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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110798, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056593

RESUMO

Species-level variability has made it difficult to determine the relative sensitivity of phytoplankton to oil and mixtures of oil and dispersant. Here we develop a phytoplankton group sensitivity index using ribosome sequence data that we apply to a mesocosm experiment in which a natural microbial community was exposed to oil and two oil-dispersant mixtures. The relative sensitivity of four phytoplankton taxonomic groups, diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, and Chrysophytes, was computed using the log of the ratio of the number of species that increase to the number that decrease in relative abundance in the treatment relative to the control. The index indicates that dinoflagellates are the most sensitive group to oil and oil-dispersant treatments while the Chrysophytes benefit under oil exposure compared to the other groups examined. The phytoplankton group sensitivity index can be generally applied to quantify and rank the relative sensitivity of diverse microbial groups to environmental conditions and pollutants.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Ribossomos
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110817, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056611

RESUMO

The influence of upwelling on the phytoplankton community was examined during the upwelling-relaxation period in the southeastern Arabian Sea. Elevated upwelling intensity during the summer monsoon season of 2016 resulted in the re-suspension of harmful dinoflagellates into the surface water. Further, the surplus of phosphorus (P) inputs into the coastal waters from estuarine runoff during the upwelling-relaxation period induced blooming of Gonyaulax polygramma (4.9 × 106 cells L-1). Results from canonical correspondence analysis revealed that elevated upwelling intensity, P and salinity during the year 2016 likely triggered the bloom of G. polygramma in the study region. HABs like G. polygramma threaten fish stocks such as sardines which have a vital role in the ecosystem. Studies on phytoplankton communities and nutrient dynamics in upwelling systems would be useful in predicting the incidence/toxic effects of harmful algal blooms as these regions have a high potential for fisheries.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Animais , Fitoplâncton , Estações do Ano
3.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(2): 226-235, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026312

RESUMO

Individuals of Mytilus platensis were exposed to Alexandrium catenella to evaluate the accumulation and metabolization of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) over a period of 25 days. Mussels were collected from the intertidal zone of Cerro Avanzado, Argentine Patagonia. After 16 days, the toxins in the tissues of mussels were detected by the methods of mouse bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FDL). The accumulation kinetics of PST toxins in M. platensis fed with A. catenella fitted to a linear function, in which the accumulation rate was 31.2 µg STX eq kg-1 day-1. After 16 days, the PST toxin level in tissues of mussels reached 1178 µg STX eq kg-1 exceeding the safety limit for human consumption (800 µg STX eq kg-1 tissue), whereas the highest PST toxin level was reached at the end of the experimentation (1613 µg STX eq kg-1) at 25 days. Differences in the toxin profile of the dinoflagellates and the tissues of the mussels confirmed biotransformation of PST in the mussel digestive system. The toxin profile of M. platensis was dominated by the gonyautoxins GTX1 and GTX4, while the toxin profile of A. catenella was dominated by the N-sulfocarbamoyl toxin C2. To our knowledge, this is the first experimentation on a laboratory scale of PST toxins accumulation in M. platensis with a native strain of A. catenella of Argentine Patagonia.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas , Mytilus/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Bioensaio , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Alimentos Marinhos
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122899, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028216

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acids have become a commodity of high nutritional and commercial value; intensive fishing and its environmental and social cost has led researchers to seeking alternative more sustainable ways of producing them. Heterotrophic microalgae such as Crypthecodinium cohnii, a marine dinoflagellate, have the ability to utilize various substrates and accumulate high amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this work, a mild oxidative organosolv pretreatment of beechwood pulps was employed that allowed up to 95% of lignin removal in a single stage, thus yielding a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The enzymatic hydrolysates were evaluated for their ability to support the growth and lipid accumulation of C. cohnii in batch and fed-batch cultures; the results verified the successful microalgae growth, while DHA reached up to 43.5% of the cell's total lipids. The proposed bioprocess demonstrated the utilization of non-edible biomass towards high added value food supplements in a sustainable and efficient manner.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Microalgas , Biomassa , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácidos Graxos , Lignina
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110734, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910516

