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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841977

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to separate, identify and assess antioxidant peptides from the simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) cooking juice (CCCJ), which has been previously found with this activity. The CCCJ after simulated GI digestion treatment was separated gradually by ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC. Five novel antioxidant peptides with 10-13 amino acid residues were identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Their in silico assessments showed amphiphilic nature, good sensory quality and different target sites in the human body. Meanwhile, their three-dimensional structure predictions exhibited at least one ß-turn, ß-sheet and/or α-helix with partial hydrophobic and/or net-charged residues exposed to the external medium, which was good evidence for high antioxidant activity. Ultimately, four novel peptides with high antioxidant activity were found, among which IREADIDGDGQVN (1401 Da), PEILPDGDHD (1107 Da) and ASDEQDSVRL (1119 Da) exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 1.78, 1.18 and 1.45 mM, respectively, while APLEEPSSPH (1063 Da) showed the highest Fe2+ chelating ability with IC50 of 0.09 mM. This work could help understand the mechanism of CCCJ on human health promotion and improve the economic value of the crucian carp processing industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Carpas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Digestão/fisiologia , Peptídeos/análise , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Culinária , Modelos Biológicos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644644

RESUMO

A total number of 300 (225 ducks and 75 drakes) Sudani ducks, 28-wk-old were divided into five groups to investigate the effects of dietary L-carnitine (LC) supplementation on productive, hatching and physiological performance as well as nutrients digestibility coefficients. The results indicated that the productive performance and Semen quality parameters (ejaculate volume, sperms concentration and advanced motility) were significantly improved by LC supplementation (150-450 mg /kg diet) as compared to the control. Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was significantly improved, while total embryonic mortality was significantly decreased by supplementing 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Supplementing different dietary LC levels resulted in significantly high values of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells count and lymphocyte (L) cells percentage, while it decreased heterophils (H) cells and H/L ratio. Serum albumin, total cholesterol and AST enzyme values were significantly low in ducks fed diets supplemented with LC. Serum triglycerides were significantly the lowest by feeding 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Nutrients digestibility coefficients were significantly improved in drakes fed diet supplemented with 450 mg LC/kg diet. Conclusively, dietary LC supplementation at 300 or 450 mg/kg for duck breeders in summer could improve productive, hatching and physiological performance and nutrients digestibility coefficients.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen
3.
J Insect Sci ; 19(5)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639190

RESUMO

Plants present a delimited reservoir of biologically active compounds. Many plants synthesize several compounds of secondary metabolism, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, steroids, etc. Such compounds are generally thought to be involved in plant-insect interactions. Phytoecdysteroids are a class of chemicals that plants synthesize; these compounds are analogues of molting hormones produced by insects. In this work, the effect of the 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is a molecule that belongs to the family of phytoecdysteroids, was tested on an insect pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Firstly, the effect of this molecule on post-embryonic development parameters was tested after ingestion at 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 ppm. Secondly, the effect of the 20-hydroxyecdysone was also tested on the biological parameters (proteins, alpha-amylase, detoxification enzymes). The results of the post-embryonic parameters test showed an important induction of larval mortality and a significant reduction of pupation and adult emergence rates. On the other hand, the test on the biological parameters showed that the 20-hydroxyecdysone caused a significant decrease in the levels of soluble proteins in treated larvae. In addition, the alpha-amylase activity was significantly inhibited by the ingestion of the phytoecdysteroid. And there was also a disruption of detoxification enzymes. The whole of the disturbances recorded in this work prove that phytoecdysteroids are thought to have potential value on T. castaneum control.


