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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371956

RESUMO

We examined the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of asiatic acid (AA) in atopic dermatitis (AD). AA treatment (5-20 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and interleukin (IL)-6 protein expression in interferon (IFN)-γ + TNF-α-treated HaCaT cells. The 2,4-dinitrocholrlbenzene (DNCB)-induced AD animal model was developed by administering two AA concentrations (30 and 75 mg/kg/d: AD + AA-L and AD + AA-H groups, respectively) for 18 days. Interestingly, AA treatment decreased AD skin lesions formation and affected other AD characteristics, such as increased ear thickness, lymph node and spleen size, dermal and epidermal thickness, collagen deposition, and mast cell infiltration in dorsal skin. In addition, in the DNCB-induced AD animal model, AA treatment downregulated the mRNA expression level of AD-related cytokines, such as Th1- (TNF-α and IL-1ß and -12) and Th2 (IL-4, -5, -6, -13, and -31)-related cytokines as well as that of cyclooxygenase-2 and CXCL9. Moreover, in the AA treatment group, the protein level of inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, were decreased. Overall, our study confirmed that AA administration inhibited AD skin lesion formation via enhancing immunomodulation and inhibiting inflammation. Thus, AA can be used as palliative medication for regulating AD symptoms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Colágeno/análise , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Derme/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361003

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease characterized by eczematous lesions and itching, and it has become a serious health problem. However, the common clinical treatments provide limited relief and are accompanied by adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel and effective therapies to treat AD. Neferine is a small molecule compound isolated from the green embryo of the mature seeds of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). It has a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid structure. Relevant studies have shown that neferine has many pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-diabetic activities. However, there are very few studies on neferine in the skin, especially the related effects on inflammatory skin diseases. In this study, we proved that it has the potential to be used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Through in vitro studies, we found that neferine inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and it reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Through in vivo experiments, we used 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model. Our results show that neferine significantly decreased the skin barrier damage, scratching responses, and epidermal hyperplasia induced by DNCB. It significantly decreased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, blood flow, and ear thickness and increased surface skin hydration. Moreover, it also inhibited the expression of cytokines and the activation of signaling pathways. These results indicate that neferine has good potential as an alternative medicine for the treatment of atopic dermatitis or other skin-related inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzilisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361560

RESUMO

The extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Schisandraceae) have various therapeutic effects, including inflammation and allergy. In this study, gomisin M2 (GM2) was isolated from S. chinensis and its beneficial effects were assessed against atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the therapeutic effects of GM2 on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced AD-like skin lesions with BALB/c mice ears and within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated keratinocytes. The oral administration of GM2 resulted in reduced epidermal and dermal thickness, infiltration of tissue eosinophils, mast cells, and helper T cells in AD-like lesions. GM2 suppressed the expression of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12a, and TSLP in ear tissue and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A in auricular lymph nodes. GM2 also inhibited STAT1 and NF-κB phosphorylation in DNCB/DFE-induced AD-like lesions. The oral administration of GM2 reduced levels of IgE (DFE-specific and total) and IgG2a in the mice sera, as well as protein levels of IL-4, IL-6, and TSLP in ear tissues. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated keratinocytes, GM2 significantly inhibited IL-1ß, IL-6, CXCL8, and CCL22 through the suppression of STAT1 phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Taken together, these results indicate that GM2 is a biologically active compound that exhibits inhibitory effects on skin inflammation and suggests that GM2 might serve as a remedy in inflammatory skin diseases, specifically on AD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica , Dermatophagoides farinae/imunologia , Derme/imunologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Epiderme/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Citocinas/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
4.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153708, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455178

