. Pseudotemporal ordering of single cells revealed transcriptional trajectories of 5-OP-RU-specific thymocytes selected on either thymic epithelial cells or hematopoietic cells. The resulting model illustrates T cell lineage decisions.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/citologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/biossíntese , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/metabolismo , Timo/citologia , Timo/imunologia
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 3981-3989, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366479

RESUMO

Uterine sarcomas are rare but very aggressive. Uterine myomas, on the other hand, are the most common benign tumors of the uterus. Currently there is no diagnostic technique available to distinguish them with certainty. This study aimed to summarize the published literature concerning protein-based biomarkers in the peripheral blood that can assist in this difficult differential diagnosis. In total, 48 articles, published between 1990 and 2017, were included. Most studies (n=37) concerned soft tissue sarcomas, while 11 discussed uterine sarcomas specifically. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukins (IL), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), lactate dehydrogenase, gangliosides (LDH) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) are the most studied proteins in soft tissue sarcomas, including uterine sarcomas. Future research on improving sarcoma diagnosis should include these proteins.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Sarcoma/sangue , Neoplasias Uterinas/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Musculares/sangue , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4495-4502, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In mice, fetal liver is the first tissue of definitive erythropoiesis for definitive erythroid expansion and maturation. ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in primitive hematopoiesis and T cell development. The aim of this study was to examine whether or not Zfat is involved in definitive erythropoiesis in the fetal liver during mammalian development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The role of Zfat during mouse fetal erythropoiesis in the fetal liver was examined using tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 Zfat-deficient mice. RESULTS: Zfat-deficient mice exhibit moderate anemia with small and pale fetal liver through a decreased number of erythroblasts by E12.5. Apoptosis sensitivity in fetal liver erythroid progenitors was enhanced by Zfat-deficiency ex vivo. Moreover, Zfat knockdown partially inhibited CD71-/lowTer119- to CD71highTer119- transition of fetal liver erythroid progenitors with impairment in the elevation of CD71 expression. CONCLUSION: Zfat plays a critical role for erythropoiesis in the fetal liver.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Eritropoese/genética , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Células Eritroides/patologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(8): 751-759, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) anti-differentiation non-coding RNA (ANCR) on the osteogenesis of osteoblast cells in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice models of PMOP were established. ANCR expression and intracellular calcium ions were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and laser confocal microscopy, respectively. ANCR was silenced in osteoblast cells from PMOP mice by the transfection of siRNA-ANCR (si-ANCR). The proliferation and apoptosis of osteoblast cells was analyzed by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium nodules were examined by ALP and alizarin red staining assay, respectively. The expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and OSTERIX was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Furthermore, an osteogenesis model was constructed in mice, and osteoid formation was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The interaction between lncRNA-ANCR and EZH2 was further identified by RNA pull-down assay. RESULTS: ANCR expression and intracellular calcium ions were increased in PMOP mice. Si-ANCR significantly increased the proliferation, ALP activity, calcium deposition of osteoblast cells and decreased apoptosis. ANCR and EZH2 were down-regulated by si-ANCR, while RUNX2 and OSTERIX were upregulated. Si-ANCR also promoted osteoid formation in mice treated with hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate. In addition, ANCR specifically bound to EZH2. CONCLUSION: Silencing ANCR promotes the osteogenesis of PMOP osteoblast cells. The specific binding of ANCR with EZH2 suppressed RUNX2, thereby inhibiting osteogenesis.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/genética , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteogênese/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Transcrição Sp7/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3049, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296872

RESUMO

The transcription factor p63 is a master regulator of ectoderm development. Although previous studies show that p63 triggers epidermal differentiation in vitro, the roles of p63 in developing embryos remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebrafish embryos to analyze in vivo how p63 regulates gene expression during development. We generate tp63-knock-out mutants that recapitulate human phenotypes and show down-regulated epidermal gene expression. Following p63-binding dynamics, we find two distinct functions clearly separated in space and time. During early development, p63 binds enhancers associated to neural genes, limiting Sox3 binding and reducing neural gene expression. Indeed, we show that p63 and Sox3 are co-expressed in the neural plate border. On the other hand, p63 acts as a pioneer factor by binding non-accessible chromatin at epidermal enhancers, promoting their opening and epidermal gene expression in later developmental stages. Therefore, our results suggest that p63 regulates cell fate decisions during vertebrate ectoderm specification.


