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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100962, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652522

RESUMO

Total replacement of dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi) by a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant (PhyG) in phytate-rich diets (>0.3% phytate-P) was investigated in 2 trials using growth performance and bone quality as outcome measures. Both trials utilized a completely randomized design with 5 dietary treatments across 4 phases: starter (0-10 d), grower (10-21 d), finisher 1 (21-35 d), and finisher 2 (35-42 d). Treatments comprised a nutritionally adequate positive control (PC) diet containing monocalcium phosphate and 4 experimental diets (IPF1, IPF2, IPF3, and IPF4), all containing no added Pi and reduced in Ca by 0.2 to 0.3% units vs. PC. IPF1contained PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg (all phases); IPF2 contained PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg (all phases) and was additionally reduced in digestible AA, ME, and sodium (-0.2 to -0.4% points, -74 kcal/kg, -0.04% points, respectively, vs. PC); IPF3 contained PhyG at 3,000 FTU/kg in starter, 2,000 FTU/kg in grower, and 1,000 FTU/kg in finisher phases; and IPF4 contained xylanase (2,000 U/kg) and PhyG (2,000 FTU/kg in starter, 1,500 FTU/kg in grower, and 1,000 FTU/kg in finisher phases) and was additionally reduced in ME (-71 kcal/kg vs. PC). Ross 308 broilers were used (trial 1: n = 1,200 mixed sex; 24 birds per pen × 10 replicates; trial 2: n = 1,300 males; 26 birds × 10 replicates). During all phases in both trials, all IPF treatments maintained or improved BW, ADG, ADFI, FCR and BW-corrected FCRc and bone quality parameters vs. PC. vs. PC, treatment IPF3 increased ADG during starter phase (+10.8%) and reduced overall FCRc (-12 points, P < 0.05) in Trial 1, and increased overall ADG (+4.4%), day 35 and day 42 BW (+3.5%, +4.9%), and reduced overall FCRc (-11 points) in Trial 2 (P < 0.05). IPF4 produced equivalent performance to IPF3 (both trials). These are the first data to demonstrate total replacement of Pi by microbial phytase during an entire growth cycle in broiler diets.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Osso e Ossos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
2.
Food Funct ; 12(5): 1983-1995, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537688

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of young apple polyphenols (YAP) on starch digestion and gut microbiota, complexes of native wheat starch (NWS) with YAP, and their main components chlorogenic acid (CA) and phlorizin (P) were fabricated and gelatinized. Through XRD and FTIR analysis, it was found that the partial crystalline structure of NWS was destroyed during gelatinization, and the addition of P decreased the extent of destruction. Then, the gelatinized starchy samples were subjected to in vitro digestion. The wheat starch (WS)-phenolic compound complexes significantly suppressed the digestion rate and increased the proportion of resistant starch (RS) in WS. Furthermore, the residual starchy components after digestion were fermented by human fecal samples for 24 h. The WS-YAP complex greatly increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic and propionic acids, and enhanced the growth of health-promoting gut microbiota such as Prevotella. Conclusively, YAP was shown to play a positive role in maintaining blood glucose balance and intestinal health.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cristalização , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560359

RESUMO

The interest in using byproducts from agro-food industries as a rearing substrate for insects is increasing rapidly. We investigated the influence of byproducts of vegetal origin (okara-a byproduct of soy milk production, maize distillers with solubles, brewer's grains), used as rearing diet for black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), on the following parameters: biomass production, substrate reduction (SR), nutritional profile and in vitro digestibility, and larval gut microbiota. Hen diet was used as a control substrate. The highest larval biomass was collected on maize distillers, whereas the highest SR was observed on okara. The rearing substrate affected ash, ether extract, and chitin larval content. The BSFL reared on okara were characterized by a lower lauric acid content (17.6% of total fatty acids). Diets also influenced in vitro crude protein digestibility (%) for monogastrics, with the highest values for BSFL reared on maize distillers (87.8), intermediate for brewer's grains and okara BSFL, and the lowest for hen BSFL (82.7). The nutritive value for ruminants showed a lower Net Energy for lactation for BSFL reared on hen diet than okara and dried maize distillers BSFL. The different byproducts showed an influence on the larval gut microbiota, with a major bacterial complexity observed on larvae fed with the hen diet. The neutral detergent fiber concentration of dietary substrate was negatively correlated with Firmicutes and Actinobacteria relative abundance. Insects valorized byproducts converting them into high-value larval biomass to be used for feed production. The results evidenced the effects of the tested byproducts on the measured parameters, underling the chemical composition importance on the final insect meal quality.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Digestão , Dípteros/fisiologia , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Microbiota , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Dípteros/química , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/microbiologia , Larva/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100889, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516483

