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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802142

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to profile the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of epicatechins and flavonols in different forms of green tea and its formulation: loose leaf tea, powdered tea, 35% catechins containing GTE, and GTE formulated with green tea-derived polysaccharide and flavonols (CATEPLUS™). The bioaccessibillity and intestinal absorption of epicatechins and flavonols was investigated by using an in vitro digestion model system with Caco-2 cells. The bioaccessibility of total epicatechins in loose leaf tea, powdered tea, GTE, and CATEPLUS™ was 1.27%, 2.30%, 22.05%, and 18.72%, respectively, showing that GTE and CATEPLUS™ had significantly higher bioaccessibility than powdered tea and loose leaf tea. None of the flavonols were detected in powdered tea and loose leaf tea, but the bioaccessibility of the total flavonols in GTE and CATEPLUS™ was 85.74% and 66.98%, respectively. The highest intestinal absorption of epicatechins was found in CATEPLUS™ (171.39 ± 5.39 ng/mg protein) followed by GTE (57.38 ± 9.31), powdered tea (3.60 ± 0.67), and loose leaf tea (2.94 ± 1.03). The results from the study suggest that formulating green tea extracts rich in catechins with second components obtained from green tea processing could enhance the bioavailability of epicatechins.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Chá/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/fisiologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 845-853, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Milk is an important high-quality animal protein source in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although the true ileal digestibility and absorption of milk has been shown to be high in French adults, this may be lower in individuals from LMICs who are at risk of environmental enteropathy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the true ileal indispensable amino acid (IAA) digestibility of intrinsically labeled goat milk protein in South Indian women of reproductive age (WRA), using the dual-isotope tracer technique, and to measure intestinal absorption of amino acid and inert sugar in the same participants using L-allo-isoleucine and a dual-sugar assay. METHODS: Milk with 2H-labeled protein collected from a lactating goat fed intrinsically 2H-labeled fodder (maize and cowpea) was spray dried. Labeled milk protein was administered in a plateau feeding protocol to WRA with normal BMI, in whom urinary lactulose and mannitol recovery and the lactulose/mannitol ratio (LMR) were measured, to determine its true ileal IAA digestibility by the dual-isotope tracer technique with a reference U-13C-amino acid mixture. A phenylalanine absorption index was calculated from the plasma to meal ratio of 13C9 phenylalanine within the digestibility protocol. On a separate day, the allo-isoleucine absorption index was estimated from the ratio of plasma allo-isoleucine enrichments after oral 13C6-15N-L- and intravenous 2H10-L-allo-isoleucine administration. RESULTS: The means ± SDs of true ileal IAA digestibility of goat milk protein, lactulose and mannitol recovery, LMR, allo-isoleucine and phenylalanine absorption index were 94.0 ± 2.9%, 0.09 ± 0.03%, 7.9 ± 2.3%, 0.012 ± 0.004, 88.4 ± 3.8% and 24.5 ± 1.6%, respectively. The LMR correlated with the allo-isoleucine absorption index (rs = -0.93, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The true ileal digestibility of goat milk protein in South Indian WRA with normal intestinal absorptive function and integrity was comparable to earlier estimates in healthy French adults.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Íleo/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Leite/química , Adulto , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Deutério , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Lactulose/urina , Manitol/urina , Proteínas do Leite/química , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24777, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis is a common condition that affects daily functioning and decreases the quality of life. There are many ways of treatment depending on the stage of the disease. Advanced cases are qualified for arthroplasty, which is an extensive and demanding surgical procedure. Less advanced stages are treated in various ways: from rehabilitation, through oral and intra-articular pharmacotherapy, to surgical treatment (arthroscopy, osteotomy). Because surgical treatment is risky, scientists focus on less invasive therapeutic methods. The most valuable management is based on regeneration. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from the adipose tissue have a great regenerative and anti-inflammatory potential, therefore an attempt is being made to take advantage of them in knee osteoarthritis treatment.The study aims to compare the clinical effects of treatment of knee osteoarthritis using adipose tissue MSC obtained by an enzymatic method with the outcomes of the therapy with the mechanically fragmented adipose tissue. METHODS: One hundred adults with primary knee osteoarthritis will undergo lipoaspiration under sterile conditions. The collected lipoaspirates will be further processed, depending on the randomly assigned group-enzymatically with the use of collagenase or mechanically using the Lipogems system. The preparations will be administered to the patients' knee joints in the operating room under ultrasound control.The results of treatment will be assessed using Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, measuring the flexibility of the knee joint, evaluating joint gap in X-ray and the quality of cartilage in magnetic resonance T2-mapping during 1 year after treatment. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Identification and functional analysis of the regenerative capacity of adipose-derived MSC depending on three variables (body weight, sex, and age) will help to develop a targeted therapy for different groups of patients and will determine the effectiveness of both methods of treatment. An attempt will be made to identify groups of patients with the greatest regenerative potential of the adipose tissue, and thus indicate those with the most probable improvement of the joint condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Medical University of Warsaw and registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04675359 (06 Jan 2021).