RESUMO

The effects of ecologically relevant concentrations of Irgarol 1051, a representative PSII herbicide, on hermatypic corals were studied in the laboratory. The colour and chlorophyll fluorescence of Acropora tenuis were examined following exposure to around ambient concentrations of Irgarol 1051 (20 ng/L and 200 ng/L) for 7 days. While the colour of corals was stable throughout the experiment at both concentrations, the maximum effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm') of symbiotic dinoflagellates decreased with increasing Irgarol 1051 concentration (day 7: 8%, 20 ng/L; 37%, 200 ng/L). The expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and 90 in symbiotic dinoflagellates was upregulated after 7 days exposure to both Irgarol concentrations, whereas HSP90 in coral was not upregulated. The findings of the present study suggest that the threshold of chlorophyll fluorescence and HSP expression in symbiotic dinoflagellates is lower than 20 ng/L, which is around ecologically relevant concentrations in tropical to subtropical waters.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Triazinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Água do Mar
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110778, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910525

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to unravel which environmental drivers govern the dynamics of toxic dinoflagellate abundance as well as their associated paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) in Ambon Bay, Eastern Indonesia. Weather, biological and physicochemical parameters were investigated weekly over a 7-month period. Both PSTs and PTX2 were detected at low levels, yet they persisted throughout the research. Meanwhile, DSTs were absent. A strong correlation was found between total particulate PST and Gymnodinium catenatum cell abundance, implying that this species was the main producer of this toxin. PTX2 was positively correlated with Dinophysis miles cell abundance. Vertical mixing, tidal elevation and irradiance attenuation were the main environmental factors that regulated both toxins and cell abundances, while nutrients showed only weak correlations. The present study indicates that dinoflagellate toxins form a potential environmental, economic and health risk in this Eastern Indonesian bay.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Toxinas Marinhas , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indonésia , Frutos do Mar
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110789, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910528

RESUMO

The composition, distribution, origin, and influencing factors of lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) in surface seawater and phytoplankton in Laizhou Bay, China, were comprehensively investigated for the first time. Okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), and pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2 SA) were discovered in surface seawater, whereas PTX2, OA, 7-epi-PTX-2 SA, DTX1, PTX2 SA, PTX11, and DTX2 were found in phytoplankton in a decreasing concentration order. ∑LMAT concentrations in seawater and phytoplankton were 1.08-35.66 ng/L (mean: 7.31 ng/L) and 0-3609.75 ng/L (mean: 191.38 ng/L), respectively. LMAT contents in seawater and phytoplankton exhibited the highest levels in the southeastern mouth of Laizhou Bay and decreased toward the inner and outer bays. Dinophysis fortii, D. acuminata, D. rotundata, Procentrum lima, and P. minimum were identified as the potential origins of LMATs in Laizhou Bay. Moreover, increased nutrient level and decreased pH in seawater could increase LMAT content.


Assuntos
Baías/química , Dinoflagelados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , China , Ácido Okadáico
8.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125083, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683425

RESUMO

The increasing inflow of nitrogen (N) substrates into marine nearshore ecosystems induces proliferation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of dinoflagellates, such as potentially toxic invasive species Prorocentrum minimum. In this study, we estimated the influence of NO3-, NH4+ and urea on transcription levels and urea transporter dur3 and nitrate transporter nrt2 genes expression in these dinoflagellates. We identified dur3 and nrt2 genes sequences in unannotated transcriptomes of P. minimum and other dinoflagellates presented in MMETSP database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes of dinoflagellates clustered to the distinct clade demonstrating evolutionary relationship with the other known dur3 and nrt2 genes of microalgae. The evaluation of expression levels of dur3 and nrt2 genes by RT-qPCR revealed their sensitivity to input of the studied N sources. Dur3 expression levels were downregulated after the supplementation of additional N sources and were 1.7-2.6-fold lower than in the nitrate-grown culture. Nrt2 expression levels decreased 1.9-fold in the presence of NH4+. We estimated total RNA and DNA synthesis rates by the analysis of incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-uridine in batch and continuous cultures. Addition of N compounds did not affect the DNA synthesis rates. Transcription levels increased up to 12.5-fold after the N supplementation in urea-limited treatments. Investigation of various nitrogen sources as biomarkers of dinoflagellate proliferation due to their differentiated impact on expression of dur3 and nrt2 genes and transcription rates in P. minimum cells allowed concluding about high potential of the studied parameters for future modeling of HABs under global N pollution.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Nitratos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ureia/metabolismo
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105360, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765943