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rosa davurica Pall., is mainly distributed in Korea, Japan, northeastern China, southeastern Siberia, and eastern Asia. It has been extensively used to treat various kinds of diseases by reason of the significant antioxidant, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the pharmacological mechanism of Rosa davurica Pall. in atopic dermatitis (AD) is still ill defined and poorly understood. This study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and its mechanism on AD of Rosa davurica Pall. leaves (RDL). METHODS: To evaluate the therapeutic potential of RDL against AD, we have investigated the effects of RDL on the inflammatory reactions and the productions of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines that were induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in HaCaT cells. Futhermore, we examined the effects of RDL on the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). For the in-vivo studies, RDL extract was topically applied to the dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD mice, then its therapeutic effect was evaluated physiologically and morphologically. RESULTS: After the stimulation of HaCaT cells with TNF-α/IFN-γ, RDL considerably reduced the release of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), PEG2 and other cytokines. RDL also reduced the phosphorylations of MAPK and NF-κB in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells. In vivo topical application of RDL to DNCB-induced AD mice significantly reduced the dorsal skin and ear thickness, clinical dermatitis severity, and mast cells. Treatment with RDL also markedly decreased the levels of serum IgE, IL-6 and the number of WBCs in the blood. CONCLUSION: Our studies indicate that RDL inhibits the AD-like skin lesions by modulating skin inflammation. Consequently, these results suggest that RDL may be served as a possible alternative therapeutic treatment for skin disorder such as AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosa , Animais , Citocinas , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Interferon gama , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B , Folhas de Planta/química , Rosa/química , Pele , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240224

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that seriously affects quality of life. Quinine is a bitter taste receptor agonist that exhibits antimalarial effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the therapeutic effects of quinine in AD­like mice. AD was induced with 2,4­dinitrochlorobenzene, and the mice were treated with 10 mg/kg quinine for 1, 4 and 7 days. A total of 60 BALB/c mice were divided into the following groups: Healthy, AD­like, AD­like + quinine and healthy + quinine, with 1, 4 and 7 days groups for each treatment. Blood was extracted from all mice and ELISA was performed to detect immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. H&E­stained tissue sections were prepared from skin lesions on the backs of the mice and pathological changes were observed. Cytokines were detected via ELISA, and the filaggrin (FLG) and kallikrein­7 (KLK7) proteins were detected via western blotting and immunohistochemistry. IKKα and NF­κB mRNA were analyzed via reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. Quinine ameliorated skin damage in the AD­like mice, reduced IgE expression in the blood, inhibited expression of IKKα and NF­κB, reduced cytokine secretion, reduced KLK7 expression, reduced scratching frequency, increased FLG expression and repaired the skin barrier. These results suggested that quinine exhibited therapeutic effects in AD­like mice.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinina/farmacologia , Quinina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Calicreínas/genética , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112331, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015634

RESUMO

Exposure to sensitizer has been suggested to be hazardous to human health, evaluation the sensitization of sensitizer is particularly important and urgently needed. Dendritic cells (DCs) exert an irreplaceable function in immunity, and the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is key to ensuring immune response to foreign antigens. We hypothesized that a co-culture model of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) and T cells could be employed to evaluate the sensitization of DNCB. An experimental model of DNCB-induced sensitization in rat was employed to examine alterations of cluster of differentiation CD103+ DCs and T cells. A co-cultured model of Mo-DCs and T cells was developed in vitro to assess the sensitization of DNCB through the phenotypic and functional alterations of Mo-DCs, as well as the TCR repertoire. We found that the CD103+ DCs phenotype and T-helper (Th) cells polarization altered in sensitization rats. In vitro, phenotypic alteration of Mo-DCs caused by DNCB were consistent with in vivo results, antigen uptake capacity of Mo-DCs diminished and capacity of Mo-DCs to prime T cell increased. Clones of the TCR repertoire and the diversity of TCR repertoire were enhanced, changes were noted in the usage of variable, joining, and variable-joining gene combinations. DNCB exposure potentiated alterations and characteristics of Mo-DCs and the TCR repertoire in a co-culture model. Such changes provided innovative ideas for evaluating sensitization of DNCB.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Irritantes/toxicidade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Adulto Jovem
7.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924269

