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1.
Food Chem ; 313: 126159, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931427

RESUMO

The polymorphism of buffalo αs1-casein has been reported, but little is known about their effect on the biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of αs1-casein polymorphism on the digestive properties and bioactivities of buffalo milk protein in simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In this study, two variants of αs1-casein, with one amino acid substitution of Leu193 (AA) â†’ Ser193 (BB), were used. Under acidic gastric conditions, the particle size of αs1-casein variant BB was smaller and showed higher digestibility compared to variant AA. A total of 154 and 149 peptides were identified, respectively, from simulated gastrointestinal digestion of variants AA and BB; of three peptides have been previously reported to exert ACE-inhibition, anticancer, antioxidant, and anxiolytic activities. Our study demonstrated that αs1-casein polymorphism affects the digestive properties and the formation of bioactive peptides.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Caseínas/genética , Caseínas/farmacocinética , Leite/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Caseínas/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943028

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of a grain-based (GB) and grain-free (GF) diet on protein utilization and taurine status in healthy Beagle dogs. Two practical dog diets sufficient in crude protein, sulfur amino acids, and taurine content were formulated with the same ingredients with exception of the carbohydrate sources. The GB contained sorghum, millet, and spelt while potatoes, peas, and tapioca starch were used in the GF. A total of 12 Beagle dogs were used in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. The study consisted of an adaptation period of 2 wk followed by an experimental period of 28 d in which GB and GF were fed to the dogs. At the end of the adaptation period and every 2 wk after it (day 0, day 14, day 28), markers of taurine metabolism were analyzed in whole blood (taurine), plasma (taurine, methionine, and cystine), urine (taurine:creatinine), and fresh fecal samples (primary and secondary bile acids). Fecal samples were collected during the last 6 d of experimental period for digestibly assessment using titanium dioxide as an external marker. Taurine markers and digestibility data were analyzed in a repeated measures model and one-way ANOVA, respectively, using PROC GLIMMIX in SAS (version 9.4). Apparent crude protein digestibility was not affected by treatment, but dogs fed GF diet had lower apparent organic matter digestibility compared with those fed GB (P < 0.05). Greater plasma taurine concentrations were observed at days 14 and 28 compared with day 0; wherein dogs fed GF exhibited greater increase compared to those fed GB (P < 0.05). Whole blood taurine concentrations, plasma methionine concentrations, and urinary taurine:creatinine were also greater at days 14 and 28 compared with day 0 (P < 0.05), but no effect of diet was observed. Total bile acid excretion was similar between GF and GB groups, but dogs fed GF excreted a higher proportion of primary bile acids compared with those fed GB (25.49% vs. 12.09% at day 28, respectively). In summary, overall taurine status was not affected by dietary treatments, however, our results suggest that the higher content of oligosaccharides and soluble fibers in the GF diet may alter the composition of the fecal bile acid pool.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Metionina/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Sorghum/metabolismo , Taurina/sangue
3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930329

RESUMO

Feeding cattle in intensified settings allows cow-calf producers to decrease their reliance on grazed forage and utilize alternative feedstuffs. During times of intense management, diet type may alter energy utilization. Fourteen pregnant MARC III heifers (405 ± 44 kg BW) were used in a 180 d experiment to determine effects of diet type on nutrient and energy utilization. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, a forage diet (FOR; 2.10 Mcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg; 95.75% forage) or a concentrate diet (CONC; 2.94 Mcal ME/kg; 71% concentrate), and individually fed to meet maintenance energy requirements (0.135 Mcal ME/kg BW0.75). The CONC diet contained dry-rolled corn, corn stalks (10.16 cm grind size), soybean meal, corn silage (approximately 45% corn grain; stored in a plastic bag), dicalcium phosphate, urea, and a premix pellet; FOR contained alfalfa hay (harvested at mid-bloom), corn silage, dicalcium phosphate, and a premix pellet. Measurements of energy intake and digestibility were measured over a 4-d period on days 116, 172, and 235 of gestation. Using portable headbox calorimeters, measurements of O2, CO2, and CH4 gases were collected over a period of 24 h. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design with diet as fixed effect. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility were greater for CONC than FOR (P < 0.01). Intake of gross energy (GE) and digestible energy (DE) were greater for FOR (P < 0.01), but by design, ME intake was not different between treatments (P = 0.26). Energy lost as methane (% of GE intake) was not different between treatments (P = 0.49). The ratio of ME to DE was greater for CONC (86.8 vs. 82.8; P = 0.01) than FOR. Heat production relative to ME was not different between treatments (P = 0.85). Maternal tissue energy did not differ and was 1.2 Mcal/d for CONC and 0.9 Mcal/d for FOR (P = 0.73). Greater nitrogen (N) consumption was observed for FOR (192.2 g/d) than CONC (134.0 g/d; P < 0.01), and retained N was greater for FOR than CONC (P < 0.01) on days 116 and 235 of gestation. Neither concentrate-based or forage-based diets affected body condition score (P = 0.26). Heifers fed concentrate-based diets retained more energy in part because they had larger calves, but this energy was not recovered in maternal tissue.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calorimetria Indireta/veterinária , Dieta/classificação , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Metano/biossíntese , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Gravidez , Silagem/análise , Soja , Urina/química , Zea mays
4.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 29-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621114