Assuntos
Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Digestão/fisiologia , Sistema Digestório/enzimologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tribolium/enzimologia , Tribolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 485-504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544530

RESUMO

The same food formulation processed to obtain two different starch gelatinisations (SG) and resistant starch (RS) contents was evaluated in old and adult dogs, regarding apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, fermentation products in faeces, and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. A diet with corn was ground and extruded in two different ways, obtaining Low RS (2.2 g/kg DM; 99.9% of SG) and High RS (15.3 g/kg DM; 62.6% of SG). Each diet was fed to adults (4.0 ± 0.7 years) or old beagle dogs (11.5 ± 0.4 years) in a 2 (ages) x 2 (RS amounts) factorial arrangement with 8 dogs per food. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and postprandial responses by analysis of variance of repeated measurements over time (p < 0.05). Diet × age interaction was observed for protein ATTD, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS than those for the other treatments (p < 0.05). No age or diet effect was verified for the ATTD of other nutrients and faecal score. Faecal moisture and pH were higher for adults than that for old dogs (p < 0.05). The High RS food increased acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations in faeces, regardless of age (p < 0.01). Old dogs presented lower acetate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and higher lactate and ammonia than adults (p < 0.05). Only for old dogs the intake of the High RS food reduced ammonia and increased faecal lactate (p < 0.05). An age × diet interaction was verified for glucose postprandial response, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS food (p < 0.05), while no differences were found for the other treatments. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion regardless of the diet (p < 0.05), and lower insulin increment at 180 min after the meal when fed the Low RS than when fed the High RS food (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet with lower SG and higher RS improved the intestinal microenvironment, with higher butyrate and total SCFA without altering faeces production or score. Old dogs presented less acetate and total SCFA and higher lactate and ammonia in faeces than adults. The High RS food increased lactate and reduced ammonia in faeces of old dogs, with possible positive influences for gut health. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion than that of adults to maintain blood glucose, and the diet with higher RS content reduced the postprandial glucose response of old dogs.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/química
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 130: 109282, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383330

RESUMO

This novel, iso-osmo-resistive theory offers electro-resistivity of food components as a new dimension for digestion. Firstly, fats, carbohydrates and proteins differ markedly in their resistivity, which offers a way to monitor them, especially when digestive enzymes cause consistent and distinctive changes. Secondly the state of iso-resistivity is in theory most likely to pass through the membranes of absorbing cells and be compatible with plasma in portal blood vessels. Hence, the theory proposes that the aim of the digestive process in the upper gut is to present digesta to absorption sites in a state at, or close to, iso-osmo-resistivity. It requires a method of monitoring resistivity which could be achieved by neuronal endings based in the upper gut mucosa. They could be simple nerve endings or, probably less likely, part of the structure of duodenal Brunner's Glands. They would monitor the overall effect of the various digestive processes initiated by the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The combination of sensitive electroreceptor and osmoreceptor output would provide a system that would accurately monitor the overall progress of digestion to conserve enzyme production.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Digestão/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Osmorregulação , Animais , Glândulas Duodenais/fisiopatologia , Duodeno/fisiopatologia , Impedância Elétrica , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , Ornitorrinco , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Species differences in calcium and phosphorus metabolism can be expressed via dietary and faecal calcium/phosphorus ratios. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to use faecal Ca/P ratios as an indicator of phosphorus digestibility in growing pigs as a simple diagnostic tool. This tool can be useful in cases of suspected phosphorus deficiency but adequate dietary calcium and phosphorus contents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Studies (n = 34) with phytase-supplemented (PHYT; n = 110) and non-supplemented control (CON; n = 106) diets were analysed for dietary intake, faecal excretion and apparent digestibility of calcium and phosphorus. A modified Lucas-test was used for both minerals plotting intake against faecal excretion (mg/kg body weight0.75). RESULTS: For calcium, there was no significant difference between PHYT and CON (p = 0.29) while in accordance with literature, the relative faecal phosphorus excretion was significantly lower in PHYT than CON (p < 0.01). Faecal calcium/phosphorus ratios were calculated and grouped according to the animals' body weight and apparent phosphorus digestibility (body weight ≤ 30 kg: apparent phosphorus digestibility ≤ 60 % and > 60 %; body weight > 30 kg: apparent phosphorus digestibility ≤ 40 % and > 40 %). CONCLUSION: Data distribution as displayed in a box plot shows that - given a dietary Ca/P ratio of > 1.2 - faecal Ca/P ratios of > 1.5 in pigs with a body weight of ≤ 30 kg and of > 1.2 in pigs with a body weight of > 30 kg indicate a high apparent digestibility of phosphorus of > 60 % and > 40 %, respectively. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: When faecal samples reveal a Ca/P ratio above the indicated thresholds, a low phosphorus digestibility is unlikely. No conclusion regarding the apparent phosphorus digestibility can be drawn from faecal Ca/P ratios below this threshold.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Deficiências Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Fósforo , 6-Fitase/análise , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Deficiências Nutricionais/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/fisiologia , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/deficiência , Fósforo/metabolismo , Suínos
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2584-2591, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436860