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on egg production, nutrients digestibility, eggs yolk lipid peroxidation, and intestinal morphology in laying hens under physiological stress were investigated. Ninety-six 35-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were used in 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dexamethasone (DEX) (0 and 1.5 mg/kg of the diet) and 3 levels of omega-3 fatty acids (0, 0.24, or 0.48% of the diet) in a completely randomized design. At 41 wk of age, the stress groups were continuously fed with a DEX 1.5 mg/kg diet for 1 wk. Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio were recorded. In addition, the AME, digestibility of CP, crude fat (CF), and organic matter were measured during the stress induction period. At the end of 41 wk of age, malondialdehyde and cholesterol concentrations in the egg yolk and intestinal morphology were investigated. The results showed that egg production, egg mass (P < 0.0001), egg weight (P = 0.043), and BW (P = 0.0005) were lower in DEX layers. Feed intake was reduced by the interaction between DEX and omega-3 fatty acid (P = 0.042). Malondialdehyde value (P = 0.002) and cholesterol concentration (P = 0.001) in egg yolk increased by DEX administration. The combination of DEX administration and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation was found in the indices of intestinal morphology such as villus height and width and crypt depth (P < 0.05). Administration of DEX decreased the CP digestibility (P < 0.0001) and AME (P = 0.006). Digestibility of CF and AME in the group of 0.48% omega-3 fatty acids were higher (P < 0.05) than those of 0 and 0.24%. In conclusion, we found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids had beneficial effects on gut morphology and nutrient digestibility in laying hens under physiological stress. However, they could not alleviate the negative effects of physiological stress on performance.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Trato Gastrointestinal , Estresse Fisiológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dexametasona/toxicidade , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 224-234, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357685

RESUMO

Inositol is the final product of phytate degradation, which has the potential to serve as an indicator of phytase efficacy. An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementing broiler diets with phytase on phytate degradation and plasma inositol concentrations at 28 d of age. Twenty-four Ross × Ross 708 male chicks were placed in battery cages (4 birds per cage) from 1 to 21 d of age and individually from 22 to 28 d of age. At 27 d of age, a catheter was placed in the brachial vein of broilers to avoid repeated puncture of the vein during blood collection. At 28 d of age, broilers received 1 of 3 experimental diets formulated to contain 0, 400, or 1,200 phytase units (FTU)/kg, respectively, in diet 1, 2, and 3. Blood was collected 1 h before feeding experimental diets and from 20 to 240 min after feeding experimental diets at 20-min intervals with a final blood collection at 480 min to determine plasma inositol concentrations. Inositol phosphate (IP) ester degradation was determined in gizzard contents and ileal digesta. Broilers provided the 1,200 FTU/kg phytase diet had 60% less (P < 0.01) IP6 concentration in gizzard content (1,264 vs. 4,176 nmol/g) and ileal digesta (13,472 vs. 33,244 nmol/g) than birds fed the 400 FTU/kg diet. Adding phytase at 1,200 FTU/kg increased (P < 0.01) inositol concentrations in gizzard content and ileal digesta of broilers by 2.5 (2,703 vs. 1,071 nmol/g) and 3.5 (16,485 vs. 4,667 nmol/g) fold, respectively, compared with adding 400 FTU/kg. Plasma inositol concentration of broilers was not different (P = 0.94) among the dietary treatments at each collection time. Inositol liberation in the digesta of broilers fed diets with 1,200 FTU/kg phytase did not translate to increased plasma inositol concentrations, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Plasma , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Inositol/sangue , Masculino , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Plasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma/enzimologia
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1630-1644, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358160