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Separação Celular/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Adulto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colagenases , Digestão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estresse Mecânico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100949, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652523

RESUMO

Intestinal integrity, digestive enzyme activity, nutrient utilization, and egg quality of laying hens at different ages were evaluated and compared in this study. A total of 192 Hy-line Brown laying hens at 195-d-old (D195 group), 340-d-old (D340 group), and 525-d-old (D525 group) were allocated into one of 3 groups in accordance with their ages. Each group had 8 replicates of 8 birds each, and all birds were fed a maize-soybean meal basal diet for a 2-wk experiment. Compared with the D195 group, intestinal villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth, as well as serum D-lactate content increased in the D525 group (P < 0.05). The sucrase and maltase activities in the jejunal mucosa, amylase activity in the pancreas, and trypsin activity in the jejunal chyme of 525-d-old hens were lower than their 195-d-old counterparts (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a decline of trypsin and lipase activities in the ileal chyme of hens from D525 group in comparison with D195 or D340 group (P < 0.05). Apparent retention of dry matter and crude protein of birds in D340 and D525 group decreased when compared with the D195 group (P < 0.05). Moreover, birds in the D525 group exhibited a lower level of ether extract retention, and higher contents of several excreted amino acids than those in the D195 group (P < 0.05). Compared with the D195 group, eggs harvested from D525 group exhibited lower albumen height, eggshell strength and thickness, and a higher egg weight (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increased intestinal permeability (higher serum D-lactate content), compromised digestive function (lower digestive enzyme activities and apparent nutrient retention, and higher concentrations of excreted amino acids), and poor egg quality (lower albumen height, eggshell strength, and thickness) were observed with increasing age in the laying hens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Digestão , Ovos , Intestinos , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Intestinos/fisiologia
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523183

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Hordeum , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mastigação , Nutrientes , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1004-1007, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518058

RESUMO

Our study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) levels on the digestive physiology in the jejunal fluid of Muscovy ducks to provide digestive parameters for in vitro digestion. There were 6 ME levels (11.0, 11.5, 12.0, 12.5, 13.0, and 13.5 MJ/kg; Exp. 1) and six CP levels (140, 155, 170, 185, 200, and 215 g/kg; Exp. 2) and each treatment included 6 replicates with 3 ducks each replicate. In Exp. 3, the comparison of energy utilization was investigated between in vivo and in vitro using the digestion parameters obtained from Exp. 1 and 2. As dietary ME was increased, the chymotrypsin activity was increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the concentrations of Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ were increased quadratically (P < 0.05) in the jejunal fluid. As dietary CP was increased, amylase activity was increased linearly (P < 0.05), whereas trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and Ca2+ concentration were increased quadratically (P < 0.05). The pH values were decreased quadratically with the increased dietary ME or CP levels (P < 0.05). The optimal digestion parameters for energy feedstuffs with 307.26 U/mL amylase, 54.68 U/mL trypsin, 24.90 U/mL chymotrypsin, 104.39 mmol/L Na+, 51.25 mmol/L Cl-, and pH 7.79; for protein feedstuffs with 381.88 U/mL amylase, 72.84 U/mL trypsin, 11.98 U/mL chymotrypsin, 93.53 mmol/L Na+, 46.25 mmol/L Cl-, and pH 7.80, respectively. Using the optimal digestion parameters for in vitro digestion, energy utilization in vitro reflected the degree of the apparent energy utilization of corn, sorghum, and barley as well as true energy utilization of soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal in vivo and the variation of digestion was lower in vitro than in vivo.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Patos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Masculino
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1205-1212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518078

