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1.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(6): e12832, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544253

RESUMO

We aimed to analyse the relative abundance of miR-505 in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Relative expression of miR-505 was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Macrophage polarization was characterized by measurement of molecular markers including Ym-1, Arg-1, TNF-α and iNOS via both real-time PCR and Western blot. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation was evaluated by choroidal flat mount technique. The regulatory action of miR-505-5p on 3'UTR of Transmembrane Protein 229B (TMEM229B) was interrogated by luciferase reporter assay. miR-505 was aberrantly upregulated in both AMD and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization mouse model. Administration with miR-505 specific inhibitor suppressed M2 polarization in CNV mice as indicated by decreasing both Ym-1 and Arg-1. Meanwhile, VEGF expression and CNV formation were greatly suppressed by miR-505 inhibition as well. The similar phenotype was consolidated in Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages. At the molecular level, miR-505-5p directly targeted and negatively regulated TMEM229B expression, while forced ectopic expression of TMEM229B significantly rescued miR-505-imposed M2 polarization. Our data have uncovered the critical contribution of miR-505 in AMD, which is predominantly mediated by downregulation of TMEM229B.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/etiologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Interferência de RNA , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487817

RESUMO

Cyclooxygenases (COXs), including COX-1 and -2, are enzymes essential for lipid mediator (LMs) syntheses from arachidonic acid (AA), such as prostaglandins (PGs). Furthermore, COXs could interplay with other enzymes such as lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs) to regulate the signaling of LMs. In this study, to comprehensively analyze the function of COX-1 and -2 in regulating the signaling of bioactive LMs in skeletal muscle, mouse primary myoblasts and C2C12 cells were transfected with specific COX-1 and -2 siRNAs, followed by targeted lipidomic analysis and customized quantitative PCR gene array analysis. Knocking down COXs, particularly COX-1, significantly reduced the release of PGs from muscle cells, especially PGE2 and PGF2α, as well as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA). Moreover, COXs could interplay with LOXs to regulate the signaling of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). The changes in LMs are associated with the expression of genes, such as Itrp1 (calcium signaling) and Myh7 (myogenic differentiation), in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, both COX-1 and -2 contribute to LMs production during myogenesis in vitro, and COXs could interact with LOXs during this process. These interactions and the fine-tuning of the levels of these LMs are most likely important for skeletal muscle myogenesis, and potentially, muscle repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/genética , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/citologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo
3.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(3): 518-531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver regeneration is induced by S1P and accompanied with an increase in hepatic Na+/K+ ATPase activity, suggesting a potential modulatory role of the sphingolipid on the ATPase activity. The ability of S1P to alter the ATPase activity was confirmed in a previous work which showed a time dependent effect, with an inhibition appearing at 15min and a stimulation at two hours. The aim of this work was to investigate if FTY720-P, an analogue of S1P used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, exerts a similar effect at 2 hours. METHODS: HepG2 cells were treated with FTY720-P for two hours and the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase was assayed by measuring the amount of inorganic phosphate liberated in presence and absence of ouabain. The involvement of NF-κB in the pathway was investigated by determining changes in the protein expression of IκB. RESULTS: FTY720-P induced a 2.5-fold increase in the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase which was maintained in the presence of JTE-013, a specific blocker of S1PR2, but disappeared completely in presence of CAY 10444, a specific S1PR3 antagonist. The involvement of S1PR3 was supported by the stimulation observed with Cym5541, a S1PR3 agonist. FTY720-P increased the expression of COX2, and reduced that of IκB. Its effect was not manifested in presence of indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, or in presence of an NF-κB inhibitor. Exogenous PGE2 induced a significant stimulatory effect. Inhibiting PKC and ERK with respectively calphostin C and PD98059 abolished the effect of FTY720-P on the ATPase and on IκB, but not that of exogenous PGE2 indicating that the two kinases are upstream of NF-κB and PGE2. The PKC activator PMA increased the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase as well as the expression of phopho-ERK, inferring that PKC is upstream of ERK. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that FTY720-P stimulates the Na+/K+ ATPase via PGE2 by activating sequentially S1PR3, PKC, ERK, NF-κB. The latter enhances COX-2 expression leading to PGE2 release.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Western Blotting , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingosina/farmacologia
4.
J Med Food ; 22(10): 1067-1077, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403348