RESUMO

The potential of heterogeneous systems like oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions is exploited as an oral delivery system for curcumin, a natural lipophilic compound with numerous health benefits. Two types of O/W nanoemulsions, one stabilized by sodium caseinate (Cas-O/W), a surface-active and emulsifying protein, and the other stabilized by a blend of caseinate and Tween 20 (Mix-O/W), were loaded with the bioactive compound and tested through a simulated gastrointestinal digestion process to evaluate their effects on delivering of curcumin. It was first demonstrated that the amount of curcumin solubilized through Mix-O/W nanoemulsion was higher than that in Cas-O/W nanoemulsion. Cas-O/W nanoemulsions, indeed, at their best, solubilized about 55 µg/mL of curcumin while Mix-O/W nanoemulsions reached a curcumin concentration around 180 µg/mL. Furthermore, for both the systems an increase of curcumin loading capacity was recorded with the rise of incubation temperature. Finally, after the in vitro simulated digestion process, the potential curcumin bioavailability was evaluated and the data suggested that Mix-O/W nanoemulsions provided more than twice the amount of curcumin compared to Cas-O/W nanoemulsions. On balance, the outcomes of this investigation demonstrated that the mixed emulsifier system offered a higher amount of lipophilic compound with a low fat intake compared to nanoemulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The outcomes of this study allow the recognition of the protein/surfactant-stabilized nanoemulsions as a suitable solution to deliver curcumin. The nanoemulsions proposed here provide a high intake of curcumin, a lipophilic compound, with low fat content. The use of such delivery systems helps to overcome limits in oral bioavailability related with the scarce solubility of some compounds in food preparations and beverages.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Curcumina , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tensoativos/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Digestão/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Polissorbatos/química
8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(5): 1747-1757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297679

RESUMO

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of dietary protein levels (37, 40, and 43%) on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expressions of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in fingerling yellow catfish. One hundred and eighty fingerlings (average weight 0.77 ± 0.03 g) were equally distributed across four replicate tanks for each of the three treatments, with 15 fish per tank. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in initial body weight, survival rate (SR), hepatosomatic index (HSI), viscera index (VSI), dressing percentage (DP), and condition factor (CF) among all the treatments. The diet containing 40% protein increased significantly (P < 0.05) final body weight, weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), nitrogen retention (NRE), and energy retention (ERE) in fish. The highest protease activity in the stomach and intestine was observed in the P40 group (P < 0.05), while amylase and lipase were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The transcriptional levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and Akt were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in fish fed P40 or P43 than those of fish fed P37. TOR and S6K1 mRNA expressions were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the P40 groups. Hence, the diet containing 40% protein would be suitable for the optimum growth and effective protein utilization of fingerling Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. In vitro, the transcriptional levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R, Akt, TOR, and S6K1 in hepatocyte supplemented with a 40-µM mixed amino acids were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to other treatments. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 in vivo and in vitro among all the treatments. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance likely are involved in the activation of TOR signaling pathway in fingerling Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(5): 1313-1324, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298448

