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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22544, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that celecoxib can significantly inhibit the development of tumors, and basic experiments and in vitro experiments also provide a certain basis, but it is not clear how celecoxib inhibits tumor development in detail. METHODS: A literature search of all major academic databases was conducted (PubMed, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), Wan-fang, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), including the main research on the mechanisms of celecoxib on tumors. RESULTS: Celecoxib can intervene in tumor development and reduce the formation of drug resistance through multiple molecular mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib mainly regulates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of tumor cells by inhibiting the cyclooxygenases-2/prostaglandin E2 signal axis and thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κ-gene binding, Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Meanwhile, it was found that celecoxib could promote the apoptosis of tumor cells by enhancing mitochondrial oxidation, activating mitochondrial apoptosis process, promoting endoplasmic reticulum stress process, and autophagy. Celecoxib can also reduce the occurrence of drug resistance by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Celecoxib/efeitos adversos , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1235-1242, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999202

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) is segregated from the circulating blood and peripheral tissues by endothelial and epithelial barriers. To overcome refractory CNS diseases, it is important to understand the membrane transport systems of drugs and the endogenous compounds that relate to the pathogenesis of CNS diseases at these barriers. The endothelial barrier in the brain is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our studies clarified the efflux transport of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a modulator of neural excitation and inflammatory responses, across the BBB via plasma membrane transporters such as organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4). This efflux transport was attenuated by peripheral inflammation or cerebral treatment with neuroexcitatory l-glutamate, suggesting that BBB-mediated PGE2 elimination was altered under several pathological conditions. We also examined excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 and 3 as l-glutamate efflux transporters of the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-cerebrospinal barrier. It was considered that these efflux membrane transporters participated in the homeostasis of neuroexcitatory and neuroinflammatory responses in the brain and retina. Moreover, we identified connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels as a new membrane transport system that is activated under pathological conditions and recognizes several monocarboxylate drugs, such as valproate. As it is expected that the action of these membrane transporters across the CNS barriers is of great importance in understanding the pathology of various neuroexcitatory diseases, our studies should contribute to the establishment of therapeutic strategies for refractory CNS diseases.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematorretiniana/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756588

RESUMO

Procyandin A2 (PCA2) is a polyphenolic compound which is isolated from grape seeds. It has been reported that PCA2 exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that PCA2 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress through targeting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways in RAW264.7 cells. PCA2 (20, 40, 80 µM) exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells and showed an inhibitory effect on an LPS-induced nitrite level. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were suppressed by PCA2 with a concentration range of 0-80 µM. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were inhibited by PCA2 (80 µM). The hallmark-protein expression of the NF-κB (p-IKKα/ß, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and MAPK (p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK) pathways were decreased by PCA2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, immunofluorescence results indicated that PCA2 (80 µM) promoted the translocation of NF-κB/p65 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. PCA2 upregulated the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 and downregulated the expression of Keap-1. Simultaneously, PCA2 (80 µM) reversed LPS-induced Nrf2 translocation from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Collectively, PCA2 protect cells against the damage from inflammation and oxidative injury, which suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammatory and oxidative stress through targeting NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2 pathways in RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Catequina/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111070, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763567

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used as antimicrobial agents and resulted in their accumulation in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced lung cellular senescence which has been proposed as a pathogenic driver of chronic lung disease. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure to AgNPs elevates multiple senescence biomarkers in lung cells, with cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and potently activates genes of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in human fetal lung fibroblast cell line MRC5. Fluorescence-based assay also reveals that apoptosis induced by AgNPs is associated with senescence. Furthermore, we show that AgNPs cause premature senescence through an increase in transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression and over-production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lung cells. Inhibition of COX2 reduces AgNPs-induced senescence to a normal level. Moreover, AgNPs also induce upregulation of COX2 and accelerate lung cellular senescence in vivo and cause mild fibrosis in the lung tissue of mice. Taken together, our studies support a critical role of AgNPs in the induction of lung cellular senescence via the upregulation of the COX2/PGE2 intracrine pathway, and suggest the adverse effects to the human respiratory system.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4139-4149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606669

