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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500636

RESUMO

The African pumpkin (Momordica balsamina) contains bioactive phenolic compounds that may assist in reducing oxidative stress in the human body. The leaves are mainly consumed after boiling in water for a specific time; this hydrothermal process and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may affect the presence and bioactivity of phenolics either positively or negatively. In this study, the effects of hydrothermal processing (boiling) and in vitro simulated human digestion on the phenolic composition, bioaccessibility and bioactivity in African pumpkin were investigated in comparison with those of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). A high-resolution ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection, quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic metabolites. Metabolites such as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were highly concentrated in the boiled vegetable extracts compared to the raw undigested and all digested samples. The majority of African pumpkin and spinach extracts (non-digested and digested) protected Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), (mouse fibroblast) L929 and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells from 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage. From these results, the consumption of boiled African pumpkin leaves, as well as spinach, could be encouraged, as bioactive metabolites present may reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126146, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492932

RESUMO

As worldwide edible fungi, Lentinula edodes and Agaricus bisporus accumulate both essential and harmful metals. Metal bioavailability is important for metal benefit-risk assessment. A full functional model of digestive tracts (including digestion, metabolism, and absorption) is established. Under the digestive tract functions, the bioaccessible and bioavailable metals are released from edible fungi and absorbed by intestinal tract, respectively. Based on bioavailable metal contents in the intestine, safe dosage and maximum consumption are 43.52 g/d and 248.7 g/d for Agaricus bisporu, 20.59/328.9 g/d (for males/ female) and 132.9 g/d for Lentinus edodes; V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cr, Cd and Pb in Agaricus bisporus and Lentinula edodes are absorbed mainly in the large intestine; Fe is mainly absorbed in small intestine; edible fungi species-specificity in metal bioavailability is observed for As and Mn, which are mainly absorbed by small and large intestine for Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes, respectively; and then metal toxicity on small and large intestine is disclosed. Metal benefit-risk is assessed by the content of monolayer liposome-extracted metal in the chyme from small and large intestine, which is controlled by the gastrointestinal functions, metal and edible fungi species.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Metais Pesados , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomimética , Digestão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
3.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505134

RESUMO

Twelve Angus steers (BW 452.8 ± 6.1 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were used to determine the impact of trace mineral (TM) source on digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition, ruminal soluble concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn, and relative binding strength of trace minerals located in the rumen insoluble digesta fraction. Steers were fed a medium-quality grass hay diet (DM basis: 10.8% CP, 63.1% neutral detergent fiber [NDF], 6.9 mg Cu/kg, 65.5 mg Mn/kg, and 39.4 mg Zn/kg) supplemented with protein for 21 d. Treatments consisted of either sulfate (STM) or hydroxy (HTM) sources (n = 6 steers/treatment) to provide 20, 40, and 60 mg supplemental Cu, Mn, and Zn/kg DM, respectively. Following a 21-d adaptation period, total fecal output was collected for 5 d. Dry matter (P < 0.07) and CP (P < 0.06) digestibility tended to be reduced, and NDF (P < 0.04) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (P < 0.05) digestibility were reduced in STM- vs. HTM-supplemented steers. On day 6, ruminal fluid was collected at 0, 2, and 4 h post-feeding and analyzed for VFA. There were no treatment x time interactions for VFA. Steers receiving HTM had less (P < 0.02) molar proportions of butyric acid and greater (P < 0.05) total VFA concentrations than STM-supplemented steers. Steers were then fed the same diet without supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 14 d. On day 15 steers received a pulse dose of 20 mg Cu, 40 mg Mn, and 60 mg Zn/kg DM from either STM or HTM (n = 6 steers/treatment). Ruminal samples were obtained at 2-h intervals starting at -4 and ending at 24 h relative to dosing. There was a treatment x time interaction (P < 0.03) for ruminal soluble Cu, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Ruminal soluble mineral concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for Cu at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h; for Mn at 4 and 6 h; and for Zn at 4, 6, and 8 h post-dosing in STM compared with HTM-supplemented steers. Copper concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) at 12 and 24 h and Zn concentrations in ruminal solid digesta were greater at 24 h in HTM-supplemented steers. Upon dialysis against Tris-EDTA, the percent Zn released from digesta was greater (P < 0.05) at 12 h (P < 0.03) and 24 h (P < 0.05), and the percent Cu released was greater (P < 0.02) at 24 h post-dosing in HTM steers when compared with STM-supplemented steers. Results indicate that Cu and Zn from HTM have low solubility in the rumen and appear to be less tightly bound to ruminal solid digesta than Cu and Zn from STM. The lower ruminal soluble concentrations of Cu and Zn in steers given HTM were associated with greater fiber digestibility.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Rúmen
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10688-10699, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472353