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of feeding dairy calves starter diets containing 19% or 22% crude protein (CP) content on a dry matter basis and either supplemented or not with soybean oil (SBO, 0 vs. 3%, dry matter basis) on growth performance, digestibility, urinary nitrogen, and purine derivatives (PD) excretion. A total of 48 female Holstein dairy calves (mean 39.8 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed to experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The 4 dietary treatments were (1) starter diet without SBO supplement and 19% CP (NSBO-19CP), (2) starter diet without SBO supplement and 22% CP (NSBO-22CP), (3) starter diet with 3% SBO and 19% CP (SBO-19CP), and (4) starter diet with 3% SBO and 22% CP (SBO-22CP). Milk feeding value was similarly based on a constant protocol across experimental treatments and calves had ad libitum access to water and starter diets throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 63 of age and remained in the study until d 83 of age. Calves supplemented with SBO had lower starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) and lower feed efficiency (FE) but had a higher fecal score indicating a higher likelihood of diarrhea occurrence compared with unsupplemented calves. Wither heights, digestibilities of organic matter, CP, and neutral detergent fiber were decreased, and ruminal volatile fatty acids tended to be reduced, and the molar proportion of ruminal butyrate (preweaning) and acetate (postweaning) reduced by supplemental SBO. The urinary allantoin and total PD excretion were reduced; however, urinary nitrogen excretion was increased when calves were supplemented with SBO. The CP amount did not affect starter feed intake, FE, or diarrhea occurrence rate, whereas the 22CP diets increased neutral detergent fiber digestibility, improved ADG (tendency), and increased allantoin and urinary PD excretion compared with the 19CP diets. The starter feed intake, ADG, FE, diarrhea occurrence rate, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation were not affected by the interaction between starter SBO and CP level; however, hip height and total PD in calves that received the SBO-22CP diets were higher than those fed the SBO-19CP diets. In conclusion, based on our experimental conditions, supplemental SBO could not be recommended for dairy calves. Furthermore, our findings indicate that SBO has negative effects on performance more attributed to reducing starter intake, digestibility, and ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration rather than because of a limitation of starter metabolizable protein supply and intestinal amino acid availability. Therefore, our results indicate that feeding the higher starter CP content is not a viable strategy to compensate for the negative effects of SBO supplementation on the growth performance of dairy calves.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Purinas/urina , Rúmen/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Soja/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Desmame
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117324, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357885

RESUMO

Pectin is natural biopolymer derived from various plant sources and its activity is driven by functional groups. Affinity of pectin and chemical interactions of the active sites to chemicals in media determines fate of adjuvant molecules. Pectin is appropriate co-polymer in modulation of drawbacks of other biopolymers such as low glass transition temperature, low water solubility, and susceptibility to human digestive tract. However, functionality of pectin is improved by its optimized complexation with other chemicals especially in food packaging and tissue engineering. In the last decade, several technical and health-related functions of pectin have been studied through which some products designed and marketed progressively. Pectin-based formulations were commercialized in food, medicine, and radioprotection sectors. It is also advised for alleviation of constipation symptoms. Cost-effectiveness of this multifunctional biopolymer compared to the others that are currently used, has introduced it as a potential alternative for the next years.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/uso terapêutico , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Pectinas/química , Protetores contra Radiação/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura de Transição
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117415, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357899

RESUMO

Grapefruit peel nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was used as fat substitute in ice cream. GNFC was characterized by TEM, SEM, and XRD. The effects of GNFC on textural profiles, rheological properties, melting resistance, sensory properties, microstructure, and gross energy (GE) of ice cream were investigated. The results showed that GNFC was short rod-shaped crystal. Ice cream added with GNFC exhibited elastic-dominated behavior and better textural properties. The sensory evaluation score reached the highest level with desirable three-dimensional network structure at 0.4 % GNFC addition. GE of ice cream significantly decreased with reducing fat with maximal reduction rate of 17.90 %. Furthermore, the results of in vitro simulated digestion showed that GNFC addition and fat reduction significantly inhibited fat digestibility of ice cream due to coalescence of fat droplets on GNFC. This study provides new sustainable perspectives for the application of GNFC prepared from agricultural waste as fat substitute in food products.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Citrus paradisi/química , Substitutos da Gordura/química , Sorvetes , Nanofibras/química , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Celulose/farmacologia , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Elasticidade , Substitutos da Gordura/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Suco Gástrico/química , Suco Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leucina/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reologia/métodos , Paladar
9.
Food Chem ; 345: 128805, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310260

