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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10734-10743, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479252

RESUMO

Glutenin is the main protein of flour and is a very important source of protein nutrition for humans. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is an important product of the Maillard reaction that occurs during the hot-processing of flour products, and it reacts with glutenin to facilitate changes in glutenin properties. Here, the effects of MGO on glutenin digestion during the heating process were investigated using a simulated MGO-glutenin system. MGO significantly reduced the digestibility of glutenin. The structure of MGO-glutenin and physicochemical properties were studied to understand the mechanism of the decrease of digestibility. These data suggest that changes in digestibility were caused by decreases in surface hydrophobicity and increases in disulfide bonds. MGO induces strong aggregation of glutenin after heating that led to the masking of cleavage sites for proteases. Moreover, carbonyl oxidation induced by MGO leads to intermolecular cross-linking of glutenin that increasingly masks or even destroys cleavage sites, further decreasing digestibility.


Assuntos
Glutens/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Culinária , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Reação de Maillard , Oxirredução , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10756-10763, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483626

RESUMO

AFEX treatment of crop residues can greatly increase their nutrient availability for ruminants. This study investigated the concentration of acetamide, an ammoniation byproduct, in AFEX-treated crop residues and in milk and meat from ruminants fed these residues. Acetamide concentrations in four AFEX-treated cereal crop residues were comparable and reproducible (4-7 mg/g dry matter). A transient acetamide peak in milk was detected following introduction of AFEX-treated residues to the diet, but an alternative regimen showed the peak can be effectively mitigated. Milk acetamide concentration following this transition was 6 and 10 ppm for cattle and buffalo, respectively, but also decreased over time for cattle while tending to decrease (p = 0.08) for buffalo. There was no difference in acetamide concentration in the meat of cattle consuming AFEX-treated residues for 160 days compared to controls. Further investigation is necessary to determine the metabolism of acetamide in ruminants and a maximum acceptable daily intake for humans.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Acetamidas/metabolismo , Amônia/química , Animais , Búfalos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Leite/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10534-10542, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464434

RESUMO

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (FCSSJ) has been demonstrated with various biological activities; however, its precise structure is still controversial, and digestive behavior remains poorly understood. FCSSJ was purified, and its detailed structure was elucidated mainly based on the NMR spectroscopic methods. Its main chain was characterized as →4)-ß-d-GlcA-(1 → 3)-ß-d-GalNAc-(1→ with GalNAc4S6S:GalNAc4S in a ratio of 1.5:1, and three types of sulfated fucosyl branches attaching C-3 of GlcA, namely, Fucp2S4S, Fucp3S4S, and Fucp4S, were found in a ratio of 2:1.5:1. The digestibility of FCSSJ was investigated in vitro, and the unchanged molecular weight and reducing sugar content indicated that FCSSJ was not broken down under salivary and gastrointestinal digestion. Furthermore, FCSSJ showed a significant inhibitory impact on pancreatic lipase dose-dependently but not on α-amylase, indicating that the inhibition of pancreatic lipase by FCSSJ might be a pathway for its hypolipidemic effect. These findings propose a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and provide insight into the mechanism of its physiological effects in the digestion system.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Stichopus/química , Animais , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9907-9915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436102

RESUMO

The impact of covalent or non-covalent bound gallic acid (GA) on the formation, physicochemical properties, and digestion of ovotransferrin (OTF) nanofibrils was comprehensively studied. Thioflavin T fluorescence results revealed that bound GA could inhibit OTF nanofibrillation and that the fibril-inhibitory activity of bound GA was dose dependent. Covalent bound GA exerted stronger inhibition on OTF nanofibrillation than an equal amount of non-covalent bound GA. Atomic force microscopy revealed that covalent bound GA shortened OTF nanofibrils significantly, while non-covalent bound GA did not change the contour length of OTF fibrils remarkably. Bound GA altered diameter of OTF nanofibrils. Both covalent and non-covalent bound GA could alter the zeta potential, surface hydrophobicity, and rheological properties of OTF nanofibrils. Bound GA endowed OTF nanofibrils with a strong antioxidant activity. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion results showed that covalent bound GA elevated the fibril digestion rate better than non-covalent bound GA. Polyphenol binding provided a new approach to modulating the physicochemical properties of protein nanofibrils.