RESUMO

Pangolins (Manis spp.) are myrmecophagous mammals with a wild diet of termites and ants. Diets are not yet readily acceptable by all pangolins and lack soil and chitin compared to their wild diet. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of including soil and chitin in pangolin diets by measuring changes in digestibility, food mean retention time, faecal scoring and body weight changes. Two male and two female Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) from Night Safari (Singapore) were fed their typical gruel-type diets, with soil and chitin added in various amounts throughout 10 different treatments. Diet intake was calculated daily and faecal boluses were collected for digestibility analysis. Chromium oxide was added to the diet to measure mean retention time four times per animal per treatment. Faecal consistency scores were recorded daily where 1 is firm and 5 is liquid. Every animal was weighed weekly. Adding soil or chitin to the diet had various effects on the apparent digestibility of organic matter, crude protein and fiber with little effects on crude fat or calcium. Soil had a general positive influence on organic matter and fiber digestion. The addition of chitin and soil together had the stronger effects. Only at 25% inclusion of soil did the faecal score begin to improve. The overall maintenance energy requirements for adult M. javanica was 79.28 Kcal/kg BW0.75 /day, similar to other myrmecophagous mammals. The usage of soil and chitin in pangolin diets may be helpful in controlling weights while preventing behaviours associated with hunger.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Quitina , Fezes/química , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Solo , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino
5.
Food Chem ; 311: 126024, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855778

RESUMO

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are emulsion-based carriers of lipophilic bioactive compounds. However, their digestibility may be affected by the solid lipid phase composition. Hence, the aim of this work was to study the in vitro lipolysis kinetics as well as the relationship between the lipid digestion, micelle fraction composition and ß-carotene bioaccessibility of SLNs with different solid lipids, being blends of medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, glyceryl stearate (GS) or hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) as compared to liquid lipid nanoparticles (LLNs) with pure MCT. SLNs formulated with GS were fully digested, similarly to LLNs. However, HPO-containing SLNs presented slower lipolysis kinetics during the intestinal phase at increasing HPO concentration. Despite this, HPO-SLNs showed higher ß-carotene bioaccessibility, which was related to the higher amount of monounstaturated free fatty acids in the micelle fraction. Thus, this work provides valuable insight for designing delivery systems of bioactive compounds with optimal functionality.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , beta Caroteno/farmacocinética , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Cinética , Micelas , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 310: 125919, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841940

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (LF) and osteopontin (OPN), multifunctional proteins involved in cell proliferation, can form a complex. LF binds iron, whereas OPN binds calcium. We investigated whether iron- and calcium-binding influences complex formation and the pro-proliferation property of the LF-OPN complex, and the mechanism behind this effect. LF-OPN complexes were prepared using bovine milk LF and OPN, and effects on proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells (HIECs) were evaluated using a BrdU proliferation assay. Of the four complexes formed by apo- and holo-LF/OPN, the apo-Lf&holo-OPN complex (AH) exhibited the strongest pro-proliferative effect on HIECs, and we therefore focused on AH. AH was resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, co-localized with both LF and OPN receptors as revealed by confocal microscopy, and stimulated proliferation of HIECs by activating PI3K/Akt signaling. In conclusion, forming a LF-OPN complex may help both proteins to resist digestion and increase the capacity to promote intestinal development in infants.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Osteopontina/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Lactoferrina/química , Lactoferrina/farmacocinética , Osteopontina/química , Osteopontina/farmacocinética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614753