RESUMO

A 4-unit, single-flow continuous culture fermenter system was developed to assess in vitro nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and daily enteric methane (CH4 ) production of ruminant diets. The objective was to develop a closed-vessel system that maintained protozoal populations and provided accurate predictions of total CH4 production. A diet of 50% orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and 50% alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was fed during 4, 10-day periods (7-day adaptation and 3-day collection). Fermenters were fed 82 g of dry matter (DM)/day in four equal feedings. pH and temperature were taken every 2 min, and CH4 concentration was measured every 10 min. Samples for DM and protozoal counts were taken daily, and daily effluent samples were collected for determination of DM, VFA and NH3 -N concentrations. There was no effect (p > 0.17) of adaptation versus collection days on vessel and effluent DM, temperature or pH. Initial protozoal counts decreased (p < 0.01), but recovered to initial counts by the collection period. Total VFA, acetate, propionate and isobutyrate concentrations did not differ (p ≥ 0.13) among periods or days of the collection period. There was no difference (p ≥ 0.37) among days or periods in total daily CH4 production and CH4 production per g of OM, NDF, digestible OM or digestible NDF fed. Data collected throughout 4 experimental periods demonstrated that the system was able to reach a steady state in fermentation well within the 7-day adaptation period and even typically variable data (i.e., CH4 production) were stable within and across periods. While further research is needed to determine the relationship between this system and in vivo data, this continuous culture fermenter system provides a valid comparison of in vitro ruminal fermentation and enteric CH4 production of ruminant diets that can then be further validated with in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/veterinária , Metano/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1200-1211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317623

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate nutrient digestibility and intestine gene expression in the progeny from cows supplemented during gestation and fed diets with or without rumen-protected fat (RPF) in the feedlot. Forty-eight Nellore steers, averaging 340 kg, were housed in individual pens and allotted in a completely randomized design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (dams nutrition × RPF). Cows' supplementation started after 124 ± 21 days of gestation. The feedlot lasted 135 days and diets had the inclusion of zero or 6% of RPF. Digestibility was evaluated by total feces collection. Steers were slaughtered using the concussion technique and samples of pancreas and small intestine were collected immediately after the slaughter to analyze α-amylase activity, and the expression of SLC5A1, CD36, and CCK and villi morphometry. Feeding RPF increased nutrients digestibility (p < 0.01). There was no effect of maternal nutrition on digestibility and α-amylase activity in steers (p > 0.05). Duodenal expression of SLC5A1, CD36, and CCK increased in the progeny from restricted cows. In conclusion, protein restriction during mid to late gestation of dams has long-term effects on small-intestine length and on expression of membrane transporters genes in the duodenum of the progeny. However, maternal nutrition does not affect digestibility in the feedlot.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Prenhez , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(5): 1325-1337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318115

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the effects of energetic undernutrition on liquid and solid digesta passage and on nutrient digestibility as well as their interdependencies. Using a 4 x 4 Latin square design, 12 growing Boran steers (183 ± 15.2 kg live weight) were allocated to four levels of metabolizable energy (ME) supply fixed at 100, 80, 60 and 40% of individual maintenance energy requirements (MER) during four experimental periods. Each period comprised three weeks of adaptation, two weeks of data collection and two weeks of recovery. Diets MER80, MER60 and MER40 only consisted of Rhodes grass hay (RGH), whereas diet MER100 contained (as fed) 83% RGH, 8% cotton seed meal and 9% sugarcane molasses. Feed intake differed between treatments (p < .001) and ranged from 40 ± 0.6 g dry matter (DM) per kg of metabolic weight (kg0.75 ) in MER40 to 81 ± 1.3 g DM in MER100. Digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fibre (NDF, ADF) was highest at MER80, whereas rumen retention time of liquid and solid digesta was longest at MER40. The correlation of rumen retention time of liquid and solid digesta with the digestibility of proximate diet components was weak but positive, whereas the correlation of liquid and solid rumen retention time with quantitative feed and nutrient intake was strong (p < .01) and negative. Our results suggest that tropical cattle are able to buffer a moderate energy deficit by prolonging rumen retention time of digesta and hence improve diet digestibility. Conversely, a severe energy deficit cannot be buffered by digestive adaptation mechanisms and will inevitably lead to productivity losses.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Masculino , Nutrientes
12.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 384-398, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315463