RESUMO

Introduction: A correlation is established between the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine and its charcoal drugs. Lonicerae japonicae Flos (LJF) is commonly used to treat fever, carbuncle, and tumors, among others. LJF Carbonisatas (LJFC) is preferred for detoxifying and relieving dysentery and its related symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of LJFC remain unknown. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of LJFC-derived carbon dots (LJFC-CDs) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and hypothermia rat models. Methods: LJFC-CDs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet, fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory effects of LJFC-CDs were evaluated and confirmed using rat models of LPS-induced fever or hypothermia. Results: The LJFC-CDs ranged from 1.0 to 10.0 nm in diameter, with a yield of 0.5%. LJFC-CDs alleviated LPS-induced inflammation, as demonstrated by the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 and the recovery of normal body temperature. Conclusion: LJFC-CDs may have an anti-inflammatory effect and a potential to alleviate fever and hypothermia caused by inflammation.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotermia/tratamento farmacológico , Lonicera/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667932

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection stimulates the release of cytokines, including interferons (IFNs). IFNs are initiators, regulators, and effectors of innate and adaptive immunity. Accordingly, the expression levels of Type I (α, ß) and II (γ) IFNs, among untreated tuberculosis (TB) patients and household contacts (HHC) clinically free of TB was assessed. A total of 264 individuals (TB patients-123; HHC-86; laboratory volunteers-55; Treated TB patients-36) were enrolled for this study. IFN-α mRNA expression levels predominated compared to IFN-γ and IFN-ß among untreated TB patients. IFN-α transcripts were ~3.5 folds higher in TB patients compared to HHC, (p<0.0001). High expression of IFN-α was seen among 46% (56/ 123) of the TB patients and 26%, (22/86) of HHCs. The expression levels of IFN-α correlated with that of IFN transcriptional release factor 7 (IRF) (p<0.0001). In contrast, an inverse relationship exists between PGE2 and IFN-α expression levels; high IFN-α expressers were associated with low levels of PGE2 and vice-versa (Spearman's rho = -0.563; p<0.0001). In-vitro, IFN-α failed to restrict the replication of intracellular M.tb. The anti-mycobacterial activity of IFN-γ was compromised in the presence of IFN-α, but not by IFN-ß. The expression of IFN-α and ß diminished or is absent, among successfully treated TB patients. These observations suggest the utility of assessment of Type I IFNs expression levels as a prognostic marker to monitor tuberculosis patient response to chemotherapy because changes in Type I IFNs expression are expected to precede the clearance and /reduction in bacterial load.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prognóstico
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3062, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546788

RESUMO

Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, while being highly potent in vitro, require prolonged treatment to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections in vivo. We report here that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shelter Mtb to help tolerate anti-TB drugs. MSCs readily take up Mtb and allow unabated mycobacterial growth despite having a functional innate pathway of phagosome maturation. Unlike macrophage-resident ones, MSC-resident Mtb tolerates anti-TB drugs remarkably well, a phenomenon requiring proteins ABCC1, ABCG2 and vacuolar-type H+ATPases. Additionally, the classic pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα aid mycobacterial growth within MSCs. Mechanistically, evading drugs and inflammatory cytokines by MSC-resident Mtb is dependent on elevated PGE2 signaling, which we verify in vivo analyzing sorted CD45-Sca1+CD73+-MSCs from lungs of infected mice. Moreover, MSCs are observed in and around human tuberculosis granulomas, harboring Mtb bacilli. We therefore propose, targeting the unique immune-privileged niche, provided by MSCs to Mtb, can have a major impact on tuberculosis prevention and cure.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Nicho de Células-Tronco/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Lisossomos/microbiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fagossomos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15160-15171, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541026