RESUMO

Starch digestibility may be affected by food microstructural changes, as well as by specific interactions with some biomolecules, such as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs). It is well-known that acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and potentially carcinogenic compound formed in starchy food products processed at temperatures above 120 °C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the addition of SDF and green tea polyphenols (GTP) on AA formation and in vitro starch digestibility in baked starchy matrices. The formulations were prepared using gluten and wheat starch, ensuring ~40 ± 2% (wet basis, w.b.) moisture in the doughs. In some samples, 7.5% (dry basis, d.b.) of starch was replaced with inulin (IN), polydextrose (PD) or partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and/or with GTP at 1% (d.b). Acrylamide was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the in vitro starch digestibility using the Englyst method. The GTP was able to reduce AA content by ~48%, and a combination of IN-GTP allowed it to be reduced by up to ~64%, revealing the lowest rapidly available glucose content (~17 mg/g glucose). While a PD-GTP mixture reduced the AA content by around ~57% and gave the highest unavailable glucose fraction (~74 mg/g glucose) compared to the control. This study showed how functional ingredients could be used to develop successfully healthier starchy bakery foods.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Amido/química , Acrilamida/química , Glucose/química , Guanosina Trifosfato/química , Humanos , Polifenóis/química , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Chá/química
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11016-11025, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587905

RESUMO

Newborn Holstein male calves (n = 50) born on a single dairy farm were assigned randomly at birth to receive 3 feedings of 1.8 L of pooled maternal colostrum (MC) at 1, 6, and 12 h of age or 1 feeding of 500 g of a colostrum replacer reconstituted to 1.8 L at 1 h of age, followed by 2 feedings of 227 g of a commercial milk replacer (MR) reconstituted to 1.8 L at 6 and 12 h of age (CR). All feedings were administered by esophageal feeder. At 2 to 3 d of age, calves were transported to the experimental facility and assigned within colostrum group to receive 0.66 kg/d dry matter (DM) of MR to 39 d, and then 0.33 kg/d to 42 d (MRM) or 0.77 kg/d of MR DM to d 13, 1.03 kg/d for 22 d, and 0.51 kg/d for 7 d (MRH). The MR contained 25.8% crude protein and 17.6% crude fat (DM basis) and was based on whey proteins and lard as the primary fat source. Calf starter (21.7% crude protein, 15.7% neutral detergent fiber, 37.4% starch, DM basis) and water were available for ad libitum consumption throughout the 56-d study. Serum IgG and total protein were measured at 2 to 3 d of age. Intakes of MR and calf starter were monitored daily. Calf health and fecal scores were also monitored daily. Body weight was measured weekly, and hip width and body condition score were monitored every 2 wk. Digestion of DM, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract were determined at 1 and 3 wk from 5 calves randomly selected within treatment and using chromic oxide as a digestibility marker added to the MR. Calves fed CR had lower serum IgG and total protein than calves fed MC. Also, calves fed CR grew more slowly, consumed less calf starter, and were less efficient to 56 d than calves fed MC. The number of days calves were treated with veterinary medications was higher when calves were fed CR. Calves fed MC-MRH gained more BW than other calves from 3 to 8 wk of age. Calves fed CR-MRH consumed less calf starter than other calves during wk 7 and 8. Digestion of nutrients at 1 and 3 wk of the study was unaffected by type of colostrum or level of MR fed and did not change from 1 to 3 wk. Over the first 2 mo of life, the calves fed MRH consumed less calf starter than calves fed MRM, but average daily gain or hip width change did not differ. One feeding of CR followed by 2 feedings of MR in the first 24 h likely reduced absorption of IgG from CR and contributed to differences in health and growth. Differences in animal performance observed in this study were unrelated to MR digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colostro , Substitutos do Leite/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes , Masculino , Amido/metabolismo , Desmame
9.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4519-4531, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634399