RESUMO

Labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a major pollutant in coastal marine environments affected by anthropogenic impacts, and may significantly contribute to coral bleaching and subsequent mortality on coastal reefs. DOC can cause bleaching indirectly through the rapid proliferation of copiotrophic and pathogenic bacteria. Here we demonstrate that labile DOC compounds can also impair the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis by directly affecting coral physiology on both the host and algal symbiont level. In a controlled aquarium experiment, we monitored over several weeks key physiological parameters of the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata exposed to ambient and elevated labile DOC levels (0.1 and 1.0 mM) in combination with low and high nitrogen (i.e. ammonium) conditions (0.2 and 4.0 µM). At the symbiont level, DOC exposure under low ammonium availability decreased the photosynthetic efficiency accompanied by ∼75 % Chl a and ∼50 % symbiont cell reduction. The photosynthetic functioning of the symbionts recovered once the DOC enrichment ceased indicating a reversible shift between autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism. At the host level, the assimilation of exogenous DOC sustained the tissue carbon reserves, but induced a depletion of the nitrogen reserves, indicated by ∼35 % decreased protein levels. This suggests an imbalanced exogenous carbon to nitrogen supply with nitrogen potentially limiting host metabolism on the long-term. We also demonstrate that increased ammonium availability delayed DOC-induced bleaching likely by keeping symbionts in a photosynthetically competent state, which is crucial for symbiosis maintenance and coral survival. Overall, the present study provides further insights into how coastal pollution can de-stabilize the coral-algal symbiosis and cause coral bleaching. Therefore, reducing coastal pollution and sustaining ecological integrity are critical to strengthen the resilience of coral reefs facing climate change.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Antozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antozoários/metabolismo , Processos Autotróficos , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Processos Heterotróficos , Oceano Índico , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105371, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790939

RESUMO

Harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins have severe negative impacts on marine mammals, particularly for Florida bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) which frequently experience mass mortality events. Dolphins on the Florida Atlantic coast inhabit a region endemic to two HAB species, Karenia brevis and Pyrodinium bahamense, which produce the neurotoxins brevetoxin (PbTx) and saxitoxin (STX), respectively. Although toxic HABs and associated dolphin mortality events have been reported from this region, there is a lack of available data necessary for comparing toxin exposure levels between bloom ('exposed') conditions and non-bloom ('baseline') conditions. Here we present a 10-year dataset of PbTx and STX concentrations detected in dolphins stranding in this region, and compare the toxin loads from HAB-exposed dolphins to those detected in dolphins recovered in the absence of a HAB. We analyzed liver tissue samples from dead-stranded dolphins (n = 119) recovered and necropsied between 2002-2011, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) modified for use with mammalian tissues. For dolphins recovered during baseline conditions, toxin-positive samples ranged in concentration from 0.27 to 1.2 ng/g for PbTx and from 0.41 to 1.9 ng/g for STX. For K. brevis-exposed dolphins, concentrations of up to 12.1 ng PbTx/g were detected, and for P. bahamense-exposed dolphins, concentrations of up to 9.9 ng STX/g were detected. Baseline PbTx values were similar to those reported in other regions where K. brevis blooms are more frequent and severe, but HAB-exposed PbTx values were considerably lower relative to these other regions. Since no baseline STX dolphin data exist for any region, our data serve as a first step towards establishing reference STX values for potential dolphin mortality events associated with STX-producing blooms in the future. This study demonstrates that although HABs in eastern Florida are only infrequently associated with dolphin mortalities, the presence of toxins in these animals may pose significant health risks in this region.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Oxocinas/análise , Saxitoxina/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Florida , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Oxocinas/toxicidade , Rios/química , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 241: 124968, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606578