RESUMO

Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg) maintained singly in a metabolic cage were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment to investigate the effect of supplementing a ration with five different levels of distillers' grape residue (DGR) on ruminal degradability, whole tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) metabolism of growing lambs. The rations were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and contained 0, 3.85, 7.70, 11.55 and 15.41% DGR (DM basis). Each experimental period lasted for 18 d: 10 d for adaptation to the dietary treatment and 8 d for faecal, urinary, ruminal and duodenal digesta sample collections. The outflow rate of ruminal digesta increased (p = 0.032) linearly with the increased level of dietary neutral detergent fibre content, caused by the supplementation of DGR. As a result, the effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein decreased significantly with the treatments. Although the dietary intake of N, duodenal flow of total N, and the endogenous N at the duodenum were not affected by experimental treatments, N fractions in the digesta were altered. Ruminal microbial N decreased (p < 0.01) linearly; in contrast, ruminal un-degradable protein increased linearly (p < 0.01) in response to the increased addition of DGR. Although there was no significant difference in faecal N among treatments, N retention was increased linearly (p = 0.014), owing to the remarkable reduction (p = 0.016) of urinary N excretion with an increasing level of DGR. The results indicate that the DGR has some potential benefits of increasing the supply of bypass protein and of improving the utilisation efficiency of N for sheep. Therefore, the supplementation of DGR in ruminant feeding is recommended at levels not exceeding 10% of the diet.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 414-429, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342789

RESUMO

Dairy cows are commonly fed compound feed concentrates, whose accurate formulation relies on the additivity of ruminal degradation characteristics of single feeds, and the absence of associative effects. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the additivity of single feeds in compound feeds made thereof. Twelve single feeds were used to produce eight compound feeds in mash and pelleted form. Samples of single and compound feeds were incubated in situ in three ruminally fistulated dairy cows, and effective ruminal degradation (ED) of CP and starch (ST) was computed. The ED values of examined compound feeds could be, in most cases, accurately calculated from ED values of single feeds. Observed EDCP values were significantly lower than that calculated, but differences were overall small and not exceeded 5% points. No significant differences were observed between calculated and observed EDST. The study also examined the effects of pelleting of compound feeds on in situ degradation. Pelleting significantly increased EDCP (up to 8% points), and EDST (up to 4% points) of most compound feeds. This could have been caused by the pelleting process increasing the proportion of fine feed particles with fast disappearance from the bags. It was concluded that small associative effects between the examined single feeds could be disregarded when formulating compound feeds for dairy cows, and that additivity of EDCP and EDST can be assumed in most cases.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Feminino
14.
PLoS Biol ; 17(7): e3000408, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356592

RESUMO

Most bilaterian animals excrete toxic metabolites through specialized organs, such as nephridia and kidneys, which share morphological and functional correspondences. In contrast, excretion in non-nephrozoans is largely unknown, and therefore the reconstruction of ancestral excretory mechanisms is problematic. Here, we investigated the excretory mode of members of the Xenacoelomorpha, the sister group to Nephrozoa, and Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria. By combining gene expression, inhibitor experiments, and exposure to varying environmental ammonia conditions, we show that both Xenacoelomorpha and Cnidaria are able to excrete across digestive-associated tissues. However, although the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis seems to use diffusion as its main excretory mode, the two xenacoelomorphs use both active transport and diffusion mechanisms. Based on these results, we propose that digestive-associated tissues functioned as excretory sites before the evolution of specialized organs in nephrozoans. We conclude that the emergence of a compact, multiple-layered bilaterian body plan necessitated the evolution of active transport mechanisms, which were later recruited into the specialized excretory organs.