RESUMO

Prebiotics and dietary fibers are nondigestible ingredients that may confer benefits to the host by selectively stimulating beneficial intestinal bacteria and microbial-derived metabolites that support gut and host health. This experiment evaluated the effects of a blend of prebiotics and dietary fibers on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and fecal metabolites related to gastrointestinal health in adult dogs. Four diets containing either 5% cellulose (control; CT), 5% dietary fiber and prebiotic blend (FP), 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (SE), or 5% fiber blend plus 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (FSE) were formulated to meet or exceed the AAFCO (2017) nutritional requirements for adult dogs. Eight adult female beagles (mean age 4.2 ± 1.1 yr; mean BW = 10.8 ± 1.4 kg; mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.6) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments using a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 14 d (10 d of diet adaptation and 4 d of total and fresh fecal and total urine collection). All animals remained healthy throughout the study, with serum metabolites being within reference ranges for adult dogs. All diets were well accepted by the dogs, resulting in similar (P > 0.05) daily food intakes among treatments. Likewise, fecal output and scores did not differ (P > 0.05) among dietary treatments, with the latter being within the ideal range (2.5-2.9) in a 5-point scale. All diets were highly digestible and had similar (P > 0.05) ATTD of dry matter (81.6%-84.4%), organic matter (86.4%-87.3%), and crude protein (86.6%-87.3%). However, total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility was greater for dogs fed the FSE diet (P < 0.05) in contrast with dogs fed the CT and SE diets, whereas dogs fed FP diets had intermediate TDF digestibility, but not different from all other treatments. Fecal acetate and propionate concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for dogs fed FP and FSE diets. Fecal concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were greater for dogs fed CT (P < 0.05) compared with dogs fed the other three treatments. No shifts in fecal microbial richness and diversity were observed among dietary treatments. Overall, the data suggest that dietary supplementation of fiber and prebiotic blend was well tolerated by dogs, did not cause detrimental effects on fecal quality or nutrient digestibility, and resulted in beneficial shifts in fecal metabolites that may support gut health.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Eugenol/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sacarina/administração & dosagem
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4668-4681, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603200

RESUMO

Two sets of in vitro rumen fermentation experiments were conducted to determine effects of diets that included wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) and tannin-rich peanut skin (PS) on the in vitro digestibility, greenhouse gas (GHG) and other gas emissions, fermentation rate, and microbial changes. The objectives were to assess associative effects of various levels of PS or WDGS on the in vitro digestibility, GHG and other gas emissions, fermentation rate, and microbial changes in the rumen. All gases were collected using an ANKOM Gas Production system for methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) analyses. Cumulative ruminal gas production was determined using 250 mL ANKOM sampling bottles containing 50 mL of ruminal fluid (pH 5.8), 40 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.8), and 6 g of mixed diets after a maximum of 24 h of incubation. Fermenters were flushed with CO2 gas and held at 39 °C in a shaking incubator for 24 h. Triplicate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were conducted to determine microbial diversity. When WDGS was supplied in the diet, in the absence of PS, cumulative CH4 production increased (P < 0.05) with 40% WDGS. In the presence of PS, production of CH4 was reduced but the reduction was less at 40% WDGS. In the presence of PS, ruminal lactate, succinate, and acetate/propionate (A/P) ratio tended to be less with a WDGS interaction (P < 0.01). In the presence of PS and with 40% WDGS, average populations of Bacteroidetes, total methanogens, Methanobrevibacter sp. AbM4, and total protozoa were less. The population of total methanogens (R2 = 0.57; P < 0.01), Firmicutes (R2 = 0.46: P < 0.05), and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio (R2 = 0.46; P < 0.03) were strongly correlated with ruminal CH4 production. Therefore, there was an associative effect of tannin-rich PS and WDGS, which suppressed methanogenesis both directly and indirectly by modifying populations of ruminal methanogens.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Methanobrevibacter/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Gases/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Masculino , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10632-10638, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477302