RESUMO

Sustainability of poultry farming relies on the development of more efficient and autonomous production systems in terms of feed supply. This implies a better integration of adaptive traits in breeding programs, including digestive efficiency, to favor the use of a wider variety of feedstuffs. The objective of the study was to better characterize the kinetics of development of the digestive tract in broilers, in relationship with digestive efficiency by measuring various digestive parameters as well as serum color. Absolute and relative growth of gastrointestinal tract organs were compared between 2 divergent chicken lines selected on digestive efficiency (AMEn) during 7 wk of development. We show that as early as 7 d of age, these 2 lines differs for several organs developments and that these differences remain visible later on. In addition, the allometry of the gizzard and intestine segments is different between the 2 lines, with efficient birds putting more effort in the upper part of the digestive tract during postnatal development and less-efficient birds putting more effort in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, we also showed that differences in serum pigmentation, which is a good biomarker for digestive capacity, could be a convenient diagnostic tool to discriminate between chickens with high or low digestive efficiency at early stages of development. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn had large impacts in gastrointestinal development including at early stages and is a valuable resource for further studies on the genetic and physiological control of the response of the animal to feed variations.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cruzamento/normas , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 993-997, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518153

RESUMO

A total of 480 male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were assigned to one of 6 dietary treatments to explore the energy equivalence of myo-inositol compared with dextrose. The 6 dietary treatments included a corn and soy-based control ration formulated with 5% anhydrous dextrose and 5 further diets that were generated by the sequential displacement of increments of 1% dextrose with myo-inositol. Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages of 10 chicks per cage from day 8 to day 18 after hatch. The BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured, and on day 15 to day 17, excreta were collected to estimate the total tract nutrient retention. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and tibia mineral content was assessed on day 18. The displacement of dextrose with myo-inositol generated a significant linear reduction in the FCR that did not reach a plateau at 5% dietary inclusion of myo-inositol. There was no effect of the displacement of dextrose with myo-inositol on bone mineral concentration. However, supplemental myo-inositol linearly reduced ileal digestibility of DM, calcium, and ileal digestible energy. Myo-inositol addition resulted in a significant linear increase in the total tract retention of CP. It can be concluded that myo-inositol has an energy equivalence equal to approximately 78% of that of dextrose for young broiler chicks but exerts a range of extra caloric effects that improve feed efficiency and may influence nitrogen (N) retention and the uric acid cycle. Future work should focus on the role of phytase and myo-inositol on uric acid, creatine kinase, and other metabolites involved in renal function and biochemical flows of N in urine and feces in nonruminants.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Ração Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567518

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal population. Formula feeding is among the many risk factors for developing the condition, a practice often required in the cohort most often afflicted with NEC, preterm infants. While the virtues of many bioactive components of breast milk have been extolled, the ability to digest and assimilate the nutritional components of breast milk is often overlooked. The structure of formula differs from that of breast milk, both in lipid composition and chemical configuration. In addition, formula lacks a critical digestive enzyme produced by the mammary gland, bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL). The gastrointestinal system of premature infants is often incapable of secreting sufficient pancreatic enzymes for fat digestion, and pasteurization of donor milk (DM) has been shown to inactivate BSSL, among other important compounds. Incompletely digested lipids may oxidize and accumulate in the distal gut. These lipid fragments are thought to induce intestinal inflammation in the neonate, potentially hastening the development of diseases such as NEC. In this review, differences in breast milk, pasteurized DM, and formula lipids are highlighted, with a focus on the ability of those lipids to be digested and subsequently absorbed by neonates, especially those born prematurely and at risk for NEC.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lipídeos/análise , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Leite Humano/química
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 900-909, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518143