RESUMO

IgG antibodies cause inflammation and organ damage in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated the metabolic profile of macrophages isolated from inflamed tissues in immune complex (IC)-associated diseases, including SLE and rheumatoid arthritis, and following IgG Fcγ receptor cross-linking. We found that human and mouse macrophages undergo a switch to glycolysis in response to IgG IC stimulation, mirroring macrophage metabolic changes in inflamed tissue in vivo. This metabolic reprogramming was required to generate a number of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1ß, and was dependent on mTOR and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α. Inhibition of glycolysis, or genetic depletion of HIF1α, attenuated IgG IC-induced activation of macrophages in vitro, including primary human kidney macrophages. In vivo, glycolysis inhibition led to a reduction in kidney macrophage IL-1ß and reduced neutrophil recruitment in a murine model of antibody-mediated nephritis. Together, our data reveal the molecular mechanisms underpinning FcγR-mediated metabolic reprogramming in macrophages and suggest a therapeutic strategy for autoantibody-induced inflammation, including lupus nephritis.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dinoprostona/genética , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptores de IgG/genética , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo
9.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(1): G63-G73, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538139

RESUMO

Hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously demonstrated that both CD44 and TLR4, but predominately TLR4, mediated HA stimulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal mice. Here we address the questions of which cell type expresses the relevant TLR4 in driving intestinal growth and what are the downstream events from TLR4 activation. Studies were done in 14-day-old mice: wild type (WT), mice deficient in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), mice deficient in myeloid cell TLR4, and mice deficient in epithelial cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Biological end points included crypt fission and Lgr5 cell proliferation. In WT mice, treatment with NS-398 (a COX2 inhibitor), clodronate (a macrophage-depleting agent), or tyrphostin (an EGFR inhibitor) resulted in 30% reductions in crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation compared with control mice. Mice deficient in COX2 or myeloid TLR4 or epithelial cell EGFR all had 30% reductions in crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation compared with WT mice. Administration of dimethyl PGE2, a stable PGE2 analog, increased crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation. Administration of dimethyl PGE2 reversed the effects of NS-398, clodronate, COX2 deficiency, and myeloid TLR4 deficiency but had no effect on mice treated with tyrphostin or mice deficient in epithelial cell EGFR. We conclude that, in postnatal mice, ~30% of intestinal growth as manifested by crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation is driven by a novel pathway: Extracellular HA binds TLR4 on pericryptal macrophages, inducing the production of PGE2 through COX2. PGE2 transactivates EGFR in Lgr5+ epithelial stem cells, resulting in Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation and crypt fission.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study, in newborn mice, describes a novel molecular pathway regulating Lgr5+ epithelial stem cell proliferation and normal intestinal elongation, as assessed by crypt fission. In this pathway, endogenous extracellular hyaluronic acid binds to Toll-like receptor 4 on pericryptal macrophages releasing PGE2 which binds to epidermal growth factor receptor on Lgr5+ stem cells resulting in proliferation. Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation leads to crypt fission and intestinal elongation. The demonstration that normal growth requires microbial-independent Toll-like receptor activation is novel.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/antagonistas & inibidores , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109134, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464120