RESUMO

The effects of mulberry anthocyanins (MAs) on the digestibility of whey proteins (WP) in freshly-prepared and stored energy balls were studied. Results showed that MAs increased digestibility of the energy balls by increasing their hydrolysis-degree, soluble peptides-fractions, and decreasing their particle's size and agglomeration. To understand the mechanism of the promoting and/or inhibiting digestive effects of MAs, secondary structure alterations and binding of WP-MAs-mixtures were therefore measured. Results revealed that MAs could noncovalently/covalently interact with WP and form WP-MAs-adducts. This interaction seemed to be responsible for the alterations in the secondary structure of WP which could promote the digestibility of the energy balls subsequently. MAs also partially unfolded the structure of digested-WP through fluctuating their α-helix and ß-sheet. It was concluded that the unfolding in WP-structure induced by MAs-interactions might increase accessibility of the peptide bonds to the digestive enzymes and consequentially facilitate the protein's digestibility in the energy balls.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Morus/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Cápsulas , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113398, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971162

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chiang-Da, Gymnema inodorum (Lour.) Decne. (GI), is an ethnomedicinal plant that has been used for diabetic treatment since ancient times. One of the anti-diabetic mechanisms is possibly related to the actions of triterpene glycoside, (3ß, 16ß)-16,28-dihydroxyolean-12-en-3-yl-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (GIA1) in decreasing carbohydrate digestive enzymes and intestinal glucose absorption in the gut system. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To observe the amount of GIA1 in GI leaf extracts obtained from different ethanol concentrations and to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic mechanisms of the extracts and GIA1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude extracts were prepared using 50%v/v to 95%v/v ethanol solutions and used for GIA1 isolation. The anti-hyperglycemic models included in our study examined the inhibitory activities of α-amylase/α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose absorption related to sodium glucose cotransporter type 1 (SGLT1) using Caco-2 cells. RESULTS: GIA1 was found about 8%w/w to 18%w/w in the GI extract depending on ethanol concentrations. The GI extracts and GIA1 showed less inhibitory activities on α-amylase. The extracts from 75%v/v and 95%v/v ethanol and GIA1 significantly delayed the glycemic absorption by lowering α-glucosidase activity and glucose transportation of SGLT1. However, the 50%v/v ethanolic extract markedly decreased the α-glucosidase activity than the SGLT1 function. CONCLUSION: Differences in the GIA1 contents and anti-glycemic properties of the GI leaf extract was dependent on ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the 75%v/v and 95%v/v ethanolic extracts on α-glucosidase and SGLT1 were relevant to GIA1 content.


Assuntos
Gymnema/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
11.
Gene ; 766: 145159, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971186

RESUMO

Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and natural α-amylase inhibitors present in plants to protect against insect damage, we investigated the effect of white bean and rapeseed protein extracts on digestive α-amylase gene expression of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). For this purpose, in vitro and in vivo trials were performed to determine the inhibitory activity of seed proteins on the third and fourth instar larvae. In both trials, the significant inhibitory effect of each extracts on the third and fourth instar larval α-amylase activity and considerable mortality in treatments were observed compared to control trials. In the RT-qPCR, expression ratio demonstrated that the α-amylase gene of two different larval stages grown on both proteins treated leaves had significantly differentiated expression and was up-regulated in third instar larvae and down-regulated in fourth instar larvae compared to control. Results suggest that the hyper-production of α-amylase in third instar larvae is elicited to compensate for the enzyme activity inhibition at an earlier stage and also down-regulation suggests the existence of a negative feedback of plant proteins on the last instar larvae via impaired food intake and digestive α-amylase activity in Colorado potato beetle. Therefore, disruption of the insect's digestive physiology by plant defensive proteins can be considered in the development of innovative controlling methods of this crucial potato pest.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/genética , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Larva/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia
12.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333894

RESUMO

Values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a protein are based on true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in adult humans or in the growing pig as an animal model. An experiment was conducted using growing pigs to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) values of AA in six cooked Chinese pulses (kidney bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, broad beans, peas and chickpeas). Each pulse was included in a diet as the only source of crude protein (CP). An N-free diet was given to allow determination of gut endogenous AA losses. Seven growing pigs each fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum were allotted to a 7 by 6 incomplete Latin square with seven diets and six 7-d periods. The true digestibility values % for the total indispensable AA were higher (p < 0.001) for broad beans (87.3 ± 2.98) and lower (p < 0.001) for kidney bean (73.3 ± 4.84) than for the other pulses. For the older child (over 3 years), adolescent and adult, the DIAAS (%) was 88 for kidney bean, 86 for mung bean, 76 for chickpeas, 68 for peas, 64 for adzuki bean and 60 for broad beans.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Íleo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culinária , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Suínos
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815992