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding conventional corn silage (CCS) or brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) to dairy cows on CH4 emissions from stored manure. Eight lactating cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 65:35; dry matter basis) containing 59% (dry matter basis) of either CCS or BMCS. Feces and urine were collected from each cow and mixed with residual sludge obtained from a manure storage structure. Manure was incubated for 17 wk at 20°C under anaerobic conditions (O2-free N2) in 500-mL glass bottles. Methane emissions and changes in chemical composition of the manure were monitored during the incubation period. The total amount of feces and urine excreted was higher for cows fed BMCS than for cows fed CCS [8.6 vs. 6.5 kg/d of volatile solids (VS)]. Manure from cows fed BMCS emitted more CH4 than manure from cows fed CCS (173 vs. 146 L/kg of VS) throughout the incubation period. Similarly, VS and neutral detergent fiber losses throughout incubation were higher for manure from cows fed BMCS versus cows fed CCS (37.6 vs. 30.6% and 46.2 vs. 31.2%, respectively). Manure NH3 concentration (79% of total manure N) was not affected by corn silage cultivar. Results of this study show that using a more digestible corn silage cultivar (BMCS vs. CCS) may increase the contribution of manure to CH4 emissions, and may offset gain achieved by reducing enteric CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Esterco , Metano/química , Animais , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/química , Silagem , Zea mays
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4341-4348, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504581

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in diets for beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets with 0 or 15% CG (DM basis), to evaluate DM disappearance, VFA profiles, and gas production. There was a tendency for an interaction (P = 0.06) between diet fed to donor animals and substrate fed to in vitro system, and digestion was increased when CG was added to cultures with ruminal fluid from CG-fed animals. Total VFA were unaffected by diets or by substrate incubated. The CG increased production of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.01) while the gas production was unaffected (P = 0.16). In Exp. 2, 24 crossbred heifers (334.4 ± 0.9 kg BW) were fed the same diets as Exp. 1, for 35 d. Fecal grab samples were collected 3 times daily on day 7, 21, and 35, to evaluate total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and NDF. The CG improved digestibility of diet OM (P = 0.04), and DM followed a similar trend (P = 0.06), while the NDF digestibility was unaffected (P = 0.29). In Exp. 3, crossbred heifers (n = 374; 375.8 ± 36.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass traits when fed diets with 0, 7.5, or 15% CG, with or without added 0.3% salt. Heifers were assigned to 25 pens and were harvested on day 125. Removing salt from CG-based diets did not impact performance (P = 0.50). The CG did not influence average daily gain (P = 0.27), but decreased DM intake (P = 0.003), USDA Yield Grade (P = 0.01), and improved feed efficiency (P = 0.03), while tended to decrease USDA prime carcasses (P = 0.10). Carcass weight (P = 0.24), Longissimus muscle area (P = 0.63), and kidney, pelvic, heart fat (P = 0.59) were unaffected by CG. Twelfth-rib fat was less for heifers fed 15% CG without salt compared with the other treatments (P = 0.005), while marbling was less for heifers fed CG diets compared with the control-fed animals (linear, P = 0.004; quadratic, P = 0.02). In conclusion, GC can replace dry-rolled corn in diets for beef heifers when fed at 15% of diet DM, improving OM digestion, increasing ruminal propionate and butyrate without affecting greenhouse gas emissions. Feeding up to 15% CG improves feed efficiency but depresses marbling and tends to decrease Quality Grade. Removing supplemental salt from CG-diets has no impact on performance or carcass traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glicerol/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 485-504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544530

RESUMO

The same food formulation processed to obtain two different starch gelatinisations (SG) and resistant starch (RS) contents was evaluated in old and adult dogs, regarding apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, fermentation products in faeces, and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. A diet with corn was ground and extruded in two different ways, obtaining Low RS (2.2 g/kg DM; 99.9% of SG) and High RS (15.3 g/kg DM; 62.6% of SG). Each diet was fed to adults (4.0 ± 0.7 years) or old beagle dogs (11.5 ± 0.4 years) in a 2 (ages) x 2 (RS amounts) factorial arrangement with 8 dogs per food. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and postprandial responses by analysis of variance of repeated measurements over time (p < 0.05). Diet × age interaction was observed for protein ATTD, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS than those for the other treatments (p < 0.05). No age or diet effect was verified for the ATTD of other nutrients and faecal score. Faecal moisture and pH were higher for adults than that for old dogs (p < 0.05). The High RS food increased acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations in faeces, regardless of age (p < 0.01). Old dogs presented lower acetate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and higher lactate and ammonia than adults (p < 0.05). Only for old dogs the intake of the High RS food reduced ammonia and increased faecal lactate (p < 0.05). An age × diet interaction was verified for glucose postprandial response, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS food (p < 0.05), while no differences were found for the other treatments. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion regardless of the diet (p < 0.05), and lower insulin increment at 180 min after the meal when fed the Low RS than when fed the High RS food (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet with lower SG and higher RS improved the intestinal microenvironment, with higher butyrate and total SCFA without altering faeces production or score. Old dogs presented less acetate and total SCFA and higher lactate and ammonia in faeces than adults. The High RS food increased lactate and reduced ammonia in faeces of old dogs, with possible positive influences for gut health. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion than that of adults to maintain blood glucose, and the diet with higher RS content reduced the postprandial glucose response of old dogs.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/química
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9902-9918, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495619