RESUMO

Montelukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) receptor antagonist with efficacy against a variety of diseases, including asthma and inflammation-related conditions. However, various neuropsychiatric events (NEs) suspected to be related to montelukast have been reported recently, with limited understanding on their association and underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate whether montelukast can induce neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in microglial HAPI cells and neural SH-SY5Y cells. The present study also compared the effects of montelukast with a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (zileuton) and a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) to better understand modulation of related pathways. HAPI or SH-SY5Y cells were treated with the indicated drugs (3.125 µM-100 µM) for 24 h to investigate drug-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. Montelukast induced cytotoxicity in HAPI cells (50-100 µM), accompanied with caspase-3/7 activation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Whilst both montelukast and zileuton down-regulated CysLT release in HAPI cells, zileuton did not significantly affect cell viability or inflammatory and oxidative factors. Celecoxib decreased HAPI cell viability (6.25-100 µM), accompanied with increasing caspase-3/7 activation and ROS production, but in contrast to montelukast increased CysLT release and decreased PGE2 production. Similar to observations in HAPI cells, both montelukast and celecoxib (50-100 µM) but not zileuton produced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Similarly, CM from HAPI cells treated with either montelukast or zileuton produced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results of the current study show the capability of montelukast to directly induce toxicity and inflammation in HAPI cells, possibly through the involvement of PGE2 and ROS, and toxicity in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The current study highlights the importance of consideration between benefit and risk of montelukast usage and provides references for future investigation on decreasing montelukast-related NEs.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci ; 253: 117731, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the role inflammation and mechanism(s) that enables the tumor to evade host's anti-tumor immune function during very initial days of tumor establishment. Our study focuses on the immune response and local inflammation specially the pro-inflammatory and immune modifier components that are responsible for tumor-induced immune-suppression, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) at tumor microenvironment in mouse model from very early to late phase of tumor progression. METHODS: 1 × 105 Ascites tumor, EAC in Swiss albino or Sarcoma-180 (S-180) in Balb c mice strain were inoculated intra-peritonially and grouped into Control (0 day or no tumor), initial phase (3 day tumor), early (7 Day), Late (14 day) and terminal (21 day tumor) sets. T cell activity, tumor niche macrophage, inflammatory signatures were studied using Confocal microscopy, flowcytometry, ELISA, q-RT PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: We observed increased T cell infiltration at a very early stage of tumorigenesis in the tumor site with elevated percentage of activated/memory T cells. But increased cellular death and functional suppression of tumor site T cells during final stages. We observed increased infiltration of TAMs with skewed M2 phenotype. Increased chemokine receptor expression could be noted on these TAMs. Using HIF-1α inhibitor and prostaglandin receptor antagonists we demonstrated crucial role of these factor in functional alteration in TAMs. HIF-1α inhibition and also by prostaglandin receptor inhibition reduced signature pro-inflammatory gene expression, migration of macrophages and T cell suppression capacity of TAMs. We also demonstrated that PGE2 can induce HIF-1α activation in relatively less hypoxic microenvironment during early stages of tumor. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these findings strongly suggest link between prostaglandin mediated early HIF-1α activation and subsequent hypoxia induced HIF-1α activation that further enhances prostaglandin synthesis driving the recruitment and functional alteration of tumor site macrophages.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Ehrlich/patologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Sarcoma 180/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/imunologia , Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenótipo , Sarcoma 180/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109088, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360554

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative joint diseases in aging people. The activation of chondrocytes and their dysregulation are closely related to the pathogenesis of OA. GPR55 is an unique orphan G-receptor which binds to cannabinoids. In this study, we explored the role of GPR55 in advanced glycation end productions (AGEs)- induced chondrocytes activation in cultured cells. We showed that AGEs dose dependently induced GPR55 expression in ATDC5 chondrocytes. The blockage of GPR55 by its newly discovered antagonist-CID16020046 mitigated AGEs- induced increase in cellular ROS and decrease in antioxidant NRF2. Moreover, CID16020046 showed a dose-response suppressive effect on AGEs- induced expression of the major inflammatory mediators, including COX-2 and iNOS, and the production of NO and PGE2. CID16020046 also dose responsively inhibited AGEs- induced key effectors of cartilage degradation such as MMP-3 and MMP-13. In consequence, CID16020046 showed robust inhibition on AGEs- induced type II collagen degradation. Mechanistically, our data demonstrated that CID16020046 mediated GPR55 blockage ameliorated AGEs- induced NF-κB activation as revealed by its inhibition on IκBα, nuclear p65 translocation and NF-κB promoter activity. Collectively, our study demonstrates that GPR55 signaling mediates AGEs- induced chondrocyte activation, and the targeted blockage of GPR55 pathway could be therapeutic choice in the treatment of osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/farmacologia , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401938