RESUMO

To reduce microbial loads in medicinal herbs, Cnidii Rhizoma and Alismatis Rhizoma were subjected to electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation at doses (≤10 kGy) as permitted by the Korean Food Code. The effects of e-beam irradiation on the microbial load, stability of the active components, and anti-inflammatory activity of medicinal herbs were determined. We observed that the total aerobic bacteria (TAB; 4.0-7.0 log CFU/g), yeasts and molds (Y&M; 3.3-6.8 log CFU/g), and coliform counts (CC; 3.2-3.8 log CFU/g) in both herb samples were effectively reduced in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in acceptable levels of <3.0 log CFU/g in TAB and Y&M and negative in CC at 10 kGy irradiation. The concentration of the active components (0.87-4.22 mg/g) of Cnidii Rhizoma, including z-ligustilide, chlorogenic acid, senkyunolide A, and ferulic acid, in order of prevalence and those (0.86-2.76 mg/g) of Alismatis Rhizoma, including Alisol B acetate and Alisol B, were not changed at irradiation doses of ≤10 kGy. The extracts of e-beam irradiated Cnidii Rhizoma and Alismatis Rhizoma showed a reduced production of inflammation-related factors, such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6, in a concentration-dependent manner, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cell. However, there was no significant difference observed at e-beam irradiation doses of 0, 1, 5, and 10 kGy. Thus, we confirm that e-beam irradiation up to 10 kGy was effective for the control of microbial load in Cnidii Rhizoma and Alismatis Rhizoma without causing considerable changes in their major active components and anti-inflammatory activity. The results show the potential of e-beam application for sanitization of medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Alisma/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Apiaceae/química , Carga Bacteriana , Rizoma/química , Alisma/microbiologia , Alisma/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apiaceae/microbiologia , Apiaceae/efeitos da radiação , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Elétrons , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Células RAW 264.7 , Rizoma/microbiologia , Rizoma/efeitos da radiação
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411316

RESUMO

Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1ß, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1ß by suppressing the increase in IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1ß-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1ß to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1ß-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Dor Lombar/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Núcleo Pulposo/citologia , Núcleo Pulposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
6.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430921

RESUMO

MOMAST(®) HY100 and MOMAST(®) HP30 are polyphenolic liquid complexes from olive pressing juice with a total polyphenolic content of 100 g/kg (at least 50% as hydroxytyrosol) and 36 g/kg (at least 30% as hydroxytyrosol), respectively. We investigated the potential protective role of MOMAST(®) HY100 and MOMAST(®) HP30 on isolated rat colon, liver, heart, and prefrontal cortex specimens treated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a validated ex vivo model of inflammation, by measuring the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2, 8-iso-PGF2α, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels. MOMAST(®) HY100 decreased LPS-stimulated PGE2 and LDH levels in all tested tissues. Following treatment with MOMAST(®) HY100, we found a significant reduction in iNOS levels in prefrontal cortex and heart specimens, COX-2 and TNFα mRNA levels in heart specimens, and 8-iso-PGF2α levels in liver specimens. On the other hand, MOMAST(®) HP30 was found to blunt COX-2, TNFα, and iNOS mRNA levels, as well as 8-iso-PGF2α in cortex, liver, and colon specimens. MOMAST(®) HP30 was also found to decrease PGE2 levels in liver specimens, while it decreased iNOS mRNA, LDH, and 8-iso-PGF2α levels in heart specimens. Both MOMAST(®) HY100 and MOMAST(®) HP30 exhibited protective effects on multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Olea/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 989-999, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468462