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) from oregano may have antimicrobial properties, potentially representing a methane mitigation strategy suitable for organic production. This study aimed to (1) examine the potential of oregano in lowering enteric methane production of dairy cows fed differing levels of dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) plant material containing high levels of EO; (2) determine whether differing levels of dried oregano plant material of another subspecies (Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare) with naturally low levels of EO in feed affected enteric methane production; and (3) evaluate the effect of various levels of the 2 oregano subspecies (containing high or low levels of EO) in feed on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acids. Each experiment had a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows that had rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas and were fed 4 different levels of oregano. Experiment 1 used low EO oregano [0.12% EO of oregano dry matter (DM)] and evaluated a control (C) diet with no oregano and 3 oregano diets with 18 (low; L), 36 (medium; M), and 53 g of oregano DM/kg of dietary DM (high; H). Experiment 2 used high EO oregano (4.21% EO of oregano DM) with 0, 7, 14, and 21 g of oregano DM/kg of dietary DM for C, L, M, and H, respectively. Oregano was added to the diets by substituting grass/clover silage on a DM basis. Low or high EO oregano in feed did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or methane production (grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of energy-corrected milk, and percentage of gross energy intake). Rumen fermentation was slightly affected by diet in experiment 1, but was not affected by diet in experiment 2. In both experiments, the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly and cubically (a cubic response was not observed for neutral detergent fiber) with increasing dietary oregano content, while milk fatty acids were slightly affected. In conclusion, dried oregano plant material with either high or low levels of EO did not lower the methane production of dairy cows over 4 consecutive days, and no substantial effects were observed on rumen fermentation or nutrient digestibility. This conclusion regarding methane production is in contrast with literature and requires further study.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Origanum , Silagem/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poaceae , Rúmen/metabolismo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9842-9856, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495626

RESUMO

The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of altering the dietary ratio of palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (cis-9 C18:1) acids on nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production responses of lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to 3 groups (12 cows per group) in a main plot: low (45.2 ± 1.7 kg/d), medium (53.0 ± 1.6 kg/d), and high (60.0 ± 1.9 kg/d). Within each production group, a truncated Latin square arrangement of fatty acid (FA) treatments was used in 2 consecutive 35-d periods. The FA treatments supplemented at 1.5% of diet dry matter were (1) 80:10 (80% C16:0 + 10% cis-9 C18:1), (2) 73:17 (73% C16:0 + 17% cis-9 C18:1), (3) 66:24 (66% C16:0 + 24% cis-9 C18:1), and (4) 60:30 (60% C16:0 + 30% cis-9 C18:1). Treatment × production group interactions were observed for yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose and energy partitioned to milk. Increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments reduced fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and milk energy output in low-producing cows but increased these in high-producing cows. Increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments did not affect milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk lactose yield in low- and medium-producing cows but increased these in high-producing cows. Regardless of production level, there was no effect of treatments on dry matter intake; however, increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments increased body weight change and body condition score change. Increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments increased total FA digestibility due to a linear increase in 16- and 18-carbon FA digestibilities. Interactions between FA treatments and production level were observed for the yield of milk fat and milk FA sources. In low-producing cows, increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments decreased milk fat yield due to a decrease in de novo and mixed milk FA without changes in preformed milk FA. In contrast, in high-producing cows, increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments increased milk fat yield due to an increase in de novo and preformed milk FA. Our results indicate that high-producing dairy cows (averaging 60 kg/d) responded better to a fat supplement containing more cis-9 C18:1, whereas low-producing cows (averaging 45 kg/d) responded better to a supplement containing more C16:0.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5820-5830, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392330