Assuntos
Ectoderma/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Placa Neural/embriologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Ectoderma/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Epiderme/embriologia , Epiderme/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Modelos Animais , Placa Neural/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(21): 4309-4317, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300869

RESUMO

Adult stem cells have a unique capacity to renew themselves and generate differentiated cells that are needed in the body. These cells are recruited and maintained by the surrounding microenvironment, known as the stem cell niche, during organ development. Thus, the stem cell niche is required for proper tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation is associated with tumorigenesis and tissue degeneration. The identification of niche components and the mechanisms that regulate niche establishment and maintenance, however, are just beginning to be uncovered. Germline stem cells (GSCs) of the Drosophila ovary provide an excellent model for studying the stem cell niche in vivo because of their well-characterized cell biology and the availability of genetic tools. In this review, we introduce the ovarian GSC niche, and the key signaling pathways for niche precursor segregation, niche specification, and niche extracellular environment establishment and niche maintenance that are involved in regulating niche size during development and adulthood.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Células-Tronco de Oogônios/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/fisiologia , Células-Tronco de Oogônios/fisiologia , Ovário/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Genes Dev ; 33(15-16): 1069-1082, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221664

RESUMO

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are regulated by a network of transcription factors that maintain the pluripotent state. Differentiation relies on down-regulation of pluripotency transcription factors disrupting this network. While investigating transcriptional regulation of the pluripotency transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), we observed that homozygous deletion of distal enhancers caused a 17-fold decrease in Klf4 transcript but surprisingly decreased protein levels by less than twofold, indicating that posttranscriptional control of KLF4 protein overrides transcriptional control. The lack of sensitivity of KLF4 to transcription is due to high protein stability (half-life >24 h). This stability is context-dependent and is disrupted during differentiation, as evidenced by a shift to a half-life of <2 h. KLF4 protein stability is maintained through interaction with other pluripotency transcription factors (NANOG, SOX2, and STAT3) that together facilitate association of KLF4 with RNA polymerase II. In addition, the KLF4 DNA-binding and transactivation domains are required for optimal KLF4 protein stability. Posttranslational modification of KLF4 destabilizes the protein as cells exit the pluripotent state, and mutations that prevent this destabilization also prevent differentiation. These data indicate that the core pluripotency transcription factors are integrated by posttranslational mechanisms to maintain the pluripotent state and identify mutations that increase KLF4 protein stability while maintaining transcription factor function.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2705, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221969

RESUMO

Folded single chain polymeric nano-objects are the molecular level soft material with ultra-small size. Here, we report an easy and scalable method for preparing single-chain nanogels (SCNGs) with improved efficiency. We further investigate the impact of the dynamic molecular conformational change of SCNGs on cellular interactions from molecular to bulk scale. First, the supramolecular unfoldable SCNGs efficiently deliver siRNAs into stem cells as a molecular drug carrier in a conformation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the conformation changes of SCNGs enable dynamic and precise manipulation of ligand tether structure on 2D biomaterial interfaces to regulate the ligand-receptor ligation and mechanosensing of cells. Lastly, the dynamic SCNGs as the building blocks provide effective energy dissipation to bulk biomaterials such as hydrogels, thereby protecting the encapsulated stem cells from deleterious mechanical shocks in 3D matrix. Such a bottom-up molecular tailoring strategy will inspire further applications of single-chain nano-objects in the biomedical area.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Hidrogéis/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Conformação Molecular , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(5): 775-783, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222996

RESUMO

Messenger RNA (mRNA) can be modified by more than 100 chemical modifications. Among these modifications, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most prevalent modifications. During the processes of cells differentiation, embryo development or stress, m6A can be modified on key mRNAs and regulate the progress of cells through modulating mRNA metabolism and translation. Other mRNA modifications, including N1-methyladenosine (m¹A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and pseudouridine, together with m6A form the epitranscriptome of mRNA that accurately modulate the mRNA translation. Here we review the types and characteristic of mRNA epigenetic modifications, especially the recent progresses of the function of m6A, we also expect the main research direction of m6A epigenetic modification in the future.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(7): 835-844, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209294

RESUMO

Totipotency refers to the ability of a cell to generate all of the cell types of an organism. Unlike pluripotency, the establishment of totipotency is poorly understood. In mouse embryonic stem cells, Dux drives a small percentage of cells into a totipotent state by expressing 2-cell-embryo-specific transcripts. To understand how this transition takes place, we performed single-cell RNA-seq, which revealed a two-step transcriptional reprogramming process characterized by downregulation of pluripotent genes in the first step and upregulation of the 2-cell-embryo-specific elements in the second step. To identify factors controlling the transition, we performed a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated screen, which revealed Myc and Dnmt1 as two factors preventing the transition. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that Myc prevents downregulation of pluripotent genes in the first step, while Dnmt1 impedes 2-cell-embryo-specific gene activation in the second step. Collectively, the findings of our study reveal insights into the establishment and regulation of the totipotent state in mouse embryonic stem cells.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Genes myc/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Totipotentes/citologia
17.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 266-273, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212097