RESUMO

The solute carriers (SLCs) are membrane proteins that transport many endogenous and exogenous substances such as xenobiotic toxins. Bivalve mollusks, mainly feeding on microalgae, show marked capacity to accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), the most common and hazardous marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates. Exploring the SLCs related to PST accumulation in bivalve could benefit our understanding about the mechanisms of PST bioavailability in bivalve and the adaptations of these species. Herein, we provided the first systematic analysis of SLC genes in mollusks, which identified 673 SLCs (PySLCs, 48 subfamilies) in Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), 510 (48 subfamilies) in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), and 350 (47 subfamilies) in gastropod owl limpet (Lottia gigantea). Significant expansion of subfamilies SLC5, SLC6, SLC16, and SLC23 in scallop, and SLC46 subfamily in both scallop and oyster were revealed. Different PySLC members were highly expressed in the developmental stages and adult tissues, and hepatopancreas harboured more specifically expressed PySLCs than other tissues/organs. After feeding the scallops with PST-producing dinoflagellate, 131 PySLCs were regulated and more than half of them were from the expanded subfamilies. The trend of expression fold change in regulated PySLCs was consistent with that of PST changes in hepatopancreas, implying the possible involvement of these PySLCs in PST transport and homeostasis. In addition, the PySLCs from the expanded subfamily were revealed to be under positive selection, which might be related to lineage-specific adaptation to the marine environments with algae derived biotoxins.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinidae/genética , Proteínas Carreadoras de Solutos/genética , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Homeostase , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135430, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818571

RESUMO

Protein levels were assessed in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra over the course of a diurnal cycle using a label-free LC-MS/MS approach. Roughly 1700 proteins were quantitated in a triplicate dataset over a daily period, and 13 were found to show significant rhythmic changes. Included among the proteins found to be most abundant at night were the two bioluminescence proteins, luciferase and luciferin binding protein, as well as a proliferating cell nuclear protein involved in the nightly DNA replication. Aconitase and a pyrophosphate fructose-6-phosphate-1-phosphotransferase were also found to be more abundant at night, suggestive of an increased ability to generate ATP by glucose catabolism when photosynthesis does not occur. Among the proteins more abundant during the day were found a 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase, potentially involved in synthesis of mycosporin-like amino acids that can act as a "microbial sunscreen", and an enzyme synthesizing vitamin B6 which is known to protect against oxidative stress. A lactate oxidoreductase was also found to be more abundant during the day, perhaps to counteract the pH changes due to carbon fixation by facilitating conversion of pyruvate to lactate. This unbiased proteomic approach reveals novel insights into the daily metabolic changes of this dinoflagellate. Furthermore, the observation that only a limited number of proteins vary support a model where metabolic flux through pathways can be controlled by variations in a select few, possibly rate limiting, steps. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006994.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Proteoma , Aclimatação , Cromatografia Líquida , Fotossíntese , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135381, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810673

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been investigated for their catastrophic effects on public health and aquaculture intensively, but the research about HABs effects on the diversity patterns and intrinsic functions of the plankton community based on a species identification with high resolution and accuracy has been scarce. We therefore investigated the shifts of plankton diversity via pyrosequencing during and around a natural dinoflagellate (Prorocentrum donghaiense) bloom and analyzed the effect of P. donghaiense abundance on the operationally-defined resource use efficiency (RUE) of plankton community to test our hypothesis that outbreaks of HABs will reduce RUE of the plankton community via shifting the plankton community structure, species composition in particular. We found that the species diversity of eukaryotic plankton community was significantly decreased during the bloom, as reflected in OTU (operational taxonomic unit) richness, and Pielou's evenness index. Principal coordinates analysis indicated significant difference in plankton community structure between blooming and non-blooming periods. As hypothesized, the species richness was positively correlated to RUE (defined as the ratio of phytoplankton biomass to total phosphorus), and more importantly, the cell density of P. donghaiense exhibited significant negative correlation with RUE. Our results explicitly demonstrated HABs reduce RUE via reducing species richness (corresponding to a less occupancy of the trophic niches), which supports the previously documented notion that niche partitioning enhances RUE (a key ecosystem function). Also, our work provides striking evidence for the relationship between plankton species richness (or diversity) and community function (resource use efficiency) via studying on HABs, a natural but exceptional phenomenon, in addition to revealing a profound consequence of HABs.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Plâncton/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Dinoflagelados , Ecossistema
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 135951, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887501