RESUMO

Stress negatively affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) barrier function, resulting in compromised animal health. A deeper understanding of how diet and stress impacts the GIT barrier function in feedlot cattle is needed. Aspirin decreases mucus production and mucosal repair in the GIT and could be used as a model for GIT barrier dysfunction research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aspirin to induce GIT barrier dysfunction in beef cattle. In experiment 1, sixteen crossbred heifers (425.0 ± 8.6 kg) were allotted to 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) aspirin doses based on BW. Experiment 1 consisted of two periods separated by 4 wk where four heifers per treatment received the same aspirin dose during each period. Heifers were fed a 49.4% corn silage and 50.6% concentrate diet. The 200 mg/kg BW aspirin treatment was dosed as a 100 mg/kg BW aspirin oral bolus 36 and 24 h prior to Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) dosing (1 liter; 180 mM). The 50 and 100 mg/kg BW aspirin treatments were dosed as an oral bolus 24 h prior to Cr-EDTA dosing. Urine was collected every 3 h for 48 h and analyzed for Cr. Serum was collected at 0 and 48 h and analyzed for lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, and aspartate aminotransferase. In experiment 2, sixteen crossbred steers (576.0 ± 14.2 kg) fed a similar diet were allotted by BW to the 0 and 200 mg/kg BW aspirin treatments (eight steers/treatment) and were slaughtered 24 h after the last dose. Jejunal tissues were collected, and claudin (CLDN) 1, 2, and 3, occludin, and zonula occludens tight junction messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was determined. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Urinary Cr excretion increased linearly at hours 3, 6, 9, and 12 (P ≤ 0.04) as aspirin dose increased from 0 to 200 mg/kg. Aspirin linearly increased Cr absorption (P = 0.02) and elimination (P = 0.04) rates and linearly decreased mean retention time of Cr (P = 0.02). Aspirin increased SAA (P = 0.04) and tended to increase LBP (P = 0.09) in serum but did not affect any other serum inflammatory marker (P ≥ 0.19). Aspirin tended to increase jejunal CLDN-1 mRNA expression (P = 0.10) but did not affect the mRNA expression of other genes regulating tight junction function (P ≥ 0.20). Results from this study indicate that aspirin disrupts the GIT barrier function in beef cattle and has a potential as a model in GIT permeability research.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Cromo/urina , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Masculino , Silagem/análise , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Zea mays
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687554

RESUMO

The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF + XY; Econase XT 25P), and HF + 50 mg/kg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide (HF + AX). Gilts were fed ad libitum for 36 d across two dietary phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 0, 14, 27, and 36. On day 36, pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 10-d period, limit fed (80% of average ad libitum intake), and feces and urine were collected the last 72 h to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). On day 46, serum and ileal and colonic tissue were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with block and replication as random effects, and treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects. There was a significant treatment × time interaction for BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed (G:F; P < 0.001). By design, BW at day 0 did not differ; at day 14, pigs fed LF were 3.5% heavier, and pigs fed HF + XY, when compared with HF, were 4% and 4.2% heavier at days 27 and 36, respectively (P < 0.001). From day 14 to 27 and day 27 to 36, when compared with HF, HF + XY improved ADG by 12.4% and 10.7% and G:F by 13.8% and 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with LF, HF decreased DE and ME by 0.51 and 0.42 Mcal/kg, respectively, but xylanase partially mitigated that effect by increasing DE and ME by 0.15 and 0.12 Mcal/kg, over HF, respectively (P < 0.05). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased total antioxidant capacity in the serum and ileum (P < 0.05) and tended to have less circulating malondialdehyde (P = 0.098). Pigs fed LF had increased ileal villus height, and HF + XY and HF + AX had shallower intestinal crypts (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased ileal messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of claudin 4 and occludin (P < 0.05). Xylanase, but not AX, improved the growth performance of pigs fed insoluble corn-based fiber. This was likely a result of the observed increase in ME, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced gut barrier integrity, but it may require increased adaptation time to elicit this response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667675