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient; however, potential health impacts of high dietary levels of added soluble, highly bioavailable P salts especially are a concern. P sources with lower bioavailability are considered safer. Yet, speciation of different P sources to assess diets' risk to health is challenging. This investigation tested the value of in vitro water extraction and digestion assays to predict in vivo P apparent bioavailability/digestibility in feline diets. Thirty wet (n = 18) and dry (n = 12) format experimental and commercial cat foods were analyzed for nutrient content. Triplicate samples were subjected to in vitro water extraction, single-phase acidic (gastric; G) digestion, and dual-phase gastric and small intestinal (G-SI) digestion assays. Soluble and insoluble P were determined in the supernatant and pellet, respectively. A subset of the diets (seven wet, nine dry diets) was fed to healthy, adult cats (n = 7-24) to determine in vivo apparent P digestibility. Information on the soluble P salt sources and their contribution to total dietary P was available for some diets. Associations between data from the different in vitro assays and in vivo digestibility trials and the influence of different diet parameters were obtained using Pearson correlation and linear regression modeling. The % soluble P obtained from G-SI digestion assay correlated well with in vivo apparent P digestibility for wet (Pearson coefficient 0.926, p = 0.003), but not for dry diets (Pearson coefficient -0.074, p = 0.849). In contrast, the % soluble P determined by water extraction correlated well with the % soluble P salt contribution to total P for dry (Pearson coefficient 0.901, p < 0.001), but not for wet diets (Pearson coefficient -0.407, p = 0.365). Thus, 20 min water extraction can be used to predict soluble P salt content in dry diets; however, differing Ca:P ratios and water solubility of the P sources may affect the outcome and false-positive results can occur. The G-SI digestion assay employed can also be used to predict in vivo P digestibility. However, again, diet format, Ca:P ratios in diets, and possibly other factors can impact the results. Thus, data from in vitro assays to assess P sources and bioavailability need to be interpreted with care.


Assuntos
Digestão , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Fósforo
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 448, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533661

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two marker dosage frequencies and two spot fecal sampling frequencies on the variability of fecal output estimation and fecal recovery rate in grazing Blanco Orejinegro (BON) steers with chromium (Cr) or titanium (Ti) as external markers. Four steers (230.5 ± 14.4 kg BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in a split-plot arrangement with two markers: Cr or Ti, two marker dosage frequencies: 10.0 g Cr2O3 or TiO2/steer once daily (DF1) or 5.0 g Cr2O3 or TiO2/steer twice daily (DF2), and two fecal sampling frequencies: spot sampling once daily (SF1) or spot sampling twice daily (SF2). Steers were equipped with fecal collection bags to evaluate the actual fecal output (FOR). Fecal marker concentration (FMC) was affected by marker dosage frequency × fecal sampling frequency interaction (P = 0.032): SF1DF1 allowed higher FMC (2.26 g/kg DM) than SF2DF1 (1.95 g/kg DM). Chromium marker allowed higher estimated fecal output (FOe) values when compared to FOR (P < 0.001). Both Ti mean and SD bias (+ 0.074 ± 0.160 kg) were lower than Cr mean and SD bias (+ 0.312 ± 0.272 kg). The Ti fecal output prediction showed lower both RSR (0.586 vs 1.401) and MSPE (0.029 vs 0.167) than Cr prediction. The titanium external marker allowed fecal output estimation with more accuracy in grazing beef cattle trials. A protocol including a once-daily marker dosage associated with a once-daily fecal sampling is plausible, allowing good fecal recovery rates and accurate fecal output estimation.