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate the kinetics of apical periodontitis development in vivo , induced either by contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from the oral cavity or by inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the regulation of major enzymes and receptors involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Methodology Apical periodontitis was induced in C57BL6 mice (n=96), by root canal exposure to oral cavity (n=48 teeth) or inoculation of LPS (10 µL of a suspension of 0.1 µg/µL) from E. coli into the root canals (n= 48 teeth). Healthy teeth were used as control (n=48 teeth). After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and tissues removed for histopathological and qRT-PCR analyses. Histological analysis data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's test, and qRT-PCR data using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results Contamination by microorganisms led to the development of apical periodontitis, characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and bone tissue resorption, whereas inoculation of LPS induced inflammatory cells recruitment without bone resorption. Both stimuli induced mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Expression of prostaglandin E 2 and leukotriene B 4 cell surface receptors were more stimulated by LPS. Regarding nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), oral contamination induced the synthesis of mRNA for PPARδ, differently from inoculation of LPS, that induced PPARα and PPARγ expression. Conclusions Contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from oral cavity induced the development of apical periodontitis differently than by inoculation with LPS, characterized by less bone loss than the first model. Regardless of the model used, it was found a local increase in the synthesis of mRNA for the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 of the arachidonic acid metabolism, as well as in the surface and nuclear receptors for the lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Animais , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/análise , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/microbiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/análise , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/patologia , Dinoprostona/análise , Expressão Gênica , Leucotrieno B4/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Periodontite Periapical/metabolismo , Periodontite Periapical/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nature ; 580(7804): 524-529, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322056

RESUMO

The initiation of an intestinal tumour is a probabilistic process that depends on the competition between mutant and normal epithelial stem cells in crypts1. Intestinal stem cells are closely associated with a diverse but poorly characterized network of mesenchymal cell types2,3. However, whether the physiological mesenchymal microenvironment of mutant stem cells affects tumour initiation remains unknown. Here we provide in vivo evidence that the mesenchymal niche controls tumour initiation in trans. By characterizing the heterogeneity of the intestinal mesenchyme using single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis, we identified a population of rare pericryptal Ptgs2-expressing fibroblasts that constitutively process arachidonic acid into highly labile prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Specific ablation of Ptgs2 in fibroblasts was sufficient to prevent tumour initiation in two different models of sporadic, autochthonous tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses of a mesenchymal niche model showed that fibroblast-derived PGE2 drives the expansion οf a population of Sca-1+ reserve-like stem cells. These express a strong regenerative/tumorigenic program, driven by the Hippo pathway effector Yap. In vivo, Yap is indispensable for Sca-1+ cell expansion and early tumour initiation and displays a nuclear localization in both mouse and human adenomas. Using organoid experiments, we identified a molecular mechanism whereby PGE2 promotes Yap dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity by signalling through the receptor Ptger4. Epithelial-specific ablation of Ptger4 misdirected the regenerative reprogramming of stem cells and prevented Sca-1+ cell expansion and sporadic tumour initiation in mutant mice, thereby demonstrating the robust paracrine control of tumour-initiating stem cells by PGE2-Ptger4. Analyses of patient-derived organoids established that PGE2-PTGER4 also regulates stem-cell function in humans. Our study demonstrates that initiation of colorectal cancer is orchestrated by the mesenchymal niche and reveals a mechanism by which rare pericryptal Ptgs2-expressing fibroblasts exert paracrine control over tumour-initiating stem cells via the druggable PGE2-Ptger4-Yap signalling axis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Comunicação Parácrina , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
15.
Cancer Res ; 80(12): 2612-2627, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265226