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 poultry by-products including hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM), flash dried poultry protein (FDPP), and poultry meal (PM) and also a meat and bone meal (MBM) between broiler chickens and pigs. Experimental diets consisted of 4 diets containing each test ingredient as a sole source of nitrogen and a nitrogen-free diet. In experiment 1, 416 male broiler chickens with a mean initial body weight (BW) of 705 ± 100 g were allotted to 5 diets with 8 replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design with BW as a blocking factor at day 18 posthatching. After 5 d of feeding experimental diets, birds were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation, and ileal digesta samples were collected from distal two-thirds of the ileum. In experiment 2, 10 barrows with a mean initial BW of 22.1 ± 1.59 kg were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to a duplicate 5 × 4 incomplete Latin Square design with 5 diets and 4 periods. Each period lasted for 7 d including 5 d of adaptation and 2 d of ileal digesta collection. Data from experiments 1 and 2 were pooled together and analyzed as a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with the effects of species (broiler chickens or pigs) and 4 experimental diets (HFM, FDPP, PM, or MBM). There were interactions (P < 0.05) between experimental diets and species in the SID of His, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val, and all dispensable AA except Tyr. In broiler chickens, the SID of Lys in FDPP (73.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than in HFM (55.7%) but was lower (P < 0.05) than in MBM (86.5%), which was not different from PM (78.7%). In pigs, however, the SID of Lys in FDPP and PM (70.0 and 70.1%, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than in HFM (39.0%) but were lower (P < 0.05) than in MBM (79.2%). Broiler chickens fed FDPP and PM had lower (P < 0.05) SID of His, Thr, and Trp than those fed MBM; however, there was no difference in the SID of His, Thr, or Trp among pigs fed FDPP, PM, or MBM. The SID of Val in MBM was greater (P < 0.05) than in the other test ingredients for broiler chickens, but there was no difference in the SID of Val among test ingredients for pigs. Pigs had greater (P < 0.05) SID of Ile and Met than broiler chickens. In conclusion, the pattern of differences in the SID of His, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val, but not the other indispensable AA, among poultry by-products and MBM were different between broiler chickens and pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Produtos Avícolas , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Produtos Biológicos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607561

RESUMO

The study was conducted to determine the effects of high levels of phytase on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, phytate breakdown, and expression of mucosal tight junction and nutrient transporter genes in weanling pigs. A total of 128 barrows were penned in groups of four and used in a randomized completely block design and assigned to four treatments for a 28-d study. A two-phase feeding was implemented (phase 1: day 1 to 14; phase 2: day 15 to 28). The diets differed in dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels (positive control [PC]: 8.1 to 7.1 g/kg Ca and 6.5 to 6.8 g/kg P; negative control [NC]: 6.6 to 5.5 g/kg Ca and 5.6 to 5.3 g/kg P) from phase 1 to phase 2, respectively. NC diets were supplemented with phytase at 0 (NC), 1,500 (NC + 1,500), or 3,000 (NC + 3,000) phytase units (FTU)/kg. Blood was collected after fasting (day 27) or feeding (day 28) for the measurement of plasma inositol concentrations. On day 28, two pigs per pen were euthanized. Duodenal-jejunal and ileal digesta samples and feces were collected to determine inositol phosphates (InsP3-6) concentrations. Phytase supplementation increased the body weight on days 14 and 28 (P < 0.05). Average daily gain and feed efficiency compared with NC were increased by phytase with the majority of its effect in phase 1 (P < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility of P were increased in piglets fed phytase-supplemented diets (P < 0.01) compared with NC piglets. Disappearance of InsP6 and total InsP3-6 up to the duodenum-jejunum, ileum, and in feces was increased by both phytase application rates (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of myo-inositol were higher (P < 0.001) in the phytase-supplemented diets than PC and NC diets, irrespective of whether pigs were fed or fasted. Expression of claudin 3 was higher in pigs fed both phytase-supplemented diets in the duodenum and jejunum compared with PC and NC. Mucin 2 expression was lower in the ileum of NC + 3,000 fed piglets compared with PC (P < 0.05), whereas expression of GLUT2 (solute carrier family 2-facilitated glucose transporter member 2) was increased (P < 0.05) by the NC + 3,000 treatment in all sections. In summary, high phytase supplementation increased the growth performance of nursery pigs. The increased expression of GLUT2 by phytase may indicate an upregulation of glucose absorption from the intestine by phytase.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nutrientes , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497179