RESUMO

Work was carried out to determine the effects of limestone (LM) geometric mean diameter (GMD), phytate, Ca source, and phytase on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of Ca and P in broilers. Twelve treatments (TRT) were tested. One basal corn and corn germ-based diet was prepared without adding inorganic Ca or P (TRT1, 0.02% Ca). Limestone from the same source (800 or 151 µm GMD) and bone (151 µm GMD) were added to TRT 2-4, (0.7% Ca). TRT5 was a corn/soybean meal (SBM) diet with 800 µm GMD LM (0.77% Ca). Buttiauxella sp. phytase was added (1,000 U/kg) to TRT 1-5 to prepare TRT 6-10, respectively. In addition, 800 or 150 µm GMD LM and monosodium P were added to a nitrogen-Ca-phytate-free diet (TRT 11 and 12, respectively). Treatments were analyzed as a complete block design using SAS mixed procedures and with factorial analysis on subsets of data: 1) LM GMD (151 vs. 800 µm GMD) with or without phytase: TRT 2, 3, 7, and 8; 2) phytate (corn or corn-free) with the same LM at 2 different sizes: TRT 2, 3, 11, and 12; 3) Ca source (LM vs. bone) with or without phytase: TRT 2, 4, 6, 8, and 9; 4) phytate source (corn vs. corn/SBM) with or without phytase: TRT 2, 5, 7, and 10. Broilers (4/pen) were fed mash diets ad lib for 36 h (20-22 d of age). At the end of the trial, distal ileal digesta were collected. Fine LM had lower SID Ca (38.09%) vs. coarse LM (49.18%), irrespective of phytase (P < 0.05). Standardized ileal digestibility of P was lower when the smaller LM was used vs. coarse LM with either 0 or 1,000 phytase U/kg (P < 0.05). Both SID Ca and P were higher without phytate vs. when phytate from corn was present (P < 0.05). Ca from bone was more digestible and its impact on SID P smaller vs. LM regardless of phytase (P < 0.05). In addition, phytate from SBM was more digestible and responsive to phytase as compared to phytate from corn (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary factors affected Ca and P digestibility and their response to phytase inclusion.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Cálcio/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Íleo/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio/química , Carbonato de Cálcio , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácido Fítico
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100853, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516473

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 types of almond hulls (prime hulls and California-type hulls) as alternative feed ingredients for broilers. A total of 560 one-day-old Cobb male chicks were randomly placed to 7 experimental treatments with 8 replicates of 10 birds each. Seven treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet and diets containing prime hulls or California-type hulls at 3, 6, and 9%. The nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy, crude protein, and crude fiber from prime hulls and California-type hulls were 1,624 and 1,514 kcal/kg, 4.8 and 5.0%, and 13.1 and 26.45%, respectively. During 0-19 d of age, the inclusion of the prime hulls at 3 levels had no significant effects on growth performance, but the California-type hulls at 9% increased feed intake (P = 0.02) and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01), compared with control. The prime hulls at 9% decreased (P < 0.01) ileal dry matter and ileal nitrogen digestibility, and the California-type hulls at 9% only decreased ileal dry matter digestibility, but both prime hulls and California-type hulls at 6% had no effects on ileal dry matter digestibility and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy compared to control. In addition, inclusion of prime hulls at 3% decreased (P < 0.01) AMEn compared with control group. There were no significant differences in cecal microbiota diversity at a phylum or genus level among treatments, but 9% inclusion rate of the California-type hulls increased (P < 0.05) the population of certain bacteria in the genus Clostridium and Oscillospira compared with control. In conclusion, as a dietary energy and fiber source, the prime hulls can be used at up to 9% without a negative effect on body weight gain, whereas the California-type hulls can be used up to 6%.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ceco , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prunus dulcis , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 206-214, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357683