RESUMO

Shifts in bacterioplankton communities during algal blooms have been widely investigated, but our understanding of their succession over the continuous course of paralytic shellfish poisoning producing Gymnodinium catenatum blooms and diatom (Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros curvisetus) blooms in natural bays is highly understudied. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterioplankton 16S rRNA genes to investigate the composition and successional patterns of bacterioplankton communities during Gymnodinium-diatom bloom cycles. Changes in community compositional patterns were then evaluated in context of environmental and phytoplankton community variation. Bacterioplankton α-diversity significantly decreased during the emergence of the algal blooms, with Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Cryomorphaceae, and Saprospiraceae as the dominant bacterial families in waters during the blooms. Bacterioplankton community compositions could be separated into three successive stages according to bloom dynamics, wherein the succession of bacterioplankton communities was correlated with changes in algal species. Environmental variables, and particularly pH, salinity, and nutrient concentrations (e.g., of nitrite, nitrate, and ammonium) were strongly associated with variation in bacterioplankton community structures. Variance partitioning analysis indicated that phytoplankton effects alone could explain more variance than only environmental effects. Moreover, LEfSe analysis was used to identify special bacterioplankton genera as "biomarkers" for bloom stages, such as Tepidisphaera and Pseudarcicella, whose abundances were significantly associated with different stages of the phytoplankton blooms. The phylotype "biomarkers" that were identified hold significant potential as indicators for phytoplankton bloom successional dynamics. Overall, these results may contribute to the understanding of the ecological processes shaping microbial communities during successive Gymnodinium-diatom blooms.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Diatomáceas , Eutrofização , Fitoplâncton , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122246, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629286

RESUMO

Using biological treatment to deal with harmful algal blooms is highly potential over the physical and chemical methods due to its species specificity and eco-friendly characteristics. In this study, algicidal broth were produced from a Vibrio sp. co-culture composed mainly of V. brasilliensis and V. tubiashii. The productivity of the algicidal compounds was optimized under a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1 with a minimum algicidal broth dosage of 0.3% for 100% algal lysis. The algicidal threshold and EC50 of the spray-dried algicidal broth were 0.17 and 0.68 g/L, respectively. Treatment with the algicidal agents led to an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level that causes membrane damage as supported by the increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. and a further inhibition to the antioxidant system as indicated by a sharp decrease in the catalase (CAT) activity. The algicidal compound was identified as hexahydro pyrrolo[1,2-a] pyr azine-1,4-dione.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Vibrio , Técnicas de Cocultura , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Malondialdeído
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134323, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522044

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased as a result of global climate and environmental changes, exerting increasing impacts on the aquatic ecosystem, coastal economy, and human health. Despite great research efforts, our understanding on the drivers of HABs is still limited in part because HAB species' physiology is difficult to probe in situ. Here, we used molecular ecological analyses to characterize a dinoflagellate bloom at Xiamen Harbor, China. Prorocentrum donghaiense was identified as the culprit, which nutrient bioassays showed were not nutrient-limited. Metatranscriptome profiling revealed that P. donghaiense highly expressed genes related to N- and P-nutrient uptake, phagotrophy, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, oxidative phophorylation, and rhodopsin) and carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle and pentose phosphate) during the bloom. Many genes in P. donghaiense were up-regulated at night, including phagotrophy and environmental communication genes, and showed active expression in mitosis. Eight microbial defense genes were up-regulated in the bloom compared with previously analyzed laboratory cultures. Furthermore, 76 P. donghaiense microRNA were identified from the bloom, and their target genes exhibited marked differences in amino acid metabolism between the bloom and cultures and the potential of up-regulated antibiotic and cell communication capabilities. These findings, consistent with and complementary to recent reports, reveal major metabolic processes in P. donghaiense potentially important for bloom formation and provide a gene repertoire for developing bloom markers in future research.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , MicroRNAs
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124661, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472350

RESUMO

Toxicities of the marine algae Alexandrium minutum and its excreted gonyautoxins (GTXs) to the marine crustacean Artemia salina were investigated. Mortality was observed for neither larvae nor adult A. salina exposed to A. minutum at a density of 5000 cells/mL or 0.5 µM GTX2/3. After exposure, the full transcriptome of adult A. salina was assembled and functionally annotated. A total of 599,286 transcripts were obtained, which were clustered into 515,196 unigenes. Results of the transcriptional effect level index revealed that direct exposure to the toxic algae A. minutum caused greater alterations in the transcriptome than did exposure to the extracellular product GTX2/3. Mechanisms of effects were different between exposure of A. salina to A. minutum cells or GTX2/3. Exposure to A. minutum modulated formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex and metabolism of amino acids and lipids in A. salina. Exposure to GTX2/3 exposure inhibited expression of genes related to metabolism of chitin, which might result in disruption of molting process or disturbed sheath morphogenesis. Overall, effects on transcription observed in this study represent the first report based on application of next generation sequencing techniques to investigate the transcriptomic response of A. salina exposed to an environmentally realistic level of A. minutum or GTX2/3.