RESUMO

The addition of fiber in chick feeds is known to dilute nutrients; as a result, this may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance. However, recent studies suggest that moderate inclusion of insoluble fibers (2 to 3%) may stimulate gizzard development, which could result in better nutrient utilization and chick growth. The previous fiber sources evaluated were subject to wide fluctuation in their nutritional and chemical composition due to variation in processing. Miscanthus giganteus is a C4 grass purposefully grown for its fiber content which has a consistent fiber composition compared to food process residues. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and particle size on day-old chick performance and nutrient digestibility. Day-old chicks (8 chicks per cage, 5 cages per treatment) were fed diets containing 3% of either sepiolite (SEP), cellulose (CEL), coarse beet pulp (BP), fine BP, coarse Miscanthus grass (MG), and fine MG. At the end of days 7, 14, and 21, chicks and experimental diets were weighed to compute average daily gain and feed intake. In addition, excreta from the previous 48 h of each data capture point was collected to determine nutrient digestibility. In general, chicks fed diets containing fiber consumed more feed, gained more weight, and had better feed conversion rate than birds fed the SEP diet. Particle size of the fiber had no effect on chick performance; however, nutrient utilization was higher (P < 0.05) for chicks fed coarse fiber particles compared to these fed fine fiber particles. Birds fed diets containing MG performed similar to chicks fed CEL (P > 0.05), but digestibility coefficients of birds fed BP diets were generally higher than chicks fed MG diets. In conclusion, chicks performed better with fiber in their diet and MG was comparable to CEL.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Silicatos de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Silicatos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30220-30228, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422537

RESUMO

The effects of patchouli essential oil (PEO) as an alternative to antibiotics on ruminal methanogenesis, feed degradability, and enzyme activities were evaluated. The basal substrate was incubated without additives (control, CTL) and with monensin (MON, 6 µM/g DM) or patchouli essential oil (PEO, 90 µg/g DM) for 24 h. In three different runs, the gas production (GP) was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h of incubation using a semi-automatic system. The results revealed that MON had decreased (P < 0.05) the net GP and CH4 production and digestible and metabolizable energy relative to PEO supplementation. The in vitro truly degraded organic matter was not influenced by PEO application, while was reduced (P = 0.027) with MON. Both PEO and MON had similar reducing effect on the activity of carboxymethylcellulase (P = 0.030), in vitro truly degraded neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.010), NH3-N concentrations (P = 0.012), acetate proportion (C2, P = 0.046), C2 to C3 ratio (P = 0.023), and total protozoal count (P = 0.017). Both additives recorded similar elevating potential on the α-amylase activity (P = 0.012), propionate (C3) proportion (P = 0.011), and microbial protein (P = 0.034) compared with CTL. Effects of MON and PEO on ruminal feed degradability, microbial enzyme activities, and total protozoa counts may be responsible for modifying rumen fermentation ecology. Addition of PEO may act as a desirable alternative rumen modifier for MON in ruminant diets.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pogostemon/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/análise , Monensin/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(5): 1303-1312, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310408

RESUMO

Olive oil extraction generates olive cake (OC) that could be used in ruminant feeding. However, the chemical composition of OC is affected by multiple factors, being therefore highly variable. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of storage time and further processing: crude, exhausted (subjected to a second oil extraction) and cyclone (obtained from a cyclone separator) on nutritive value of OC samples. Twelve samples (six crude and six exhausted) were obtained monthly from the same pond from 1 to 6 storage months, and nine samples (three crude, three exhausted and three cyclone) were obtained monthly from a different pond from 6 to 9 months storage. Chemical composition was analysed, and OC samples were fermented in vitro with sheep rumen fluid. Increasing storage time up to 6 months decreased sugars and total soluble polyphenols content but increased fibre content in OC. Dry matter effective degradability (DMED) decreased linearly (p < 0.001) by 35.9 and 45.5% as storage time augmented from 1 to 6 months for crude and exhausted OC, respectively. Crude OC had lower DMED values than exhausted OC (averaged values 0.255 and 0.294 g/g, respectively). Both potential production and rate of gas production were lower (p ≤ 0.018) in crude compared with exhausted OC, which was attributed to the high fat content of crude OC (≥86 g/kg dry matter). For samples stored longer than 6 months, cyclone had greater (p < 0.05) DMED than crude and exhausted OC (averaged values 0.207, 0.164 and 0.164 g/g, respectively). The results indicate that ruminal degradability of OC is reduced with advancing storage time, but only subtle changes were observed during the first two months. Cyclone showed greater degradability than crude and exhausted OC, but differences between crude and exhausted OC became negligible after five storage months.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Resíduos Industriais , Olea/química , Olea/metabolismo , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Líquidos Corporais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Indústria Alimentícia , Valor Nutritivo , Rúmen , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5504-5513, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329975