Assuntos
Digestão , Titânio , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Compostos de Cromo , Dieta
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 452, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535849

RESUMO

Forage allowance impacts dry matter (DM) intake and the use of nutrients by ruminants. The efficient use of protein and energy from pasture is related to better livestock performance and lower environmental impacts. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of forage allowance levels on intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and methane (CH4) emissions by lambs fed fresh pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. An indoor trial was performed using lambs in a completely randomized design with four treatments [forage allowance at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg DM/100 kg of live weight (LW), and ad libitum allowing 20% of refusals] and four replicates (lambs). Forage intake, digestibility, total urine and feces excretion, and CH4 emission were measured to calculate N and energy balances. An increase in forage allowance resulted in a linear increase in lamb forage intake, N retention, and metabolizable energy intake. Moreover, lamb CH4 emission (g/day) also increased with greater forage allowance, while CH4 yield decreased linearly as forage allowance increased. Our results indicate that maximizing forage intake improves N and energy use efficiency and mitigates CH4 yield and decreases CH4 conversion factor (Ym) by lambs fed pearl millet forage. Thus, management strategies that optimize intake of tropical forages by ruminants improve the use of nutrients ingested and mitigates negative impacts to the environment.


Assuntos
Metano , Pennisetum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lactação , Nitrogênio , Rúmen , Ovinos , Zea mays
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 454, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536113

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including palm kernel cake (PKC) in high-concentrate diets for feedlot goat kids on nutrient intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, and performance. Thirty-two castrated crossbred Boer × mixed breed goat kids with an average age of 4 months and an initial body weight of 19.65 ± 3.00 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The diets included one of four levels (0, 12, 24, and 36%) of PKC on a total dry matter basis. The PKC inclusion in the diets promoted quadratic effects in the nutrient intakes (P ≤ 0.05). The digestibility of ether extract increased (P = 0.010), whereas the digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.017) with the inclusion of PKC. Palm kernel cake inclusion promoted a quadratic effect on the time spent per episode feeding and decreased the times spent idling and ruminated bolus per day (P ≤ 0.05). The ingested and retained nitrogen decreased with the inclusion of PKC (P ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of PKC in the diets had quadratic effects in the cholesterol concentrations, albumin (A), globulin (G), A:G ratio, and gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme activity (P ≤ 0.05). The PKC inclusion promoted a quadratic increase in total weight gain (P = 0.026), with the highest value achieved at the inclusion level of 11.68%. The inclusion of up to 12% PKC in high-concentrate diets increases the intake and growth performance without compromising the digestibility of nutrients and feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Digestão , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Nitrogênio
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358957

RESUMO

Growth performance, organ weight, ceca digesta short chain fatty acids (SCFA), jejunal histomorphometry, tibia ash, apparent retention (AR) of components and caloric efficiency were investigated in broiler chicken strains differing in growth rate fed diets with multienzyme supplement (MES). The strains differed in estimated time to reach 2.1 kg BW: 37, 43, 47, and 50 d and were designated C, F, J, and N, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet was formulated for 2-phase program (starter and grower) and fed without or with MES containing phytase, protease and fiber-degrading enzymes. A total of 640-day-old chicks (42.3 + 0.01 g/bird) were housed in cages (5 cockerels and 5 pullets/cage) and allocated to give 8 replicates/ strain and diet combination. Equal amount of feed was fed based on observed ad-libitum intake of C strain in the starter (d 0-14) and grower (d 15-28). Body weight was monitored, grab excreta samples taken and at completion of allocated feed one bird per cage necropsied for samples. With exception of P, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and ceca digesta acetic acid, there was no (P > 0.05) interaction between strain and MES on examined responses. Strains differed (P < 0.01) on growth, FCR, gizzard weight, tibia ash, breast weight, ceca digesta concentration of lactic, propionic, and isobutyric acid and caloric efficiency. The final body weight (BW) was 1,344, 1,134, 959, and 916 g/bird for C, F, J, and N, respectively. Corresponding caloric efficiency was 4,930, 5,807, 6,680 and 7,199 kcal/kg BW gain, respectively. Birds fed MES had higher BW gain (P < 0.05) in grower phase, larger gizzard, higher AR of CP, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and Ca than non-MES birds. In conclusion, growth rate influenced organ attributes, nutrient, and caloric utilization. Enzyme supplementation improved growth in grower phase and nutrient utilization independent of strain, suggesting that effects of feed enzymes are not influenced by inherent growth rate.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Soja , Zea mays
9.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110474, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399471