Assuntos
Artemia/genética , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artemia/fisiologia , Quitina/genética , Quitina/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Saxitoxina/farmacologia , Saxitoxina/toxicidade
18.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124560, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437632

RESUMO

Plastics are the most abundant marine debris globally dispersed in the oceans and its production is rising with documented negative impacts in marine ecosystems. However, the chemical-physical and biological interactions occurring between plastic and planktonic communities of different types of microorganisms are poorly understood. In these respects, it is of paramount importance to understand, on a molecular level on the surface, what happens to plastic fragments when dispersed in the ocean and directly interacting with phytoplankton assemblages. This study presents a computer-aided analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of selected spin probes able to enter the phyoplanktonic cell interface and interact with the plastic surface. Two different marine phytoplankton species were analyzed, such as the diatom Skeletonema marinoi and dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, in absence and presence of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fragments in synthetic seawater (ASPM), in order to in-situ characterize the interactions occurring between the microalgal cells and plastic surfaces. The analysis was performed at increasing incubation times. The cellular growth and adhesion rates of microalgae in batch culture medium and on the plastic fragments were also evaluated. The data agreed with the EPR results, which showed a significant difference in terms of surface properties between the diatom and dinoflagellate species. Low-polar interactions of lipid aggregates with the plastic surface sites were mainly responsible for the cell-plastic adhesion by S. marinoi, which is exponentially growing on the plastic surface over the incubation time.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Microalgas/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química , Resíduos/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134289, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514034

RESUMO

Microeukaryotes are the key ecosystem drivers mediating marine productivity, the food web and biogeochemical cycles. The northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO), as one of the world's largest oligotrophic regions, remains largely unexplored regarding diversity and biogeography of microeukaryotes. Here, we investigated the community composition and geographical distribution of microeukaryotes collected from the euphotic zone of three different regions in the NWPO using high-throughput sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and quantified the contributions of environmental factors on the distributions of microeukaryotes. The relative abundance of different group taxa, except for Ciliophora, presented distinct patterns in each region, and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata dominated the community, contributing approximately half of reads abundance. Spatial and environmental factors explained 66.01% of community variation in the NWPO. Temperature was the most important environmental factor significantly correlated with community structure. Bacterial biomass was also significantly correlated with microeukaryotic distribution, especially for Dinoflagellata and Diatomea. Network analysis showed strong correlations between microeukaryotic groups and free-living bacteria and different bacterial taxa were correlated with specific microeukaryotic groups, indicating that their interactions enabled microeukaryotic groups to adapt to diverse environments. This study provides a first glance at the diversity and geographical distribution of microeukaryotes in the NWPO and sheds light on the biotic and abiotic factors in shaping the microeukaryotic community in the ocean.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cilióforos , Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Oceano Pacífico , Água do Mar
20.
Harmful Algae ; 90: 101702, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806160

RESUMO

Karenia mikimotoi is a worldwide bloom-forming dinoflagellate in the genus Karenia. Blooms of this alga have been observed since the 1930s and have caused mass mortalities of fish, shellfish, and other invertebrates in the coastal waters of many countries, including Japan, Norway, Ireland, and New Zealand. This species has frequently bloomed in China, causing great financial losses (more than 2 billion yuan, Fujian Province, 2012). K. mikimotoi can adapt to various light, temperature, salinity, and nutrient conditions, which together with its complex life history, strong motility, and density-dependent allelopathy, allows it to form blooms that are lethal to almost all marine organisms. However, its toxicity differs between subspecies and some target-species-specific toxicity has also been recorded. Significant gill disorder is observed in affected fish, to which the massive fish kills are attributed, rather than to the hypoxia that occurs in the fading stage of a bloom. However, although this species is haemolytic and cytotoxic, and generates reactive oxygen species, none of the isolated toxins or lipophilic extracts have toxic effects as extreme as those of the intact algal cells. The toxic effects of K. mikimotoi are strongly related to contact with intact cells. Several reasonable hypotheses of how and why this species blooms and causes mass mortalities have been proposed, but further research is required.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Animais , China , Irlanda , Japão , Nova Zelândia , Noruega
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