RESUMO

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a key role in tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment, which helps tumors avoid immune destruction. Blocking the suppressive activities of MDSCs could be a promising strategy to enhance the effect of anti-tumor immunotherapies. In this study, we found that TLR1/TLR2 expression predicted favorable prognosis of lung cancer patients. In the related mice tumor model, TLR1/TLR2 activation by synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/2 agonist, greatly inhibited tumor growth and selectively decreased monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Furthermore, BLP treatment redirected M-MDSC differentiation towards M1 macrophage through JNK pathway, and thus blocked the suppressive activity of M-MDSCs in a TLR2-dependent manner. Therefore, our data demonstrated that TLR2 could be a promising biomarker and a potential immunotherapeutic target for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/fisiologia , Células Mieloides , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Croat Med J ; 60(3): 201-211, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187947

RESUMO

AIM: To assess whether an adenoviral vector carrying the bone morphogenetic protein genes (Ad.BMP-2) can transduce human muscle tissue and direct it toward osteogenic differentiation within one hour. METHODS: This in vitro study, performed at the Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Zagreb from 2012 to 2017, used human muscle tissue samples collected during anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions performed in St Catherine Hospital, Zabok. Samples from 28 patients were transduced with adenoviral vector carrying firefly luciferase cDNA (Ad.luc) by using different doses and times of transduction, and with addition of positive ions for transduction enhancement. The optimized protocol was further tested on muscle samples from three new patients, which were transduced with Ad.BMP-2. Released bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) levels in osteogenic medium were measured every three days during a period of 21 days. Expression of osteogenic markers was measured at day 14 and 21. After 21 days of cultivation, muscle tissue was immunohistochemically stained for collagen type I detection (COL-I). RESULTS: The new transduction protocol was established using 108 plaque-forming units (P<0.001) as an optimal dose of adenoviral vector and 30 minutes (P<0.001) as an optimal contact time. Positive ions did not enhance transduction. Samples transduced with Ad.BMP-2 according to the optimized protocol showed enhanced expression of osteogenic markers (P<0.050), BMP-2 (P<0.001), and COL I. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that Ad.BMP-2 can transduce human muscle tissue and direct it toward osteogenic differentiation within 30 minutes.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Osteogênese/genética , Transdução Genética , Adenoviridae , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Melhoramento Genético , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tendões/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2571, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189930

RESUMO

While the antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) extends the castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients' survival an extra 4.8 months, it might also result in some adverse effects via inducing the neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). Here we found that lncRNA-p21 is highly expressed in the NEPC patients derived xenograft tissues (NEPC-PDX). Results from cell lines and human clinical sample surveys also revealed that lncRNA-p21 expression is up-regulated in NEPC and Enz treatment could increase the lncRNA-p21 to induce the NED. Mechanism dissection revealed that Enz could promote the lncRNA-p21 transcription via altering the androgen receptor (AR) binding to different androgen-response-elements, which switch the EZH2 function from histone-methyltransferase to non-histone methyltransferase, consequently methylating the STAT3 to promote the NED. Preclinical studies using the PDX mouse model proved that EZH2 inhibitor could block the Enz-induced NED. Together, these results suggest targeting the Enz/AR/lncRNA-p21/EZH2/STAT3 signaling may help urologists to develop a treatment for better suppression of the human CRPC progression.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Células Neuroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Nature ; 571(7765): 403-407, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217581

RESUMO

Activated CD4 T cells proliferate rapidly and remodel epigenetically before exiting the cell cycle and engaging acquired effector functions. Metabolic reprogramming from the naive state is required throughout these phases of activation1. In CD4 T cells, T-cell-receptor ligation-along with co-stimulatory and cytokine signals-induces a glycolytic anabolic program that is required for biomass generation, rapid proliferation and effector function2. CD4 T cell differentiation (proliferation and epigenetic remodelling) and function are orchestrated coordinately by signal transduction and transcriptional remodelling. However, it remains unclear whether these processes are regulated independently of one another by cellular biochemical composition. Here we demonstrate that distinct modes of mitochondrial metabolism support differentiation and effector functions of mouse T helper 1 (TH1) cells by biochemically uncoupling these two processes. We find that the tricarboxylic acid cycle is required for the terminal effector function of TH1 cells through succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), but that the activity of succinate dehydrogenase suppresses TH1 cell proliferation and histone acetylation. By contrast, we show that complex I of the electron transport chain, the malate-aspartate shuttle and mitochondrial citrate export are required to maintain synthesis of aspartate, which is necessary for the proliferation of T helper cells. Furthermore, we find that mitochondrial citrate export and the malate-aspartate shuttle promote histone acetylation, and specifically regulate the expression of genes involved in T cell activation. Combining genetic, pharmacological and metabolomics approaches, we demonstrate that the differentiation and terminal effector functions of T helper cells are biochemically uncoupled. These findings support a model in which the malate-aspartate shuttle, mitochondrial citrate export and complex I supply the substrates needed for proliferation and epigenetic remodelling early during T cell activation, whereas complex II consumes the substrates of these pathways, which antagonizes differentiation and enforces terminal effector function. Our data suggest that transcriptional programming acts together with a parallel biochemical network to enforce cell state.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Acetilação , Animais , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Malatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
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