RESUMO

Human glutathione transferase A1-1 (hGSTA1-1) contributes to developing resistance to anticancer drugs and, therefore, is promising in terms of drug-design targets for coping with this phenomenon. In the present study, the interaction of anthraquinone and diazo dichlorotriazine dyes (DCTD) with hGSTA1-1 was investigated. The anthraquinone dye Procion blue MX-R (PBMX-R) appeared to interact with higher affinity and was selected for further study. The enzyme was specifically and irreversibly inactivated by PBMX-R, following a biphasic pseudo-first-order saturation kinetics, with approximately 1 mol of inhibitor per mol of the dimeric enzyme being incorporated. Molecular modeling and protein chemistry data suggested that the modified residue is the Cys112, which is located at the entrance of the solvent channel at the subunits interface. The results suggest that negative cooperativity exists upon PBMX-R binding, indicating a structural communication between the two subunits. Kinetic inhibition analysis showed that the dye is a competitive inhibitor towards glutathione (GSH) and mixed-type inhibitor towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The present study results suggest that PBMX-R is a useful probe suitable for assessing by kinetic means the drugability of the enzyme in future drug-design efforts.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/química , Corantes/química , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinitroclorobenzeno/química , Glutationa/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa/genética , Glutationa Transferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Cinética , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919431

RESUMO

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that acts as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Various therapeutic agents that prevent TSLP function can efficiently relieve the clinical symptoms of AD. However, the downregulation of TSLP expression by therapeutic agents remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of action of chrysin in TSLP suppression in an AD-like inflammatory environment. We observed that the transcription factor early growth response (EGR1) contributed to the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced transcription of TSLP. Chrysin attenuated TNFα-induced TSLP expression by downregulating EGR1 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes. We also showed that the oral administration of chrysin improved AD-like skin lesions in the ear and neck of BALB/c mice challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. We also showed that chrysin suppressed the expression of EGR1 and TSLP by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest that chrysin improves AD-like skin lesions, at least in part, through the downregulation of the ERK1/2 or JNK1/2-EGR1-TSLP signaling axis in keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919521

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome is considered one of the key regulators of health. Accordingly, the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) is mediated by the skin and intestinal microbiome environment. In this study, while evaluating the aggravation in AD symptoms by the antibiotics cocktail (ABX)-induced depletion of the intestinal microbiome, we sought to verify the effect of Gardenia jasminoides (GJ), a medicinal herb used for inflammatory diseases, on AD regarding its role on the intestinal microbiome. To verify the aggravation in AD symptoms induced by the depletion of the intestinal microbiome, we established a novel mouse model by administrating an ABX to create a microbiome-free environment in the intestine, and then applied 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to induce an AD-like skin inflammatory response. While ABX treatment aggravated AD-like symptoms, the 2-week administration of GJ improved these pathological changes. DNCB application upregulated immune cell count and serum cytokine expression, which were alleviated by GJ. Moreover, pathological alterations by antibiotics and DNCB, including histological damage of the intestine and the intestinal expression of IL-17, were recovered in GJ-treated mice. The beneficial effect of GJ was due to the restoration of the intestinal microbiome composition. Overall, we suggest GJ as a potential therapeutic agent for AD due to its regulation of the intestinal microbiome.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Gardenia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
10.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3611-3623, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900308

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis (AD) and certain constituents of PM2.5 can induce inflammation via oxidative stress. Natural functional foods, including antioxidative blueberry and black rice, can be the best alternative for the development of AD therapy. Thus, we investigated whether PM2.5 regulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the progression of AD and further investigated the improvement effect of fermented blueberry and black rice extract (FBBBR) containing Lactobacillus plantarum MG4221 in vitro and in vivo. The FBBBR treatment significantly ameliorated skin inflammation compared with the control treatments via regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways in PM2.5-treated HaCaT cells. In PM2.5/dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice, the oral administration of FBBBR significantly decreased transepidermal water loss and erythema, the incidence of scratching behavior, and the production of serum immunoglobin E and T helper 2-associated cytokine and, similar to dexamethasone treatment, up-regulated the protein expression of filaggrin and involucrin in skin tissue. Syringic acid and kuromanin, standard compounds found in FBBBR, significantly decreased the interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in PM2.5-treated HaCaT cells. Therefore, we can suggest that FBBBR may serve as an important functional food for AD.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus plantarum , Oryza , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fermentação , Alimento Funcional , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Material Particulado , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806628