Assuntos
Conalbumina/química , Ácido Gálico/química , Nanofibras/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Conalbumina/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Biológicos , Reologia
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 17-22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395200

RESUMO

In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation and lamb performance. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ±â€¯1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: Infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and Uninfected (U, n = 9). The I lambs received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week for three weeks). Daily feed intake was assessed using the I lambs as a reference for their respective pairs on the U group (pair-fed). Weight, body condition score and faeces (stool) samples were obtained every 15 days for 75 days. In both treatments, faecal egg count (FEC), digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa count and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were evaluated. The lambs presented moderate infection (FEC = 620). The retention time of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum segment was lower (P < 0.05) in I lambs. The I lambs presented no inappetence, however, lower concentrations of total SCFA and butyrate, while higher acetate concentration were observed in these lambs (P < 0.05). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection decreased the retention time (solid and liquid content) of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum, as well as negatively affected lamb growth.


Assuntos
Digestão , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/veterinária , Animais , Apetite , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/patologia , Trichostrongylus
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 125085, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260951

RESUMO

Plantain is a climacteric fruit having economic relevance in several tropical regions. Unripe plantain is an alternative source of indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre) and undigestible starch fraction. Unripe plantain flour was explored in this work as an alternative ingredient (whole and pulp) in spaghetti formulations. Chemical composition, cooking quality, texture analysis, and microstructure of spaghetti formulations were analyzed. The microstructure results showed that the presence of fiber in the food matrix helped the reduction of the starch granule swelling in the cooking process. Spaghetti made with whole plantain flour exhibited lower rapidly starch fraction, with increased resistant starch fractions. Overall, the whole unripe plantain flour exhibited good potential for gluten-free spaghetti having highest content of fiber and lower starch digestion rates.


Assuntos
Farinha , Plantago/química , Culinária , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Amido/química
7.
Food Chem ; 298: 125091, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272049

RESUMO

The complexation of Lepidium sativum protein hydrolysate (LSPH) with a lipophilic molecule, curcumin (CUR), and its effect on curcumin in vitro bioaccessibility/stability, functional and antioxidant activity were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the LSPH/CUR complex confirmed the presence of hydrophobic interactions that led to the complex formation. The LSPH (10-30 kDa) fraction showed a compact complexation with curcumin at pH 3.0 with excellent aqueous solubility, stability, and bioaccessibility. Further, complexation enhanced the aqueous solubility of curcumin more than 856-fold. In vitro sequential simulated gastric and intestinal digestion indicated that the bioaccessibility of curcumin was increased from 67% to 95% post complexation. The functional attributes suggest that the LSPH/CUR complex has good foam-forming capacity and emulsion stability, which are crucial for food product formulations. The results indicate that, since LSPH is a dietary protein, it might possibly be formulated as a functional food and as an excellent lipophilic bioactive molecule delivery vehicle in food formulations.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lepidium sativum/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Digestão , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Emulsões/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
8.
Food Chem ; 298: 124949, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260990

RESUMO

Starch digestibility and polyphenol content were investigated in six (white, red and purple) Thai rice varieties. Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), amylose content, gelatinization parameters and in vitro digestibility were determined. Purple and red rice varieties were found to have the highest levels of TPC, TAC and amylose content. TAC was not detected in white rice, while purple rice had the highest values. Gelatinization parameters were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Red rice (Sung Yod) showed the highest gelatinization enthalpy. Non-pigmented rice (Hom Mali) in both purified starch and flour showed the highest starch digestibility, with a total starch digestibility of 76.85% and a digestion rate of 0.25 min-1. In contrast pigmented rice varieties showed lower starch digestibility. These results suggest that pigmented rice varieties are a source of phenolics and anthocyanin and also a possible good source of low digestible starch to develop as functional food products.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Oryza , Amido/química , Amilose/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentação , Amido/farmacocinética , Tailândia
9.
Food Chem ; 298: 125040, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261008