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the regulation of inflammatory effects by glucose-taurine reduced (G-T-R), a taurine-carbohydrate derivative, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory action of G-T-R revealed that this derivative markedly inhibited the nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by LPS. Suppression of NO and PGE2 production was involved in the inhibitory action by G-T-R on the inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins expression. G-T-R decreased the production of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6. Moreover, G-T-R effectively suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages according to evaluation of the molecular inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, we suggest that G-T-R modulates several inflammatory pathways mediated by NF-κB activation, demonstrating its potential or preventing and treating inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 1015-1031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468464

RESUMO

Taurine haloamines (N-chlorotaurine, N-bromotaurine) due to their strong antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties are good candidates for topical application in treatment of skin inflammatory/infectious disorders. Recently, we have demonstrated that more stable N-bromotaurine analogs (N-dibromo-dimethyl taurine, N-monobromo-dimethyl taurine) and bromamine T show strong microbicidal and anti-inflammatory properties at concentrations well tolerated by human cells and tissue. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity are commonly used in various inflammatory diseases. However, systemic administration of NSAIDs may result in adverse side effects. For example, the use of ibuprofen in children with varicella is associated with enhanced serum levels of TNF-α and with increased risk of necrotizing soft tissue infections and secondary skin infections caused by invasive streptococci. The aim of this study was to examine combined immunomodulatory effects of bromamines and ibuprofen on J774.A1 macrophages. We have shown that the primary activity of ibuprofen, the inhibition of PGE2 production by activated macrophages was intensified in the presence of bromamines. Most importantly, the stimulatory effect of ibuprofen on production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) was inhibited by all tested bromamines. These observations indicate that bromamines may neutralize massive production of TNF-α at sites of inflammation, a side effect of ibuprofen. Therefore, we suggest that systemic administration of ibuprofen (NSAIDs) in treatment of inflammatory/infectious skin diseases should be supported by topical application of bromamines as an adjunctive therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Taurina/farmacologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 1057-1067, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468467

RESUMO

Ribose-taurine (Rib-T) suppressed the generation of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß induced by LPS was effectively blocked by Rib-T. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory actions of Rib-T were involved in its inhibitory effects against the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of Rib-T is associated with NF-κB regulation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ribose/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição RelA
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110739, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374297

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of four Aronia melanocarpa-based juices in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. THE JUICES WERE: AM1 and AM2 (produced from aronia fruits at 20 °C and 60 °C, respectively), AMRC (a mixture of AM2 with Rosa canina extract) and AMAV (aronia juice with Alchemilla vulgaris). Male Wistar rats were used. Each of the juices (10 ml/kg) was administered for 10 days. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously and after 4 h, the effects were estimated. Indomethacin caused heavy destructions of the gastric mucosa, increased the expression of Bax and decreased the expression of Bcl-2, induced a certain increase in lipid peroxidation and a slight decrease in gastric PGE2 content. The pretreatment with the juices reduced the severity of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and antagonized the effects of indomethacin on apoptosis and lipid peroxidation. The highest was the protective effect of AMAV, the juice with the highest polyphenolic content. The protective effect of Aronia melanocarpa-based juices against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions could be attributed to their polyphenolic contents. The mechanism involved to the highest extent in the protective effect of the juices was the inhibition of apoptosis.