RESUMO

Cone of Pinus densiflora (CP), or Korean red pinecone, is a cluster of Pinus densiflora fruit. CP has also been verified in several studies to have anti-oxidation, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-melanogenic effects. However, anti-inflammatory effects have not yet been confirmed in the inflammatory responses of pinecones to allergic contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study is to prove the anti-inflammatory effect of CP on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in vitro and in vivo. CP inhibited the expression of TSLP, TARC, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells and MCP-1, GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in PMACI (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate plus A23187)-stimulated HMC-1 cells. CP inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), as well as the translocation of NF-κB on TNF-α/IFN-γ stimulated in HaCaT cells. In vivo, CP decreased major symptoms of ACD, levels of IL-6 in skin lesion, thickening of the epidermis and dermis, infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells, and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. This result suggests that CP represents a potential alternative medicine to ACD for diseases such as chronic skin inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Pinus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916154

RESUMO

Plants of the genus Wikstroemia are used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. The present study was designed to determine whether Wikstroemia ganpi (Siebold and Zucc.) Maxim. offers a potential means of treating 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. Symptoms such as redness, edema, and keratinization in AD mice induced by DNCB were alleviated by the co-application of an ethanolic extract of W. ganpi for 2 weeks. The severity of skin barrier function damage was evaluated by measuring TEWL (transepidermal water loss). TEWLs of DNCB sensitized mouse dorsal skin were reduced by the application of a W. ganpi ethanolic extract, and skin hydration was increased. In addition, the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis was significantly reduced, as were blood levels of IgE and IL-4, which play an important role in the expression of AD. The results of this experiment suggest that W. ganpi is a potential therapeutic agent for AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Biópsia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 82, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic allergic inflammatory skin disease characterized by complex pathogenesis including skin barrier dysfunction, immune-redox disturbances, and pruritus. Prolonged topical treatment with medications such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and T-cell inhibitors may have some potential side-effects. To this end, many researchers have explored numerous alternative therapies using natural products and mineral compounds with antioxidant or immunomodulatory effects to minimize toxicity and adverse-effects. In the current study, we investigated the effects of mineral complex material (MCM) treatment on 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups; normal control (NC), negative control treated with DNCB only (DNCB only), positive control treated with DNCB and tacrolimus ointment (PC) and experimental group treated with DNCB and MCM patch (MCM). Skin inflammation and lesion severity were investigated through analyses of skin parameters (barrier score and strength, moisture and trans-epidermal water loss level), histopathology, immunoglobulin E, and cytokines. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were measured in both serum and skin lysate. RESULTS: Our results demonstrates that MCM patch improved the progression of AD-like skin lesions by significantly increasing skin barrier strength and decreasing trans-epidermal water loss. Additionally, dermal administration of MCM patch significantly reduced epidermal thickness, ROS, and NO levels in skin lysate. Furthermore, we found that MCM suppressed the levels of AD-involved (Th1 and Th2) cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-4 in blood. In addition, the levels of other Th1, and Th2 and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12(p70) and IL-10 were found lowest in the MCM group than in the DNCB only and PC groups. Moreover, we found total serum IgE level significantly increased after DNCB treatment, but decreased in the PC and MCM groups. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings suggest that MCM application may have beneficial effects either systemic or regional on DNCB-induced AD lesional skin via regulation of the skin barrier function and immune-redox response.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111359, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761595

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that affects 10-20% of the world's population. Therefore, the discovery of drugs for the treatment of AD is important for human health. Hispidulin (HPD; also known as scutellarein 6-methyl ether or dinatin) is a natural flavone that exerts anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effectiveness of HPD on AD-like skin inflammation was investigated. We used a mouse AD model through repeated exposure of mice to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) to the ears. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ-activated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were used to investigate the underlying mechanism of HPD action. Oral administration of HPD alleviated AD-like skin inflammations: it reduced ear thickness; serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a levels; and inflammatory cell infiltration. HPD reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines through inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 nuclear factor-κB in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HPD could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Animais , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114021, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716079