RESUMO

The effects of co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot, baby spinach and/or cherry tomato on the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins and carotenoids such as α-carotene, ß-carotene, lutein and lycopene were examined using a simulated in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion model. The individual vegetables and their mixtures were digested with and without added a standardised salad dressing. Bioaccessibility of total anthocyanins was enhanced by 10-15% (p < 0.05) when red cabbage was co-digested with the carotenoid-rich vegetables, except with carrot. In contrast, the co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot decreased bioaccessibility of total carotenoids by 21-33% (p < 0.05), and with cherry tomato by 42-56% (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of a given carotenoid varied depending on the vegetable matrix. Among the tested vegetable mixtures, red cabbage and baby spinach when co-digested demonstrated that anthocyanins and carotenoids were equally bioaccessible (total anthocyanin bioaccessibility of 62-66% and total carotenoid bioaccessibility of 66%).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Verduras/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Digestão , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Saliva , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 298: 125024, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261007

RESUMO

We investigated the allergenicity, digestibility and functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) after covalent conjugation with chlorogenic acid (CHA). The covalent conjugation of CHA may cause an unfolded protein structure. The WPI-CHA conjugate showed lower IgE binding capacity but higher intestinal digestibility than unmodified WPI. Furthermore, after digestion, the IgE binding capacity of ß-lactoglobulin and α-lactoalbumin was lower in the digested WPI-CHA conjugate than digested WPI. Moreover, the solubility, emulsifying activity, foaming properties and antioxidant capacity of WPI were enhanced by covalent conjugation of CHA. Covalent conjugation with CHA might reduce the allergenicity in vitro of WPI by improving the functional properties of the protein.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Digestão , Emulsões/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Solubilidade
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012940, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine monitoring of gastric residuals in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice in many neonatal intensive care units and is used to guide the initiation and advancement of feeds. No guidelines or consensus is available on whether to re-feed or discard the aspirated gastric residuals. Although re-feeding gastric residuals may replace partially digested milk, gastrointestinal enzymes, hormones, and trophic substances that aid in digestion and promote gastrointestinal motility and maturation, re-feeding abnormal residuals may result in emesis, necrotising enterocolitis, or sepsis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of re-feeding compared to discarding gastric residuals in preterm infants. The allocation should have been started in the first week of life and should have been continued at least until the baby reached full enteral feeds. The investigator could have chosen to discard the gastric residual in the re-feeding group, if the gastric residual quality was not satisfactory. However, the criteria for discarding gastric residual should have been predefined.To conduct subgroup analysis based on gestational age (≤ 27 weeks, 28 weeks to 31 weeks, ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g, 1000 g to 1499 g, ≥ 1500 g), type of milk (human milk or formula milk), quality of the gastric residual (fresh milk, curded milk, or bile-stained gastric residual), volume of gastric residual replaced (total volume, 50% of the volume, volume of the next feed, or prespecified volume, irrespective of the volume of the aspirate, e.g. 2 mL, 3 mL), and whether the volume of gastric residual that is re-fed is included in or excluded from the volume of the next feed (see "Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity"). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 19 February 2018), Embase (1980 to 19 February 2018), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 19 February 2018). We also searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared re-feeding versus discarding gastric residuals in preterm infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data. We analysed treatment effects in individual trials and reported the risk ratio and risk difference for dichotomous data, and the mean difference for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We found one eligible trial that included 72 preterm infants. This trial was not blinded.We are uncertain as to the effect of re-feeding gastric residual on efficacy outcomes such as time to regain birth weight (mean difference (MD) 0.40 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.89 to 3.69 days; very low quality evidence), time to reach enteral feeds ≥ 120 mL/kg/d (MD -1.30 days, 95% CI -2.93 to 0.33 days; very low quality evidence), number of infants with extrauterine growth restriction at discharge (risk ratio (RR) 1.29, 95% CI 0.38 to 4.34; very low quality evidence), duration of total parenteral nutrition (MD -0.30 days, 95% CI -2.07 to 1.47 days; very low quality evidence), and length of hospital stay (MD -1.90 days, 95% CI -25.27 to 21.47 days; very low quality evidence).Similarly, we are uncertain as to the effect of re-feeding gastric residual on safety outcomes such as incidence of stage 2 or 3 necrotising enterocolitis and/or spontaneous intestinal perforation (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.04; very low quality evidence), number of episodes of feed interruption lasting ≥ 12 hours (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.52; very low quality evidence), or mortality before discharge (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.85; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain as to the effect of re-feeding gastric residual in the subgroups of human milk-fed and formula-fed infants. We found no data on other outcomes such as linear and head growth during hospital stay, postdischarge growth, number of infants with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found only limited data from one small unblinded trial on the efficacy and safety of re-feeding gastric residuals in preterm infants. The quality of evidence was low to very low. Hence, available evidence is insufficient to support or refute re-feeding of gastric residuals in preterm infants. A large, randomised controlled trial is needed to provide data of sufficient quality and precision to inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Digestão , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 446-447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273640