RESUMO

The effects of enzymatic extraction strategies on extractability, bioconversion, and bioaccessibility of biologically active isoflavone aglycones, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from full-fat soy flour were evaluated. Protease, tannase, and cellulase enzymes were used individually or in combination. Except for the protease treatment, all enzymatic treatments increased the extraction of biologically active isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) compared with the control. The use of a mixture of protease, tannase, and cellulase resulted in increased extractability and/or bioconversion of aglycones from soy flour, indicating a synergistic effect amongst the enzymes. Daidzein and genistein concentrations increased from 29.0 to 158.2 µg/g and from 27.0 to 156.5 µg/g (compared to the control), respectively. Furthermore, enzymatic extraction followed by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the bioaccessibility of isoflavone aglycones, total phenolic content (by 22-45%), and antioxidant activity (by 15-22%) of the extracts. These results demonstrate that enzyme selection is an efficient strategy to maximize the extraction, bioconversion, and bioaccessibility of bioactive isoflavones from soy flour, which could contribute to health benefits associated with the consumption of soy-rich products.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Soja , Digestão , Farinha , Genisteína
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10194-10205, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435766

RESUMO

Milk fat globules (MFGs) are the major source of energy for infants' dietary intake. In this study, the effects of changes in the structure and composition of MFG after dairy processing on lipolysis and immune regulation were investigated. Pasteurized MFG tends to form protein aggregates to prevent lipolysis. However, the aggregate is rich in neutrophil degranulation products, which are effective in killing pathogens. Homogenized MFG has the lowest hydrolysis rate due to the reconstituted anti-lipase barrier and exposed apolipoprotein. Simultaneously, the reconstituted barrier can compensate for the lack of the complement cascade. Spray-dried MFG had the highest hydrolysis rate attributable to the disrupted MFG barrier and the release of lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. The immunomodulatory properties of spray-dried MFG proteins are mainly mediated by the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. This research provides the improvement basis of dairy processing and functional infant formulas.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos , Gotículas Lipídicas , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Glicoproteínas , Proteínas do Leite
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 430, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363100

RESUMO

This research trial is aimed to study the nutritional qualities and significance of feeding spent marigold flower meal (SMFM) in goats. SMFM and diet containing iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixture with different levels of spent marigold flower meal (0-30%) were studied for in vitro degradation. Depending upon the in vitro results, concentrate mixture containing 15% level of SMFM was selected for in vivo trial. In vivo studies were conducted for a period of 60 days, and 12 local, non-descript, adult male goats (10-14 months age; 31.09 ± 2.91 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to two groups and were fed on ad libitum wheat straw with either conventional (control) or SMFM containing concentrate mixture (treatment). Results of the study showed that there was no variation in body weight of the goats between periods and between groups. DM and OM intake along with their digestibility were similar among the two groups. The digestibility of all other nutrients was comparable between the two groups. Nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance were positive in both the groups without any significant disparity. Moreover, experimental goats did not differ in biochemical parameters, without any significant difference between periods and dietary treatments except AST level which was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in treatment group. So, this study successfully demonstrates that SMFM could be incorporated in the concentrate mixture, up to 15% without any discernable difference in the performance of goats.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Flores , Masculino
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371955