Assuntos
Alchemilla/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Indometacina/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosa/química , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Photinia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(8): 1358-1365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366870

RESUMO

A current anti-inflammatory agent often targets the prevention of inflammatory disorder development. The standardized Centella asiatica ECa 233 extract has been previously reported for anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of ECa 233 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, nitric oxide (NO) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Our results found that ECa 233 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators production including ROS, NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1ß without cytotoxicity. In addition, ECa 233 downregulated not only the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but also the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), activated protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) induced by LPS. The inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation due to ECa 233 offered an opportunity as a tentatively potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 936-946, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378107

RESUMO

Endothelial cells regulate vascular tone by producing both relaxing and contracting factors to control the local blood flow. Hypertension is a common side effect of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibitors. However, the role of endothelial mTORC1 in hypertension remains elusive. The present study aimed to determine the role of endothelial mTORC1 in Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced hypertension and the underlying mechanism. Endothelial mTORC1 activity was increased by Ang II both in vitro and in vivo. Blood pressure was higher in Tie-2-Cre-mediated regulatory associated protein of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin; Raptor) heterozygous-deficient (Tie2Cre-RaptorKD) mice than control mice both before and after Ang II infusion. Acetylcholine-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation of mesenteric arteries was impaired in Tie2Cre-RaptorKD mice. Treatment with indomethacin or a specific COX (cyclooxygenase)-2 inhibitor, NS-398, but not L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in Raptorflox/- mice to a similar extent as in Tie2Cre-RaptorKD mice. Metabolomic profiling revealed that the plasma content of prostaglandin E2 was reduced in Tie2Cre-RaptorKD mice with or without Ang II infusion. In endothelial cells, reduction of the protein level of YAP (yes-associated protein) with siRNA-mediated RPTOR deficiency was autophagy dependent and transcriptionally regulated the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1). Hence, overexpression of YAP in endothelial cells enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of COX-2 and mPGES-1 and reversed the endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in Tie2Cre-RaptorKD mice. The present results demonstrate that suppression of mTORC1 activity in endothelial cells reduces prostaglandin E2 production and causes hypertension by reducing YAP-mediated COX-2/mPGES-1 expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Angiotensina II , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Indometacina/farmacologia , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 102(4): e21607, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338878

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) mediates cellular immune responses in insects by stimulating hemocyte-spreading behavior that is driven by actin remodeling to form filopodial or lamellipodial cytoplasmic extensions. In Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Cdc42, a small G protein, played a crucial role in mediating PGE2 signal on hemocyte-spreading behavior. Hemocyte-spreading behavior requires actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. A plethora of actin-related proteins have been predicted to have functional links with Cdc42. Here, we selected four actin-associated genes (Actin-related protein 2 [Arp2], Profilin, Cofilin, and Fascin) and evaluated their influences on cytoskeletal rearrangement in S. exigua. Bioinformatic analysis confirmed their gene identities. Transcript analysis using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that all four actin-associated genes were expressed in most developmental stages, showing high expression levels in larval hemocytes. RNA interference (RNAi) against these genes was performed by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to hemocoel. Under RNAi condition, the hemocyte-spreading behavior was significantly impaired except for dsRNA treatment against Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor. Alteration of cytoskeletal rearrangement appeared to vary after different RNAi treatments. RNAi against Arp2 markedly suppressed lamellipodial extension while RNAi against Profilin or Fascin adversely influenced filopodial extension. RNAi of these actin-associated factors prevented cellular immune responses measured by nodule formation against bacterial challenge. Under RNAi conditions, addition of PGE2 did not well induce hemocyte-spreading behavior, suggesting that these actin-associated factors might act downstream of the hormone signaling pathway. These results suggest that PGE2 can mediate hemocyte-spreading behavior via Cdc42 to activate downstream actin polymerization/branching/bundling factors, thus inducing actin cytoskeletal rearrangement.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Hemócitos/citologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Spodoptera/citologia , Actinas/genética , Animais , Escherichia coli , Imunidade Celular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo
14.
Pharmacology ; 104(3-4): 187-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tangeretin (TAN), a major phytochemical in tangerine peels and an important Chinese herb, has multiple biological properties, especially antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Based on these findings, the aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of TAN in bovine type II collagen-induced arthritis rats. METHODS: TAN (50 mg/kg) was given orally once daily for 14 days. The effects of treatment were evaluated by biochemical assay (articular elastase, myeloperoxidase, end products of lipid peroxidation [MDA], antioxidant enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione), nitric oxide, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß [IL-1ß], -IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interferon-γ [IFN-γ], and prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]). The protective effects of TAN against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evident from the decrease in arthritis scoring. Furthermore, the Nrf-2 signaling pathway was assessed to illustrate the molecular mechanism. RESULTS: TAN had therapeutic effects on RA by decreasing the oxidative stress damage and regulating inflammatory cytokine expression, including suppression of the accumulation of MDA products, decreasing the IL-1ß, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and PGE2 levels, enhancing the IL-10 and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, which was through upregulating Nrf-2 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: TAN might have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Colágeno/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Catalase , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulações/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 370(3): 480-489, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300611