RESUMO

Forty pigs [10.7 ± 1.2 kg initial body weight (BW) at 6 wk of age] were used in a 21-d study to evaluate the effects of supplemental xylanase (Hostazym X 100, Huvepharma, Inc., Peachtree City, GA) in nursery diets on digesta viscosity, nutrient digestibility, health of the small intestine, and growth performance when supplemented with corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were individually housed and randomly allotted to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (n = 20/factor, 0% or 30% DDGS and 0 or 1,500 endo-pentosanase unit/kg xylanase as two factors) based on sex and initial BW. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly. On day 15 of the study, TiO2 in diets (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker to calculate apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Plasma samples were collected on day 19 to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, and peptide YY. On day 21, all pigs were euthanized to collect tissues from duodenum, jejunum, and colon to measure morphology, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde concentrations. Distal jejunal digesta were collected to measure viscosity. Ileum digesta were collected to measure AID of nutrients. During the entire period, supplemental xylanase increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 616 to 660 g/d) of nursery pigs, whereas DDGS (0 or 30%) did not affect ADG. On week 3, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (P < 0.05) when fed DDGS (1,141 to 1,267 g/d) and there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between two factors indicating that supplemental xylanase decreased ADFI when DDGS was used in a diet. Use of DDGS increased (P < 0.05) viscosity [1.86 to 2.38 centipoise (cP)], whereas supplemental xylanase reduced (P < 0.05) viscosity (2.27 to 1.96 cP) of jejunal digesta. The AID of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) were improved (P < 0.05) by supplemental xylanase. Plasma TNF-α was decreased (P < 0.05, 108.5 to 69.9 pg/mL) by supplemental xylanase. Use of DDGS reduced (P < 0.05) villus height:crypt depth ratio (1.46 to 1.27), whereas supplemental xylanase increased (P < 0.05) the crypt depth (360 to 404 µm) in duodenum. In conclusion, feeding a diet with 30% DDGS to nursery pigs for 3 wk had no negative effect on growth performance, whereas reduced AID of DM and GE, increased TNF-α level in colon tissue, and reduced the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Dietary supplementation of xylanase reduced digesta viscosity improving AID of nutrients, reduced inflammatory response, and altered intestinal morphology, collectively improving ADG of nursery pigs regardless of the use of DDGS in a diet.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Íleo/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Zea mays
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6087-6099, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389470

RESUMO

Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) neutral detergent fiber (NDF) with corn silage (CS) NDF at 2 levels of forage NDF (FNDF) on enteric methane (CH4), lactation performance, ruminal fluid characteristics, digestibility, and metabolism of N and energy in Holstein and Jersey cows. Twelve Holstein and 12 Jersey cows (all primiparous and mid-lactation) were used in a triplicated split-plot 4 × 4 Latin square experiment, where breed and diet formed the main and subplots, respectively. The 4 iso-nitrogenous and iso-starch dietary treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of FNDF [19 (low FNDF, LF) and 24% (high FNDF, HF) of dry matter] and 2 sources of FNDF (70:30 and 30:70 ratio of AS NDF to CS NDF). Soyhull (non-forage NDF) and corn grain were respectively used to keep dietary NDF and starch content similar across diets. Total collection of feces and urine over 3 d was performed on 8 cows (1 Latin square from each breed). The difference in dry matter intake (DMI) between Holsteins and Jerseys was greater when fed AS than CS. Compared with Jerseys, Holstein cows had greater body weight (48%), DMI (34%), fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 31%) and CH4 production (22%; 471 vs. 385 g/d). However, breed did not affect CH4 intensity (g/kg of FPCM) or yield (g/kg of DMI), nutrient digestibility, and N partitioning. Compared with HF, LF-fed cows had greater DMI (10%), N intake (8%), and FPCM (5%), but they were 5% less efficient (both FPCM/DMI and milk N/intake N). Compared with HF, LF-fed cows excreted 11 and 17% less urinary N (g/d and % of N intake, respectively). In spite of lower (2.5%) acetate and higher (10%) propionate (mol/100 mol ruminal volatile fatty acids) LF-fed cows had greater (6%) CH4 production (g/d) than did HF-fed cows, most likely due to increased DMI, as affected mainly by the soyhulls. Compared with AS, CS-fed cows had greater DMI (7%) and FPCM (4%), but they were less efficient (5%), and CH4 yield (g/kg of DMI) was reduced by 8%. In addition, per unit of gross energy intake, CS-fed cows lost less urinary energy (15%) and CH energy (11%) than did AS-fed cows. We concluded that, in contrast to level and source of FNDF, breed did not affect digestive and metabolic efficiencies, and, furthermore, neither breed nor dietary treatments affected CH4 intensity. The tradeoff between CH4 and N losses may have implications in future studies assessing the environmental effects of milk production when approached from a whole-farm perspective.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/biossíntese , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2566-2572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359592