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of quinoa protein as the source of antihypertensive peptides through in vitro enzymolysis, there is little evidence supporting the in vivo antihypertensive effect of intact quinoa protein. In this study, in vivo study on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was conducted by administering quinoa protein for five weeks. Gastrointestinal content identification indicated that many promising precursors of bioactive peptides were released from quinoa protein under gastrointestinal processing. Quinoa protein administration on SHRs resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure, a significant increase in alpha diversity, and microbial structure alternation towards that in non-hypertension rats. Furthermore, blood pressure was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of genera in quinoa protein-treated SHRs, such as Turicibacter and Allobaculum. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota in quinoa protein-treated SHRs shared more features in the composition of genera with non-hypertension rats than that of the captopril-treated group. These results indicate that quinoa protein may serve as a potential candidate to lower blood pressure and ameliorate hypertension-related gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium quinoa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333604

RESUMO

Obesity and estrogen reduction are known to affect the gut microbiota and gut microbial-derived metabolites in some species, but limited information is available in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary macronutrient profile on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota, and fecal metabolites of adult female dogs after spay surgery. Twenty-eight adult intact female beagles (age: 3.02 ± 0.71 yr, BW: 10.28 ± 0.77 kg; BCS: 4.98 ± 0.57) were used. After a 5-wk baseline phase (week 0), 24 dogs were spayed and randomly allotted to one of three experimental diets (n = 8 per group): 1) control (CO) containing moderate protein and fiber (COSP), 2) high-protein, high-fiber (HPHF), or 3) high-protein, high-fiber plus omega-3 and medium-chain fatty acids (HPHFO). Four dogs were sham-operated and fed CO (COSH). All dogs were fed to maintain BW for 12 wk after spay and then allowed to consume twice that amount for 12 wk. Fecal samples were collected at weeks 0, 12, and 24 for digestibility, microbiota, and metabolite analysis. All data were analyzed using repeated measures and linear mixed models procedure of SAS 9.4, with results reported as a change from baseline. Apparent organic matter and energy digestibilities had greater decreases in HPHF and HPHFO than COSH and COSP. Increases in fecal acetate, total short-chain fatty acids, and secondary bile acids were greater and decreases in primary bile acids were greater in HPHF and HPHFO. Principal coordinates analysis of weighted UniFrac distances revealed that HPHF and HPHFO clustered together and separated from COSH and COSP at weeks 12 and 24, with relative abundances of Faecalibacterium, Romboutsia, and Fusobacterium increasing to a greater extent and Catenibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella 9, Eubacterium, and Megamonas decreasing to a greater extent in HPHF or HPHFO. Our results suggest that high-protein, high-fiber diets alter nutrient and energy digestibilities, fecal metabolite concentrations, and fecal gut microbiota, but spay surgery had minor effects. Future research is needed to investigate how food intake, nutrient profile, and changes in hormone production influence gut microbiota and metabolites of dogs individually and how this knowledge may be used to manage spayed pets.


Assuntos
Digestão , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Cães , Fezes , Feminino , Nutrientes
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343290