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to validate the sensitivity and accuracy of in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) determined with a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) to predict metabolizable energy (ME) of diets for roosters. In experiment 1, soybean hulls were added to a basal diet (calibration diet 1) at 2.06, 4.12, 6.17, 8.23, 10.28, 12.32, or 14.37% of the diets (calibration diets 2-8) to produce an interval of approximately 80 kcal ME/kg. The sensitivity was measured by comparing the determined and actual IVDE of the diets. With these data, a linear model was developed to predict ME from IVDE. In experiment 2, validation diets were identical except they were composed of different cereal ingredients. For each diet, the correlations and ratios between IVDE and ME were analyzed to test the sensitivity of IVDE to predict ME across different ingredients. In experiment 1, a slope of 0.9899 was calculated in a linear regression of determined IVDE on actual IVDE (R2 = 0.9998; P < 0.01). The ratio of determined IVDE to actual IVDE was 0.9878. The ratio of IVDE to apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and to nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn) was 1.03 and 1.05, respectively. The linear models to predict ME from IVDE were AME = 0.8449 × IVDE + 451 (R2 = 0.9812, residual standard deviation [RSD] = 28 kcal/kg; P < 0.01) and AMEn = 0.8357 × IVDE + 436 (R2 = 0.9821, RSD = 27 kcal/kg; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, a significant simple correlation was observed between the IVDE and AME or AMEn of validation diets (r > 0.97; P < 0.01). The ratio of IVDE to AME and to AMEn was 1.04 and 1.05, respectively. Predicted and determined AME or AMEn of 8 validation diets differed by less than 100 kcal/kg. The regression of determined AME or AMEn against predicted AME or AMEn (R2 ≥ 0.9466; P < 0.01) resulted in an overlapped line where Y = X. These results suggest the IVDE determined with CCSDS is highly sensitive and can be used to accurately predict the ME of diets for roosters across a wide range of cereal grains.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Simulação por Computador , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Masculino
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117351, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278961

RESUMO

The role of the plant matrix is recognized as the main factor restricting starch digestibility in beans. Several authors have provided insights about the mechanisms behind the reduced starch digestibility in plant matrices. In this study, by means of a mathematical model, we provide a mechanistic explanation of the role played by the cell wall. It was confirmed that starch entrapped within intact cells could only be hydrolysed after α-amylase diffusion through the cell wall. This process is limited by the pores naturally present in the cell wall and the adsorption of α-amylase to the cell wall surface. These factors restrict the concentration of α-amylase available within the cells. The model assumptions are valid under controlled laboratory conditions and were validated with in-vitro digestion data giving very accurate results. The proposed approach provides new information to understand the digestibility of starch, and possibly other macronutrients, in complex food matrices.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cotilédone/citologia , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Adsorção , Animais , Difusão , Mucosa Gástrica/enzimologia , Hidrólise , Cinética , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Porosidade , Suínos , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1714-1727, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309354

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing soybean hull (SBH) pellets with grass hay (GH) on growth, intake, total-tract digestibility, and rumen microbial nitrogen production of weaned dairy calves from 8 to 16 wk of age. Holstein calves (n = 16) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 rations containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 76% grower with the remaining 24% being made up of different amounts of SBH pellets and GH [0% GH, 24% SBH (0GH); 8% GH, 16% SBH (8GH); 16% GH, 8% SBH (16GH); and 24% GH, 0% SBH (24GH)]. Calves were weaned at 6 wk, housed individually, and studied from 8 to 16 wk of age. From 8 to 9 wk of age calves were offered a ration consisting of 50% of texturized starter (20% CP and 35% starch), which was offered from 3 d of age, and 50% of their assigned ration. From 9 wk until the end of the study, calves were offered 100% of their assigned ration. Intake and body weight were measured weekly, and frame measurements were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Animal behavior observations were recorded every 5 min over a 24-h period at 10 and 14 wk of age. Total fecal and urine collection was conducted for 4 d consecutively at 11 and 15 wk of age. Feed and feces were evaluated for DM, N, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and starch to determine total-tract digestibility. Feces were evaluated for geometric mean particle length (Xgm) and particle size distribution. Urine was evaluated for N, creatinine, urea, and total purine derivatives to estimate microbial N yield. Calves offered 0GH and 8GH had a 20% increase in intake, average daily gain (1.23, 1.27, 0.89, and 0.71 kg/d for 0GH, 8GH, 16GH, and 24GH, respectively), and feed efficiency compared with 16GH and 24GH. Calves offered 8GH had the greatest levels of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility, as well as the greatest estimated microbial N yields. Inclusion of forage increased rumination time (2.75, 6.89, 7.18, and 8.16 h/d for 0GH, 8GH, 16GH, and 24GH, respectively) and decreased fecal Xgm by ~35% compared with calves offered 0GH. In the current study, increasing the replacement of SBH with GH beyond 8% was detrimental to weaned calf performance. These results indicate that when diets containing 8% GH and 16% SBH were fed to recently weaned calves, rumen functionality and feed efficiency were optimized compared with the other GH-SBH combinations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae , Rúmen/microbiologia , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Masculino , Desmame
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1728-1743, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309368