RESUMO

Opioids promote tumor angiogenesis in mammary malignancies, but the underlying signaling mechanism is largely unknown. The current study investigated the hypothesis that stimulation of δ-opioid receptors (DOR) in breast cancer (BCa) cells activates the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which triggers synthesis and release of diverse angiogenic factors. Immunoblotting revealed that incubation of human MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with the DOR agonist d-Ala2,d-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) resulted in a transient accumulation and thus activation of HIF-1α DADLE-induced HIF-1α activation preceded PI3K/Akt stimulation and was blocked by the DOR antagonist naltrindole and naloxone, pertussis toxin, different phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, and the Akt inhibitor Akti-1/2. Whereas DADLE exposure had no effect on the expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in BCa cells, an increased abundance of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was detected. DADLE-induced COX-2 expression was also observed in three-dimensional cultured MCF-7 cells and impaired by PI3K/Akt inhibitors and the HIF-1α inhibitor echinomycin. Supernatant from DADLE-treated MCF-7 cells triggered sprouting of endothelial (END) cells, which was blocked when MCF-7 cells were pretreated with echinomycin or the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Also no sprouting was observed when END cells were exposed to the PGE2 receptor antagonist PF-04418948. The findings together indicate that DOR stimulation in BCa cells leads to PI3K/Akt-dependent HIF-1α activation and COX-2 expression, which trigger END cell sprouting by paracrine activation of PGE2 receptors. These findings provide a potential mechanism of opioid-driven tumor angiogenesis and thus therapeutic targets to combat the tumor-angiogenic opioid effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Opioids are indispensable analgesics for treating cancer-related pain. However, opioids were found to promote tumor growth and metastasis, which questions the use of these potent pain-relieving drugs in cancer patients. Enhanced tumor vascularization after opioid treatment implies that tumor progression results from angiogenic opioid effects. Thus, understanding the signaling mechanism of opioid-driven tumor angiogenesis helps to identify therapeutic targets to combat these undesired tumor effects. The present study reveals that stimulation of δ-opioid receptors in breast cancer cells leads to an activation of HIF-1α and expression of COX-2 via PI3K/Akt stimulation, which results in a paracrine activation of vascular endothelial cells by prostaglandin E2 receptors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores sigma/agonistas , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Leucina Encefalina-2-Alanina/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) ; 2019: 8243813, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281769

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in experimental esophagitis in rats. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control group, sham + saline group, sham + acid group, operation + saline group, and operation + acid group. Two weeks after the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) destruction, hydrochloric acid with pepsin was perfused into the lower part of the esophagus for 90 min. The rats were sacrificed 60 min after perfusion. The esophagus was prepared for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and the degree of inflammation and NF-κB activation in the esophagus was measured. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, and PGE2) in the esophagus were measured by ELISA. The brain was removed and processed for c-fos immunohistochemistry staining. The c-fos-positive neurons were counted and analyzed. Results: The TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and PGE2 concentrations in the esophageal tissue increased after acid perfusion. The microscopic esophagitis scores and the activation of NF-κB p65 in the esophagus were significantly higher in the operation + acid group than in the operation + saline group. c-fos-positive neurons significantly increased in rats receiving acid perfusion in the amygdala (AM), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)/DMV, the nucleus ambiguous (NA), the reticular nucleus of the medulla (RNM), and the area postrema (AP). After DMV destruction, c-fos expression was reduced in the AM, PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, NA, RNM, and AP, especially in the AM, PVN, NTS/DMV, RNM, and AP. Conclusions: The DMV is an important nucleus of the CAP. The DMV lesion can aggravate esophageal inflammation and injury from acid-induced acute esophagitis in a rat model. The CAP has a protective effect on the acute esophagitis rat model and could be a new therapy for reflux esophagitis (RE).