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to (1) determine net energy (NE) values of soybean meal (SBM), Napus canola meal (NCM), Juncea canola meal (JCM), field pea, and wheat millrun (WM) using indirect calorimetry, and (2) compare the determined NE values with the calculated NE values of the same feedstuffs based on a prediction equation. In experiment 1, six ileal-cannulated barrows (31 kg) were fed five diets in 5 × 6 Youden square to give six replicates per diet. Diets were cornstarch-based diets containing SBM, NCM, JCM, field pea, or WM. The SBM was included as a reference. In experiment 2, six ileal-cannulated barrows (70 kg) were fed a N-free diet for determining energy digestibility and NE values of test feedstuffs fed in experiment 1 by difference method. The NE values of test feedstuffs were also calculated from the digestible energy (DE) values and analyzed macronutrient content of the test feedstuffs. On dry matter (DM) basis, SBM, NCM, JCM, field pea, and WM contained 51%, 41%, 42%, 28%, and 18% crude protein; 1.52%, 2.95%, 2.36%, 1.33%, and 3.12% ether extract; 2.93%, 0.14%, 1.44%, 36.7%, and 28.7% starch; and 5.30%, 21.0%, 13.4%, 9.49%, and 16.1% acid detergent fiber, respectively. The determined NE value for SBM (2.29 Mcal/kg) did not differ from that of NCM (1.72 Mcal/kg DM) or JCM (2.14 Mcal/kg DM). The NCM and JCM did not differ in NE value. Also, the determined NE value did not differ between field pea (2.00 Mcal/kg) and WM (2.55 Mcal/kg). The calculated NE values for SBM (2.18 Mcal/kg DM), NCM (1.73 Mcal/kg DM), and JCM (1.86 Mcal/kg DM) did not differ from the corresponding determined NE values of the same feedstuffs. However, the calculated NE value for field pea (2.51 Mcal/kg DM) was greater (P = 0.004) than the determined NE value of field pea, whereas the calculated NE value for WM (2.27 Mcal/kg DM) tended to be lower (P = 0.054) than the determined NE value of WM. In conclusion, the NE value for SBM and canola meals can be predicted based on the DE value and the macronutrient composition of the same feedstuffs. However, the NE value for field pea and WM may not be predicted precisely based on the DE value and the macronutrient composition of the same feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Digestão , Triticum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Refeições , Ervilhas , Soja , Suínos
15.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10104-10113, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449210

RESUMO

Lipid digestion characteristics in human, bovine, and caprine milk were investigated using an infant in vitro digestion model. Our results suggested that particle size in bovine and caprine milk increased initially and then decreased over time, whereas the particle size in human milk continuously decreased. The lipolysis degree of human milk (86.8%) was higher than that in bovine (80.2%) and caprine (82.7%) milk (P < 0.05). Compared to human milk, bovine and caprine milk released higher unsaturated fatty acids and lower SFAs. In addition, 12 and 84 glyceride species were significantly different between bovine and human milk, during gastrointestinal digestion (P < 0.05). Another 13 and 92 glyceride species were found to be significantly different between caprine and human milk. A total of 30 and 31 lipids were screened as biomarkers to further clarify the differences related to lipid digestion properties of human, bovine, and caprine milk.


Assuntos
Cabras , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Lipídeos , Leite Humano
17.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110566, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399542

RESUMO

Sphingolipids (SLs) are common in all eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses, and played a vital role in human health. They are involved in physiological processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and signal transduction. However, there are limited reviews on dietary effects on endogenous SLs metabolism and further on human health. Various dietary conditions, including the SLs-enriched diet, high-fat diet, and vitamins, can change the level of endogenous SLs metabolites and even affect human health. This review systematically summarizes the main known SLs in foods concerning their variety and contents, as well as their isolation and identification approaches. Moreover, the present review discusses the role of dietary (particularly SLs-enriched diet, high-fat diet, and vitamins) in endogenous SLs metabolism, highlighting how exogenous SLs are digested and absorbed. The role of SLs family in the pathogenesis of diseases, including cancers, neurological disorders, infectious and inflammatory diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, and in recently coronavirus disease-19 outbreak was also discussed. In the post-epidemic era, we believe that the concern for health and the need for plant-based products will increase. Therefore, a need for research on the absorption and metabolism pathway of SLs (especially plant-derived SLs) and their bioavailability is necessary. Moreover, the effects of storage treatment and processing on the content and composition of SLs in food are worth exploring. Further studies should also be conducted on the dose-response of SLs on human health to support the development of SLs supplements. More importantly, new approaches, such as, making SLs based hydrogels can effectively achieve sustained release and targeted therapies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esfingolipídeos , Digestão , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340123