RESUMO

The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability of corn silage in diets containing lower and higher NDF concentrations on lactational performance, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal characteristics in lactating Holstein cows was measured. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 91 ± 4 (standard error) days in milk were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7-d collection periods). Dietary treatments were formulated to contain either conventional (CON; 48.6% 24-h NDF degradability; NDFD) or brown midrib-3 (BM3; 61.1% 24-h NDFD) corn silage and either lower NDF (LNDF) or higher NDF (HNDF) concentration (32.0 and 35.8% of ration dry matter, DM) by adjusting the dietary forage content (52 and 67% forage, DM basis). The dietary treatments were (1) CON-LNDF, (2) CON-HNDF, (3) BM3-LNDF, and (4) BM3-HNDF. Data were analyzed as a factorial arrangement of diets within a replicated Latin square design with the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with fixed effects of NDFD, NDF, NDFD × NDF, period(square), and square. Cow within square was the random effect. Time and its interactions with NDFD and NDF were included in the model when appropriate. An interaction between NDFD and NDF content resulted in the HNDF diet decreasing dry matter intake (DMI) with CON corn silage but not with BM3 silage. Cows fed the BM3 corn silage had higher DMI than cows fed the CON corn silage, whereas cows fed the HNDF diet consumed less DM than cows fed the LNDF diet. Cows fed the BM3 diets had greater energy-corrected milk yield, higher milk true protein content, and lower milk urea nitrogen concentration than cows fed CON diets. Additionally, cows fed the BM3 diets had greater total-tract digestibility of organic matter and NDF than cows fed the CON diets. Compared with CON diets, the BMR diets accelerated ruminal NDF turnover. When incorporated into higher NDF diets, corn silage with greater in vitro 24-h NDFD and lower undegradable NDF at 240 h of in vitro fermentation (uNDF240) allowed for greater DMI intake than CON. In contrast, for lower NDF diets, NDFD of corn silage did not affect DMI, which suggests that a threshold level of inclusion of higher NDFD corn silage is necessary to observe enhanced lactational performance. Results suggest that there is a maximum gut fill of dietary uNDF240 and that higher NDFD corn silage can be fed at greater dietary concentrations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fermentação , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1620-1629, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358159

RESUMO

A good transition from a mainly liquid diet to a solid diet of concentrates and forages is important considering the small size and development of the calf's rumen. However, the optimal amount of hay or other high-fiber ingredients in the diet of recently weaned calves is not well defined. The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of feeding 0, 5, or 10% chopped grass hay (6.5% crude protein, 64.6% neutral detergent fiber) with a textured, high-starch starter (20.5% crude protein, 38.4% starch, 14.1% neutral detergent fiber; protein pellet, whole corn, and oats) on performance and digestion in Holstein steer calves between 2 and 4 mo of age. Forty-eight calves (initial body weight = 90.7 ± 2.15 kg) were housed in group pens (4 per pen) and fed diets and water for ad libitum intake. Feed offered and refused was measured daily. Calf body weight, hip width, and body condition score (1-5 scale) were measured initially and at 28 and 56 d. Fecal samples were collected from the pen floor with care not to sample bedding material and composited by pen during d 5-9, 26-30, and 47-51 to estimate apparent total-tract digestibility using acid-insoluble ash. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures and pen as the experimental unit. As grass hay increased, dry matter intake (kg/d) decreased linearly but tended to change quadratically. Dry matter intake as a % of body weight changed quadratically with increasing hay, increasing from 0 to 5%, and decreasing from 5 to 10% hay. Average daily gain (1.15, 1.12, and 0.95 kg/d), feed efficiency (0.336, 0.319, and 0.309 kg of average daily gain/kg of dry matter intake), and hip width change (4.6, 4.7, and 4.1) decreased linearly with 0, 5, and 10% hay, respectively. Overall estimates of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein digestibility changed quadratically with hay, increasing from 0 to 5%, and decreasing from 5 to 10% hay, whereas digestibility of starch, sugar, and fat decreased linearly with increasing hay. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased from 2 to 3 mo of age, and decreased from 3 to 4 mo of age. Digestibility of starch decreased linearly and digestibility of fat and crude protein increased linearly with age. Digestive capacity did not appear mature by 4 mo of age. Feeding 5% chopped hay supported optimal digestion and growth in calves 2 to 4 mo of age, which agrees with previously published research.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Poaceae , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Desmame
17.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S3): 24-27, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706765