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin inflammatory disease characterized by erythema, eruption, lichenification and pruritus. Shi Zhen Formula (SZF), an empirical Chinese herbal preparation, has clinical efficacy in relieving the symptoms of AD patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of SZF remained unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate the anti-AD effects of SZF and elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms using in vitro and in vivo models of AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed for quality control of SZF extract. The anti-inflammatory effect of SZF was investigated through evaluating the levels of nitric oxide (NO), chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW264.7 cells. AD-like skin lesions in female BALB/c mice were induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). SZF (3.15, 6.30 and 9.45 g/kg) and dexamethasone (5 mg/kg) were administered by gavage daily for 15 consecutive days. The body weight, skin thickness, skin dermatitis severity and scratching behaviors were recorded throughout the study. Histological analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot (WB) and ELISA analysis were used to illuminate the molecular targets associated with the anti-AD effects of SZF. RESULTS: SZF markedly decreased the epidermal thickening and infiltration of mast cells in the ears and dorsal skin of the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated mice. SZF not only suppressed the levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-4 in the serum but also suppressed the over-production of IL-4 and IL-6 and gene expressions of IL-4, IL-13, IL-31 and TSLP in the dorsal skin. Moreover, SZF improved epidermal barrier by increasing the protein expressions of filaggrin, involucrin and loricrin and inhibited the activation of NF-κB p65 pathway in the dorsal skin of the DNCB-treated mice. CONCLUSION: SZF alleviates DNCB induced AD-like skin lesions in mice through regulating Th1/Th2 balance, improving epidermal barrier and inhibiting skin inflammation. Our research findings provide scientific footing on the use of this Chinese herbal formula for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Feminino , Histamina/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Teóricos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo
16.
Phytother Res ; 35(6): 3310-3324, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634904

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is characterized by intense pruritus and serious inflammation, is a chronic skin disease. Modern studies have testified that the total coumarins from the fructus of Cnidium monnieri (TCFC) possess evident biological activities based on their coumarin compounds. The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the effects of topical use of TCFC on immune response, inflammation, and skin barrier function in rats with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD. Results indicated that the skin lesion scores of rats were obviously reduced after the management of TCFC, and the spleen and thymus indices also were markedly repressed. TCFC significantly inhibited the overproduction of TNF-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and immunoglobulin E; the epidermal thickness and number of mast cells were notably decreased. The western blot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of TCFC on the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Results indicated that phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, p38, and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases was significantly blocked by TCFC. In addition, TCFC could upregulate the expression of filaggrin in dorsal skin, which means that TCFC showed a protective effect on skin barrier disruption. Furthermore, TCFC downregulated the levels of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-31, and TSLP mRNA and upregulated the expression of filaggrin mRNA in the dorsal skin of rats. Our research demonstrated the ameliorative effects of TCFC on AD-like rats by inhibiting immune response and inflammation and recovering skin barrier function.


Assuntos
Cnidium/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/efeitos adversos , Frutas , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/patologia
17.
Acta Cir Bras ; 36(1): e360102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605307

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the Periplaneta americana L. extract Ento-B on the treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and acetic acid in rats and to explore its primary mechanism of action. METHODS: Using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene combined with acetic acid to induce chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic UC) in rats. The sulfasalazine (400 mg/kg) and Ento-B (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg,50 mg/kg) were given by intragastric administration and the effect was evaluated according to the disease activity index (DAI) score, colon mucosal injury index (CMDI) score, histopathological score (HS) and the serum levels of Interleukin-4(IL-4), Interleukin-10(IL-10), Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), Malondialdehyde(MDA), Superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS.). RESULTS: Compared with the model group, all doses of Ento-B could reduce the score of CMDI (p < 0.05), HS(p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), significantly increased the expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD (p < 0.01) and decreased the levels of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS in serum of UC rats, significantly improving the degree of colon lesionsin UC rats. CONCLUSIONS: Ento-B may play an important role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis induced byUC rats. The mechanism may be related to the increased expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD and reduced expression of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Periplaneta , Ácido Acético , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 242: 111364, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639230