RESUMO

The interaction between bird type (broilers and layers) and corn particle size (fine, medium, and coarse) on the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of DM, nitrogen (N), starch, fat, gross energy (GE), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), and AMEn was investigated in a 2 by 3 factorial study of 6 dietary treatments. Whole corn was ground in a hammer mill to pass through screen sizes of 2.0, 5.0, and 8.0 mm for fine, medium, and coarse grades, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet, mixed using the same batch of ingredients, was fed to both bird types. Titanium dioxide was included in all diets for digestibility measurements. 35-day-old Ross 308 male broilers and 59-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were used in this study. For each bird type, 108 birds of uniform body weights were accommodated in 18 replicates (6 replicates per particle size and 6 birds per replicate). The treatment diets were offered ad libitum for 7 d prior to the collection of ileal digesta. A bird type by particle size interaction was observed (P < 0.001) for the CAID of DM, starch and GE. In broilers, CAID of DM, starch and GE was unaffected by particle size, whilst in layers, increasing the corn particle size to medium and coarse resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) CAID for DM, starch and GE compared to fine particles. The CAID of N and fat was greater (P < 0.05) in broilers than layers and the opposite was observed (P < 0.05) for Ca and P. Regardless of bird type, coarse and medium-ground corn resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) Ca digestibility compared to finely-ground corn. Overall, broilers had a greater digestibility of nutrients than layers, except for Ca and P. Feeding medium and coarse corn particles benefited the CAID of DM, starch and GE in layers, suggesting that digestive system in these birds is probably more sensitive to feed particle size than broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Zea mays/química
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3535-3549, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260526

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of treatment of wheat straw using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (Viscozyme) on fiber digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and microbial populations in an artificial rumen system [Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC)]. Four treatments were assigned to 16 vessels (4 per treatment) in 2 RUSITEC apparatuses in a randomized block design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial using untreated or AFEX-treated wheat straw with or without exogenous fibrolytic enzymes [0 or 500 µg of protein/g straw dry matter (DM)]. Fibrolytic enzymes were applied to straw, prior to sealing in nylon bags. The concentrate mixture was provided in a separate bag within each fermentation vessel. The RUSITECs were adapted for 8 d and disappearance of DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and crude protein (CP) was measured after 48 h of incubation. Ammonia fiber expansion increased (P < 0.01) the disappearance of wheat straw DM (69.6 vs. 38.3%), NDF (65.6 vs. 36.8%), ADF (61.4 vs. 36.0%), and CP (68.3 vs. 24.0%). Total dietary DM, organic matter (OM), and NDF disappearance was also increased (P ≤ 0.05) by enzymes. Total microbial protein production was greater (P < 0.01) for AFEX-treated (72.9 mg/d) than untreated straw (63.1 mg/d). Total gas and methane (CH4) production (P < 0.01) were also greater for AFEX-treated wheat straw than untreated straw, with a tendency for total gas to increase (P = 0.06) with enzymes. Ammonia fiber expansion increased (P < 0.01) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and the molar proportion of propionate, while it decreased (P < 0.01) acetate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. The AFEX-treated straw had lower relative quantities of fungi, methanogens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.01) and fewer protozoa (P < 0.01) compared to untreated straw. The pH of fermenters fed AFEX-treated straw was lower (P < 0.01) than those fed untreated straw. Both AFEX (P < 0.01) and enzymes (P = 0.02) decreased xylanase activity. There was an enzyme × straw interaction (P = 0.02) for endoglucanase activity. Enzymes increased endoglucanase activity of AFEX-treated wheat straw, but had no effect on untreated straw. The addition of enzymes lowered the relative abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, but increased F. succinogenes. These results indicate that AFEX increased the ruminal disappearance of wheat straw and improved fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in the RUSITEC.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Celulase/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem
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