RESUMO

No Abstract Available.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos
18.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S3): 28-31, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706766
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687554

RESUMO

The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF + XY; Econase XT 25P), and HF + 50 mg/kg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide (HF + AX). Gilts were fed ad libitum for 36 d across two dietary phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 0, 14, 27, and 36. On day 36, pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 10-d period, limit fed (80% of average ad libitum intake), and feces and urine were collected the last 72 h to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). On day 46, serum and ileal and colonic tissue were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with block and replication as random effects, and treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects. There was a significant treatment × time interaction for BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed (G:F; P < 0.001). By design, BW at day 0 did not differ; at day 14, pigs fed LF were 3.5% heavier, and pigs fed HF + XY, when compared with HF, were 4% and 4.2% heavier at days 27 and 36, respectively (P < 0.001). From day 14 to 27 and day 27 to 36, when compared with HF, HF + XY improved ADG by 12.4% and 10.7% and G:F by 13.8% and 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with LF, HF decreased DE and ME by 0.51 and 0.42 Mcal/kg, respectively, but xylanase partially mitigated that effect by increasing DE and ME by 0.15 and 0.12 Mcal/kg, over HF, respectively (P < 0.05). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased total antioxidant capacity in the serum and ileum (P < 0.05) and tended to have less circulating malondialdehyde (P = 0.098). Pigs fed LF had increased ileal villus height, and HF + XY and HF + AX had shallower intestinal crypts (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased ileal messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of claudin 4 and occludin (P < 0.05). Xylanase, but not AX, improved the growth performance of pigs fed insoluble corn-based fiber. This was likely a result of the observed increase in ME, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced gut barrier integrity, but it may require increased adaptation time to elicit this response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658254

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, starch, and total dietary fiber (TDF) in two varieties of hybrid rye and compare these values with values obtained for barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum. It was hypothesized that there are no differences in AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients among hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and sorghum. Twenty-four ileal cannulated barrows (initial body weight = 28.1 ± 3.0 kg) were randomly allotted to a two-period experimental design with six diets and four replicate pigs in each period for a total of eight replicate pigs per diet. Diets consisted of 97% of each grain, and each pig received a different diet in each period. The initial 5 d of each period were considered the adaptation period, whereas urine and fecal materials were collected from the feed provided from day 6 to 10, and ileal digesta were collected on days 12 and 13 of each period. Results indicated that the metabolizable energy (ME) on a dry matter (DM) basis was greatest (P < 0.05) in corn and wheat (3,732 and 3,641 kcal/kg DM), and least (P < 0.05) in barley (3,342 kcal/kg DM), whereas the two hybrid ryes contained 3,499 and 3,459 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The ME values in hybrid rye were not different from values determined for barley and sorghum (3,573 kcal/kg DM). In all grains, the AID of starch was greater than 90%, and the ATTD of starch was nearly 100%. Barley contained more TDF than the other cereal grains, and the two hybrid ryes had concentrations of soluble dietary fiber that were close to the concentration in barley but greater than in wheat, corn, and sorghum. The AID of TDF was less than 35% for all cereal grains, but the ATTD of TDF was greater (P < 0.05) in the two hybrid ryes (68% and 70%) than in the other ingredients (56% to 58%). In conclusion, feeding hybrid rye to pigs resulted in reduced pre-cecal absorption of energy compared with wheat, corn, and sorghum, but because hindgut fermentation of fiber was greater in hybrid rye than in other cereal grains, the content of ME in hybrid rye was not different from barley and sorghum but less than in corn and wheat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Grão Comestível , Secale , Suínos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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