RESUMO

Inhibition of an imperative antioxidant enzyme with subsequent death is a victorious and widely accepted strategy to combat various infectious diseases. Among different antioxidant enzymes, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is an exclusive one. Studies have revealed that direct inhibition of TrxR by different classes of chemical moieties promptly results in the death of an organism. Especially the structural as well as biochemical modifications of the enzyme upon inhibition project serious threat towards the subject organism. Herein, an attempt was made to inhibit TrxR of filarial species by administering Auranofin, 1 chloro 2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB), Curcumin, and a novel carbamo dithioperoxo(thioate) derivative (4a). Our study has revealed that inhibition of TrxR resulted in the induction of the classical CED pathway of apoptosis along with the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis (Caspase mediated) routed through the ASK-1/p38 axis. Druggability analysis of filarial TrxR for the selected compounds was performed in silico through molecular docking studies. Therefore, this study attempts to decipher the mechanism of apoptosis induction following TrxR inhibition. The safety of those four compounds in terms of dose and toxicity was taken under consideration. Thitherto, the mechanism of TrxR mediated initiation of cell death in filarial parasite has remained undercover, and therefore, it is a maiden report on the characterization of apoptosis induction upon TrxR inhibition which will eventually help in generating effective antifilarial drugs in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Auranofina/farmacologia , Caspases/genética , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/farmacologia , Setaria (Nematoide)/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Auranofina/química , Sítios de Ligação , Caspases/metabolismo , Bovinos , Curcumina/química , Dinitroclorobenzeno/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Microfilárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microfilárias/enzimologia , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Moleculares , Estresse Oxidativo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Setaria (Nematoide)/enzimologia , Setaria (Nematoide)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/genética , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
Protein J ; 40(1): 63-67, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403608

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin E2 in the presence of glutathione (GSH) in mammals. Amid the limited knowledge on prostaglandin and its related enzymes in insects, we recently identified PGES from the silkworm Bombyx mori (bmPGES) and determined its crystal structure complexed with GSH. In the current study, we investigated the substrate-binding site of bmPGES by site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography. We found that the residues Tyr107, Val155, Met159, and Glu203 are located in the catalytic pockets of bmPGES, and mutagenesis of each residue reduced the bmPGES activity. Our results suggest that these four residues contribute to the catalytic activity of bmPGES. Overall, this structure-function study holds implications in controlling pests by designing rational and efficient pesticides.


Assuntos
Bombyx/química , Dinoprostona/química , Glutationa/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bombyx/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dinitroclorobenzeno/química , Dinitroclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/genética , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
Phytomedicine ; 82: 153453, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dictamni Cortex (DC), a Chinese herbal medicine with wind dispelling and itchiness relieving effects, is the most popular single herb prescribed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), as it is used in up to 12.68% of all herbal prescriptions for AD. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-AD effect of Dictamni Cortex extract (DCE) and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of its action using the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model and a relevant in vitro experimental model. METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were sensitized with 200 µl 0.5% DNCB for three days. After sensitization, mice were challenged with 200 µl 1% DNCB on the same dorsal skin and also 20 µl 1% DNCB on each ear every 3 days, and orally administrated by gavage with DCE (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 g/kg) daily from day 14 to day 29 for 16 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, the clinical scores for AD on the mice were calculated to evaluate the therapeutic effect of DCE; and serum, ears and dorsal skin of the mice were collected for mechanistic study. The anti-allergic activity of DCE was also evaluated using antigen-induced RBL-2H3 cell line. The release of selected cytokines, chemokines and ß-hexosaminidase was measured to determine the anti-allergic activity of DCE. In addition, intracellular Ca2+ level, MAPKs and Lyn phosphorylations were further investigated to reveal its anti-allergic molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that DCE could markedly improve the AD-like symptoms in AD-like mice by inhibiting the mast cell infiltration, suppressing the production of Th2-associated cytokine (IL-4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α), and enhancing the protein expression of filaggrin through inhibition of the MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. Moreover, DCE suppressed mast cell degranulation through decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ level and inactivation of Lyn, Syk and PLCγs, suggesting DCE could regulate mast-cell-mediated allergic response. CONCLUSION: Our experimental results unambiguously indicate that DCE possesses potent anti-allergic effect, and help place the application of DC for the treatment of AD on a scientific footing.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
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