RESUMO

Cookies are one of the most consumed bakery products and the formulation could be modified to consider them as a functional food. The high amylose maize starch (HAMS) is considered as resistant starch (RS) type 2. The objective of this work was to assess the starch fractions, texture, sensory properties and acceptability of wheat flour cookies added with HAMS at different percentages. Adding 15% of HAMS into the formulation increased the amount of RS from 2.3 to 12.8%. In sensory analysis, children and adults showed a good acceptability of cookies since the addition of HAMS did not result in significant changes in flavor or color. Cookies made with HAMS could be considered as functional foods since they had an acceptable texture and low caloric content.


Assuntos
Amilose/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Adulto , Criança , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Paladar
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9399-9410, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304753

RESUMO

This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to characterize the diffusion of acid and water within food structures during gastric digestion. Two different sweet potatoes (steamed and fried) and egg white gel (pH5 and pH9 EWGs) structures were exposed to in vitro gastric digestion before scanning by HSI. Afterward, the moisture or acid present in the digested sample was analyzed for calibration purposes. Calibration models were subsequently built using partial least-squares (PLS). The PLS models indicated that the full-wavelength spectral range (550-1700 nm) had a good ability to predict the spatial distribution of acid (Rcal2 > 0.82) and moisture (Rcal2 > 0.88). The spatiotemporal distributions of moisture and acid were mapped across the digested food, and they were shown to depend on the food composition and structure. The kinetic data revealed that the acid and moisture uptakes are governed by Fickian diffusion or by both diffusion and erosion-controlled mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Suco Gástrico/química , Ipomoea batatas/química , Ácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Difusão , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Cinética , Água/análise
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7898-7907, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282664

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effects of silencing HB12 and TT8 genes on protein utilization characteristics of alfalfa. Ground samples of 11 HB12-silenced (HB12i), 5 TT8-silenced (TT8i) and 4 wild type (WT) were incubated in a Daisy II incubator with N15 labeled ammonium sulfate for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. CP degradation and degradational kinetics, microbial nitrogen fractions, and protein metabolic profiles were determined. Moreover, relationships between protein profiles and FTIR spectral parameters were estimated. Results showed that transgenic alfalfa had lower CP degradation, microbial protein, and total available protein compared with WT, especially for HB12i. In addition, CP degradation and protein metabolic profiles were closely correlated with FTIR spectral parameters and thereby could be predicted from spectral parameters. In conclusion, silencing of HB12 and TT8 genes in alfalfa decreased protein degradational and metabolic profiles, which were predictable with FTIR spectral parameters.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Medicago sativa/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Digestão , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Cinética , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/microbiologia
15.
Food Chem ; 300: 125192, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362158

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has several benefits for humans, and the development of healthier rice with an improved dietary fiber composition has attracted increasing amounts of attention. Based on the method of AOAC 2002.02, we developed a simplified method to screen polished rice containing high total dietary fiber (TDF). Mutant cw with a high TDF content could be distinguished easily from R7954 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica) by the digestion-resistant phenotype, which is characterized as an almost intact grain after hydrolysis by pepsin, pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The individuals identified from the F2 population showed digestion resistance all had TDF content higher than 5%, while those without a digestion-resistant phenotype had TDF content lower than 5%. The phenotype of digestion resistance could be a valuable index for identifying rice with higher TDF content, and the identification of this phenotype provides a simplified, economical and high throughput method for high TDF rice breeding.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Oryza/química , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Pepsina A/química , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Amido/análise , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 298: 125087, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272052

RESUMO

In this study, comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and traditional thermal processing methods (baking and steaming) on cod proteins. Results showed that HHP, but not baking or steaming, was able to increase the content of soluble protein nitrogen (1.42-fold), compared with control. Total peptide contents of HHP-treated samples were also significantly higher than baked and steamed ones. In addition, protein oxidation was greatly increased after baking (1.56-fold) and steaming (1.97-fold), whereas HHP did not exhibit any appreciable effect. Furthermore, the allergenicity of cod was significantly reduced after HHP as reflected by the attenuated IgE and IgG-binding capacities (67-84% relative to control), while baking and steaming resulted in higher allergenicity. This study strongly supports the potential of HHP for reducing allergenicity, avoiding protein oxidation, and improving digestibility of cod and other protein-rich foods susceptible to quality deterioration during thermal processing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/química , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gadus morhua , Animais , Culinária , Digestão , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/farmacocinética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão Hidrostática , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Carbonilação Proteica , Vapor , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
17.
Food Chem ; 299: 125115, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288161