Assuntos
Cnidários/genética , Digestão/genética , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Eliminação Intestinal/genética , Neópteros/genética , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/genética , Cnidários/classificação , Cnidários/metabolismo , Difusão , Digestão/fisiologia , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Eliminação Intestinal/fisiologia , Neópteros/classificação , Neópteros/metabolismo , Filogenia
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(14): 943-948, 2019 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311043

RESUMO

Nutrition affects intestinal bacteria by stimulating the expansion of bacteria that can metabolize the nutrient components offered. Conversely, gut bacteria help to optimize food digestion and increase energy intake. Thus, the intestinal microbiome is regulated primarily by nourishment: it determines the composition, function and diversity of the microbiome. As a result, the intestinal microbiome helps to optimize energy and substrate production from food. This is beneficial in cases of imminent malnutrition, but can be detrimental in case of overeating and obesity.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Humanos
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5622-5635, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222316

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to evaluate egg production, quality, and apparent retention (AR) of components in response to a multi-dose application of a single strain Bacillus subtilis (SSB; DSM29784) in a corn-soybean meal basal diet fed to hens (19 to 48 wk of age). The treatments consisted of a basal diet with either no probiotic (control, CON), 1.1E+08 (low, LSSB), 2.2E+08 (medium, MSSB) or 1.1E+09 (high, HSSB) CFU/kg of diet. A total of 336, 19-wk old Shaver White layers were used at a stocking density of 7 and 6 hens/replicate-cage in layer I (week-19 to 28) and layer II (week-29 to 48) phases, respectively. Evaluated variables included feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production, weight, mass, and egg quality (shell thickness, shell breaking strength, albumen height (AH), and Haugh unit (HU)). Excreta was collected at the end of week-28 for AR of components and apparent metabolizable energy (AME). Supplementation of SSB increased (P = 0.008) FI during peak egg-lay (week-24) and BW increased linearly (P = 0.019) in early layer II (week-32). In layer I, LSSB compared with CON increased EM (g/egg) by 3.3% (P = 0.049). In layer II, SSB inclusion tended to improve FCR (linear, P = 0.094; g FI: g EM). Although shell breaking strength was lowest at week-20 with HSSB (4.518 vs. 4.889 kgf for HSSB vs. CON; P = 0.045), AH and HU were improved at higher dose of SSB, in both phases (P ≤ 0.005). Apparent retention of dry matter, AME, and minerals were improved (P < 0.0001) in a dose response. Hence, while the low dose of B. subtilis DSM29784 improved hen performance and maintained egg quality in both phases, a higher dose of SSB improved the interior protein quality of eggs (AH and HU).


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5700-5713, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250002

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phytase and protease supplementation on prececal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility, phytate (InsP6) degradation, and MEn concentration in diets using 3 oilseed meals as main protein sources in broiler chicken feed. The broiler chicken diets, which lacked mineral phosphorus, contained either soybean meal (SBM), SBM and rapeseed meal (SBM/RSM), or SBM and sunflower meal (SBM/SFM) as main protein sources. Diets were not supplemented with enzymes or supplemented with 1,500 or 3,000 FTU phytase/kg, or with 1,600 mg protease/kg. For diets containing SBM as the main protein source, the effects of phytase supplementation with and without monocalcium phosphate were also investigated. Data were obtained during 2 subsequent runs from days 14 to 22 and from days 23 to 31. Each diet was tested using 8 replicates with 4 replicates per run. For pc AA digestibility, no significant interactions were observed between main protein sources, enzyme supplementation, or addition of monocalcium phosphate except for Cys. Supplementation of 1,500 FTU phytase/kg increased pc digestibility of all AA. No differences in pc AA digestibility were observed between 1,500 and 3,000 FTU phytase/kg supplementation treatments. Prececal disappearance of InsP6 and pc P digestibility were greater in the high phytase supplementation treatment. Protease supplementation increased pc digestibility of all AA except for Cys when SBM/RSM was the main protein source. Supplementation of protease and 3,000 FTU phytase/kg increased MEn concentrations. The effect of phytase on pc AA digestibility was fully expressed at a lower supplementation level than needed for a maximized pc InsP6 disappearance and MEn concentration.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Brassica rapa/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Soja/química
18.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(4): 271-286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192703