RESUMO

Use of local feed ingredients in poultry feed, such as oats, can be limited by their perceived less than ideal nutritional content. Dehulling oats is expensive, and it may be that removing hull is detrimental to the bird in terms of gastrointestinal (GI) development, therefore maintaining some of the high-fiber oat hull (OH) might reduce costs and improve potential for inclusion in poultry diets. Male broilers were fed diets with oats replacing 30% of wheat in diets, either dehulled or with graded inclusions of OH from day of hatch until day 35. Each diet was fed to 8 pens of 8 birds and performance recorded weekly. Samples were collected at day 21 and 35 for analysis of ileal amino acid digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and gross gut development measures. No detrimental effect was seen on bird weight with hull inclusion, though higher inclusion levels did deleteriously effect feed intake because of increased gut fill from the fiber. Nitrogen corrected AME was also adversely effected in the highest hull inclusion diets. However, amino acid digestibility was improved with hull addition, which may be because of an increase in GI tract length, improving nutrient absorption. Gizzard development was also significantly improved, and thereby, more efficient grinding of diet may also have improved digestibility. At a lower level of hull inclusion (3% total diet) where digestibility is improved without any detrimental effects on gut fill and intake. Oat hull is well known to improve gut development, especially of the gizzard, with resultant increases in digestibility. This is usually attributed to the mechanical effect of fiber in the gizzard having a grinding effect. However in this study, all fiber was finely ground, so the improvements seen cannot be attributed to a physical cause. Oat including diets with some hull remaining are a cost effective way of using oats as a raw material while maximizing bird performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Avena/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/economia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2595-2607, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359595

RESUMO

Effects of dietary available phosphorus (aP) and Ca levels and an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation were studied in Lohmann LSL-Lite hens from 25 to 37 wk of age. Eighty-four hens were used in a completely randomized design with 7 treatments. The treatments were a positive control (PC) diet with 0.45% aP, 3.70% Ca, and 0.16% Na from 25 to 28 wk and 0.38% aP, 3.73% Ca, and 0.15% Na from 29 to 37 wk; a negative control (NC) diet, similar to the PC diet, with 0.22% aP, 3.00% Ca, and 0.13% Na from 25 to 28 wk and 0.19% aP, 3.02% Ca, and 0.13% Na from 29 to 37 wk; the NC diets supplemented with phytase at 150 (NC + 150), 300 (NC + 300), 600 (NC + 600), or 1,200 (NC + 1,200) phytase unit (FTU)/kg; and the PC diet supplemented with phytase at 1,200 (PC + 1,200) FTU/kg. Hen performance, eggshell, and bone quality were measured on a 4-wk basis. Bone breaking strength and ash and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of P and Ca were determined at 37 wk. One- and 2-way ANOVA were conducted, and Tukey's range test was used to compare multiple means where P ≤ 0.05. No differences in hen performance, eggshell quality, bone breaking strength, bone ash, and P digestibility were observed between the PC and the NC treatments. The NC hens had lower cortical (P < 0.001) and trabecular + medullary bone mineral density (P = 0.004) and total bone mineral content (P < 0.001) than the PC hens. The PC + 1,200 increased cortical bone mineral density (P < 0.001). The reductions of aP and Ca in the NC diet were not deficient for performance but had a minor impact on bone mineralization. The NC + 600 and NC + 1,200 increased AID of P (P = 0.024), and all phytase treatments except the NC + 150 increased AID of Ca (P = 0.010) compared with the NC diet.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Casca de Ovo/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/deficiência , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Casca de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Íleo/fisiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Distribuição Aleatória
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