RESUMO

Current cancer treatments are largely based on the genetic characterization of primary tumors and are ineffective for metastatic disease. Here we report that DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) is induced at distant metastatic sites and mediates epigenetic reprogramming of metastatic tumor cells. Multiomics analysis and spontaneous metastatic mouse models revealed that DNMT3B alters multiple pathways including STAT3, NFκB, PI3K/Akt, ß-catenin, and Notch signaling, which are critical for cancer cell survival, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and colonization. PGE2 and IL6 were identified as critical inflammatory mediators in DNMT3B induction. DNMT3B expression levels positively correlated with human metastatic progression. Targeting IL6 or COX-2 reduced DNMT3B induction and improved chemo or PD1 therapy. We propose a novel mechanism linking the metastatic microenvironment with epigenetic alterations that occur at distant sites. These results caution against the "Achilles heel" in cancer therapies based on primary tumor characterization and suggests targeting DNMT3B induction as new option for treating metastatic disease. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that DNMT3B epigenetically regulates multiple pro-oncogenic signaling pathways via the inflammatory microenvironment at distant sites, cautioning the clinical approach basing current therapies on genetic characterization of primary tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240179

RESUMO

Macrophage cells form part of our first line defense against pathogens. Macrophages become activated by microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce inflammatory mediators, such as TNFα and other cytokines, which orchestrate the host defense against the pathogen. Once the pathogen has been eradicated, the activated macrophage must be appropriately deactivated or inflammatory diseases result. Interleukin-10 (IL10) is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine which deactivates the activated macrophage. The IL10 receptor (IL10R) signals through the Jak1/Tyk2 tyrosine kinases, STAT3 transcription factor and the SHIP1 inositol phosphatase. However, IL10 has also been described to induce the activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulated protein kinase A (PKA). We now report that IL10R signalling leads to STAT3/SHIP1 dependent expression of the EP4 receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In macrophages, EP4 is a Gαs-protein coupled receptor that stimulates adenylate cyclase (AC) production of cAMP, leading to downstream activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylation of the CREB transcription factor. IL10 induction of phospho-CREB and inhibition of LPS-induced phosphorylation of p85 PI3K and p70 S6 kinase required the presence of EP4. These data suggest that IL10R activation of STAT3/SHIP1 enhances EP4 expression, and that it is EP4 which activates cAMP-dependent signalling. The coordination between IL10R and EP4 signalling also provides an explanation for why cAMP elevating agents synergize with IL10 to elicit anti-inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ocitócicos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L943-L952, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233794

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) is a ligand-gated cation channel that responds to endogenous and exogenous irritants. TRPA1 is expressed on multiple cell types throughout the lungs, but previous studies have primarily focused on TRPA1 stimulation of airway sensory nerves. We sought to understand the integrated physiological airway response to TRPA1 stimulation. The TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CINN) were tested in sedated, mechanically ventilated guinea pigs in vivo. Reproducible bronchoconstrictions were induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves. Animals were then treated with intravenous AITC or CINN. AITC and CINN were also tested on isolated guinea pig and mouse tracheas and postmortem human trachealis muscle strips in an organ bath. Tissues were contracted with methacholine, histamine, or potassium chloride and then treated with AITC or CINN. Some airways were pretreated with TRPA1 antagonists, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the EP2 receptor antagonist PF 04418948, or tetrodotoxin. AITC and CINN blocked vagally mediated bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs. Pretreatment with indomethacin completely abolished the airway response to TRPA1 agonists. Similarly, AITC and CINN dose-dependently relaxed precontracted guinea pig, mouse, and human airways in the organ bath. AITC- and CINN-induced airway relaxation required TRPA1, prostaglandins, and PGE2 receptor activation. TRPA1-induced airway relaxation did not require epithelium or tetrodotoxin-sensitive nerves. Finally, AITC blocked airway hyperreactivity in two animal models of allergic asthma. These data demonstrate that stimulation of TRPA1 causes bronchodilation of intact airways and suggest that the TRPA1 pathway is a potential pharmacological target for bronchodilation.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/genética , Traqueia/metabolismo , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Broncoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Elétrica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cobaias , Histamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Cloreto de Metacolina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial , Transdução de Sinais , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/agonistas , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1809-1821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214813