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of maternal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation during lactation on nutrient digestibility and milk composition of sows and gut bacterial metabolites and their metabolites in the hindgut of suckling piglets, 24 Large White × Landrace sows were assigned randomly to one of two dietary treatments (Diet ND: 2000 IU vitamin D3/kg feed; Diet 25-D: 50 µg 25OHD3/kg feed). The experiment began on d 107 of gestation and continued until weaning on d 21 of lactation. Maternal 25OHD3 supplementation increased (p < 0.05) total litter weight gain during lactation. Milk fat content, immunoglobulin G level on d 21 of lactation and 25OHD3 concentration on d 7, 14, and 21 of lactation were higher (p < 0.05) in sows fed with 25OHD3. Apparent total tract digestibility of dietary calcium was higher (p < 0.05) in 25-D sows than ND sows. With respect to fatty-acid profile, C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk were higher (p < 0.05), but C20:4n-6, the ratios of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05) in 25-D sows than ND sows. 25OHD3 supplementation increased the mRNA expressions of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α and fatty-acid synthase in the mammary gland of lactating sows. For gut bacterial metabolites, concentration of butyrate in the caecal digesta was higher (p < 0.05) in piglets suckling 25-D sows than piglets suckling ND sows. In conclusion, 25OHD3 supplementation in maternal diets changed dietary calcium digestibility, milk composition and milk fatty-acid profile of lactating sows and altered gut bacterial metabolites in the hindgut of suckling piglets.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Leite/química , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Grosso/fisiologia , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
19.
Anim Sci J ; 90(8): 977-989, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199032

RESUMO

The study compared the effects of selected proteins replacing fish meal in low-protein diets on piglets' growth performance, intestinal digestive physiology, and nitrogen digestion and metabolism. Five reduced CP, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets containing 4% of either S50, HP300, concentrated degossypolized cottonseed protein (CDCP), P50, or fish meal were assigned to six pens with 11 pigs for a 28-day study period. Compared with fish meal, dietary proteins did not affect growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, serum hormone levels and biochemical parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and most AA, colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents, duodenal and ileal morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and pH in small intestine of piglets. However, HP300, CDCP, and P50 decreased (p < 0.05) fecal N excretion per weight gain. AID of Ile in S50 and HP300 and Glu in P50 were improved (p < 0.05), and AID of Gly in other proteins was reduced (p < 0.05). S50 and P50 lowered (p < 0.05) the contents of colonic isobutyric and isovaleric. S50 and HP300 reduced (p < 0.05) jejunal villus height. CDCP increased (p < 0.05) the pepsin activity in stomach. S50, HP300, and CDCP decreased (p < 0.05) pH in the proximal colon. Overall, the selected proteins could completely replace fish meal in low-protein diet without impairing piglets' growth via maintaining intestinal digestive physiology, and nitrogen digestion and metabolism.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Produtos Pesqueiros , Intestinos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais
20.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(4): 988-996, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172562

RESUMO

The effects of adding crude glycerine with sodium monensin or essential oils to beef cattle diets on the intake, degradability of DM and nutrients, rumen concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro gas production were evaluated. Five ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The treatments were as follows: CONT, without crude glycerine and additives; EO, with essential oils and without crude glycerine; MON, with sodium monensin and without crude glycerine; EOG, with essential oils and crude glycerine; MONG, with sodium monensin and crude glycerine. Treatments with essential oil and sodium monensin increased the NDF and STC intake and the DM degradability. When crude glycerine was combined with either sodium monensin or essential oil, there was a reduction in DM, NDF and STC intake and an increase in DM and CP degradability of the diets. The adding crude glycerine to essential oil diets reduced the CH4 production. Sodium monensin treatments reduced DM and NDF intake and the production of total gas, CH4 , total VFA and acetic acid concentration. In conclusion, the adding crude glycerine (200 g/kg DM) with either sodium monensin (0.03 g/kg DM) or essential oil (0.5 g/kg DM) can be utilized in diets for Nellore cattle without causing detrimental effects on feed intake and improving the DM degradability.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Glicerol/administração & dosagem , Abrigo para Animais , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem
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