RESUMO

Comminuting the ingested material in the stomach and fermentation in the large intestine of ostriches, allows an efficient utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs. The entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of 61 adult ostriches (both sexes; av. age of 15 mo), which had previously been fed a ration consisting of either haylage and pelleted compound feed (HP) or haylage, corn silage and pelleted compound feed (HCP), was the subject of the present investigations. The weight of the different compartments of the GIT was measured. The digesta was differentiated into inorganic and organic substances. Wet sieving was used to separate the collected stones (>19 mm), small stones (1 mm), and sand (<1 mm). Ostriches fed the HCP diet had a significantly higher empty gizzard weight (3,435 g) compared to those fed the HP diet (3,064 g). Additionally, the weight of the empty cecum (left and right parts) was increased (P < 0.05) for ostriches fed the HCP diet (107 and 122 g, respectively) in comparison to those fed the HP diet (93.4 and 108 g, respectively). The weight of pure digesta in the gizzard and left or right cecum for ostriches fed the HP diet was higher (1,640, 448, and 471 g, respectively) compared to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). The contents of crude ash and HCl-insoluble ash in the digesta of all the GIT compartments were higher for ostriches fed the HP diet in comparison to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). Independent of the type of the offered diet, the large stones occurred only in the proventriculus and gizzard (2.71 and 4.76%, respectively), while sand dominated in the distal colon (30.3%). The high proportion of stones in the gizzard form the "mechanical equipment" which enables the animals to grind basic feed such as corn silage or haylage, and these are almost completely excreted as sand. Continuous stone replacement for ostriches is necessary but the amount mostly depends on the type of feed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Struthioniformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Estômago
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333648

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different proportions of 'Au Grazer' sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don], a legume rich in condensed tannins (CT), on nutrient intake and digestibility, and to estimate methane (CH4) emissions and 13C isotopic composition (δ13CCH4) from beef steers consuming a forage-based diet. Twenty-five Angus-crossbred steers were distributed in a randomized complete block design (344 ± 48 kg initial BW), and randomly assigned to one of five treatments: 0SL, 25SL, 50SL, 75SL, and 100SL, diets containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of SL hay, respectively, mixed with 'Tifton-85' bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp.). The study was carried out for two experimental periods of 21-d each. The statistical model included the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of block, experimental period, and their interaction. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber was linearly decreased (P < 0.001) by the inclusion of SL. No effects were observed for total CH4 emissions per day, nor for CH4 relative to organic matter intake or digestible organic matter with the inclusion of SL. However, emission of CH4 in relation to intake of CT was affected by treatment (P < 0.001). A linear (P < 0.001) decrease and a quadratic effect (P < 0.001) were observed for δ13C of diets and gas, respectively, in which diets and enteric CH4 with greater inclusion of SL were more depleted in 13C. Moreover, the difference in δ13C between diets and gas (Δδ13C) had a linear decrease (P = 0.001) with the inclusion of SL. The model developed to predict the C3 proportions in the enteric CH4 fitted to predicted values (P < 0.0001). Therefore, greater proportions of SL resulted in lesser CH4 emission when CT intake was considered and the isotopic composition from enteric CH4 was able to predict the contribution of SL in the emissions.


Assuntos
Lespedeza , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cynodon , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metano , Rúmen
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371979

RESUMO

Grape pomace (GP) is a winemaking by-product rich in polyphenols and fibre. Supplementation with GP extracts has shown potential benefits against oxidative stress- and inflammation-related pathologies. As a new nutritional target, this paper explores the impact of the ingestion of a grape pomace extract on intestinal barrier functionality. A GP extract was sequentially subjected to gastrointestinal and colonic digestion using the dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (simgi®). This generated two simulated fluids: intestinal-digested extract (IDE) and colonic-digested extract (CDE). The effects of these two fluids on paracellular permeability and the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (i.e., zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) were assessed in Caco-2-cell monolayers grown in Transwell® inserts. The IDE fluid significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the paracellular transport of FITC-dextran with respect to the control, whereas no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for CDE, which could be due, at least partially, to the pro-leaky effect of the colonic digestion medium. Accordant slight increases in the mRNA levels of both ZO-1 and occludin were observed for IDE, but without statistical significance. Additionally, the colonic fermentation of the GP extract promoted the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and phenolic metabolites and led to changes in the relative abundance of some bacteria that might affect paracellular permeability. Overall, this paper reports first trends about the effects of grape pomace extracts on intestinal permeability that would require further confirmation in future experiments.


Assuntos
Digestão , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/química , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ocludina/genética , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Vinho , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1
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