RESUMO

Introduction: Because tumor-associated inflammation is a hallmark of cancer treatment, in the present study, sorafenib mesoporous silica nanomatrix (MSNM@SFN) co-administrated with flufenamic acid (FFA, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)) was investigated to enhance the anti-tumor activity of MSNM@SFN. Methods: Metastatic breast tumor 4T1/luc cells and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were selected as cell models. The effects of FFA in vitro on cell migration, PGE2 secretion, and AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 levels in 4T1/luc and HepG2 cells were investigated. The in vivo anti-tumor activity of MSNM@SFN co-administrating with FFA (MSNM@SFN+FFA) was evaluated in a 4T1/luc metastatic tumor model, HepG2 tumor-bearing nude mice model, and HepG2 orthotopic tumor-bearing nude mice model, respectively. Results: The results indicated that FFA could markedly decrease cell migration, PGE2 secretion, and AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 levels in both 4T1/luc and HepG2 cells. The enhanced anti-tumor activity of MSNM@SFN+FFA compared with that of MSNM@SFN was confirmed in the 4T1/luc metastatic tumor model, HepG2 tumor-bearing nude mice model, and HepG2 orthotopic tumor-bearing nude mice model in vivo, respectively. Discussion: MSNM@SFN co-administrating with FFA (MSNM@SFN+FFA) developed in this study is an alternative strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSNM@SFN via co-administration with NSAIDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , 20-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Membro C3 da Família 1 de alfa-Ceto Redutase/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Flufenâmico/administração & dosagem , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12713, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173875

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania infantum. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) exerts potent regulatory effects on the immune system in experimental model Leishmania infection, but this influence has not yet been studied in CanL. In this study, PGE2 and PGE2 receptor levels and the regulatory effect of PGE2 on arginase activity, NO2 , IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and parasite load were evaluated in cultures of splenic leucocytes obtained from dogs with CanL in the presence of agonists and inhibitors. Our results showed that splenic leucocytes from dogs with CanL had lower EP2 receptor levels than those of splenic leucocytes from healthy animals. We observed that NO2 levels decreased when the cells were treated with a PGE2 receptor agonist (EP1/EP2/EP3) or COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) and that TNF-α, IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokine levels decreased when the cells were treated with a PGE2 receptor agonist (EP2) or PGE2 itself. The parasite load in splenic leucocyte cell cultures from dogs with CanL decreased after stimulation of the cells with PGE2 . We conclude that Leishmania infection of dogs modulates PGE2 receptors and speculate that the binding of PGE2 to its receptors may activate the microbicidal capacity of cells.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/agonistas , Dinoprostona/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nitrobenzenos/farmacologia , Carga Parasitária , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/agonistas , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/fisiologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142358

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and inflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signals through four different G protein-coupled receptors, eliciting a variety of effects. We reported that activation of the EP3 receptor reduces cardiac contractility. More recently, we have shown that overexpression of the EP4 receptor is protective in a mouse myocardial infarction model. We hypothesize in this study that the relative abundance of EP3 and EP4 receptors is a major determinant of end-organ damage in the diseased heart. Thus EP3 is detrimental to cardiac function and promotes inflammation, whereas antagonism of the EP3 receptor is protective in an ANG II hypertension (HTN) model. To test our hypothesis, male 10- to 12-wk-old C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and osmotic minipumps containing ANG II were implanted subcutaneously for 2 wk. We found that antagonism of the EP3 receptor using L798,106 significantly attenuated the increase in blood pressure with ANG II infusion. Moreover, antagonism of the EP3 receptor prevented a decline in cardiac function after ANG II treatment. We also found that 10- to 12-wk-old EP3-transgenic mice, which overexpress EP3 in the cardiomyocytes, have worsened cardiac function. In conclusion, activation or overexpression of EP3 exacerbates end-organ damage in ANG II HTN. In contrast, antagonism of the EP3 receptor is beneficial and reduces cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, and HTN.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to show that systemic treatment with an EP3 receptor antagonist (L798,106) attenuates the angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure in mice. The results from this project could complement existing hypertension therapies by combining blockade of the EP3 receptor with antihypertensive drugs.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP3/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP3/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
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