RESUMO

The nutritional and antinutritional components of minor millets were correlated with mixolab dough mixing behavior and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Total arabinoxylan (r = -0.53, p < 0.05) and dietary fiber (r = -0.66, p < 0.05) content significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein weakening. Peak viscosity negatively correlated with phenolic (r = -0.55, p < 0.05) content. The dietary fiber and phenolics suppressed retrogradation. Protein digestibility negatively correlated with tannin (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = -0.69, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = -0.79, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = -0.72, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.84, p < 0.05). A positive correlation of resistant starch (RS) with total dietary fiber (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = 0.83, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) and tannin content (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) was observed. Millets predicted lower glycemic index than wheat and it was found to be negatively associated with the RS (r = -0.96, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.89, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) with rapidly digestible starch. The millets may be diversified for personalized nutrition and development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pão , Milhetes , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Índice Glicêmico , Milhetes/química , Panicum/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Reologia , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Viscosidade , Xilanos/análise
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8617-8625, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293160

RESUMO

Inhibiting starch digestion can effectively control postprandial blood sugar level. In this study, the in vitro digestion differences among the mixtures of five polyphenols (i.e., procyanidins [PAs], catechin [CA], tannic acid [TA], rutin [RU], and quercetin [QU]) and starch were analyzed through an in vitro simulation test of starch digestion. The interaction characteristics of these five polyphenols with α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated in terms of the inhibition effect, dynamics, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism (CD). The results revealed that the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased, while the resistant starch (RS) contents increased. All five polyphenols inhibited the α-amylase activity through the noncompetitive approach but inhibited the α-glucosidase activity through the competitive approach. Five polyphenols combined with α-amylase spontaneously by using the hydrophobic effect. The interaction of PAs and QU with α-glucosidase were recognized as van der Waals forces and H bonding, whereas CA and TA interacted with α-glucosidase through the hydrophobic effect. All five polyphenols can cause conformational changes in enzymes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Animais , Digestão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos , Leveduras/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8212-8226, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309827

RESUMO

The factors that determine the digestion rate of starches were revealed using different forms of starches and a mixture of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. Gelatinized starch samples with a degree of gelatinization (DG) from 12.2 to 100% for potato starch and from 7.1 to 100% for lotus seed starch were obtained. With an increasing DG, the short- and long-range molecular orders of both starches were disrupted progressively. The first-order digestion rate constant (k) of both starches increased with an increasing DG, although the positive linear relationships between DG and k differed (R2 = 0.87 for potato starch, and R2 = 0.74 for lotus seed starch). The mean fluorescence intensity showed a positive linear correlation with DG, which was strong for potato starch (R2 = 0.99) and relatively weaker for lotus seed starch (R2 = 0.54). These results indicated that DG is a major determinant for the digestion rate of potato starch and lotus seed starch and that the access/binding of enzymes to starch was the main rate-limiting factor for digestion of starches.


Assuntos
Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/química , Lotus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , Biocatálise , Digestão , Hidrólise , Cinética , Sementes/química
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8419-8424, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267740

RESUMO

Increasing the dietary fiber of staple foods such as bread is an attractive way to promote healthy eating in a large part of the population, where dietary fiber consumption is reportedly below the recommended values. However, many consumers prefer white breads, which are typically low in dietary fiber. In this work, white bread was made from two wheat cultivars with differing fiber contents. The resulting breads showed similar quality parameters (volume, specific volume, firmness, inner structure characteristics) with any differences maintained below 7%. Bread digestibility was evaluated using a novel dynamic in vitro digestion model. Reduced digestion rates of 30% were estimated for the high-fiber white bread compared to that in the control. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential to produce healthy, high-fiber white breads that are acceptable to consumers, with a reduced rate of starch digestion, by exploiting a genetic variation in the dietary fiber content of wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química
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