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Bulbo/patologia , Nervo Vago/patologia , Ácidos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esofagite Péptica/patologia , Esofagite Péptica/fisiopatologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Bulbo/metabolismo , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfusão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16016, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261505

RESUMO

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the most frequent and severe complications in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Early antibiotic therapy is extremely important for successful treatment and reducing mortality. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a regulator of the immune response and infection. This study aimed to explore whether ascitic PGE2 could be used as a marker for diagnosing SBP and predicting in-hospital mortality.Patients with cirrhosis and ascites undergoing abdominal paracentesis were enrolled in our study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded at the time of paracentesis and ascitic PGE2 levels were determined by ELISA. The correlation between ascitic PGE2 level and SBP as well as in-hospital mortality were analyzed.There were 224 patients enrolled, 29 (13%) patients diagnosed as SBP based on the current guideline criteria. The ascitic PGE2 level of patients with SBP [32.77 (26.5-39.68) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that of patients without SBP [49.72 (37.35-54.72) pg/mL]. In ROC analysis, the AUC of ascitic PGE2 for the diagnosis of SBP was 0.75, and the AUC of ascitic PGE2 combined with WBC and ascitic PGE2 combined with neutrophils were 0.90 and 0.90, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of ascitic PGE2. In multivariate analysis, ascites PGE2≤32.88 pg/mL (OR: 9.39; 95% CI: 1.41-67.44, P = .026), hepatic encephalopathy (OR: 18.39; 95% CI: 3.00-113.13, P = .002) and a higher MELD score (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.05-1.40, P = .009) remained independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.Ascitic PGE2 level is likely to be a valuable marker in prediction of in-hospital mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, and its value in diagnosis of SBP was not superior to other inflammatory indicators.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Peritonite/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Ascite/complicações , Ascite/metabolismo , Ascite/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/complicações , Peritonite/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
18.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(7): 1120-1127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257288

RESUMO

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a simple phenol compound present in olive oil. In a previous in vitro study, we showed that HT downregulated lipopolysaccharide-mediated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1ß, resulting in reduced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether HT suppresses COX-2-induced inflammation in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Additionally, we compared its activity with those of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib for a comparative control, and a representative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin for a positive control. HT, celecoxib, and indomethacin significantly suppressed swelling in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Although HT was less effective than celecoxib and indomethacin, it had a delayed onset of action. Moreover, we evaluated whether HT aggravates gastric damage, which is a typical adverse effect associated with NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors under low dose aspirin (LDA) treatment, in an aspirin-induced gastric damage rat model. Unlike celecoxib and indomethacin, HT did not cause gastric damage when co-administered with aspirin. Our results indicate that HT exerts a delayed but sustained anti-inflammatory effect against COX-2-mediated inflammation. Finally, the combination of short-acting conventional anti-inflammatory drugs and long-acting HT can be considered a new, safe, and effective anti-inflammatory treatment modality even when continuously administered for a long period under LDA treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aspirina , Carragenina , Celecoxib , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Indometacina , Masculino , Olea , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 859: 172545, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319066

RESUMO

Human amniotic cells (hAC) possess multiple unique immunomodulatory properties. They are believed to be a very appealing and safe material for clinical applications. Primary hAC have been proposed as an efficient source of immunomodulatory factors that could be used as alternative or supporting to classical drug immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate hAC immunomodulatory properties post-activation by inflammatory cytokines as Interleukin 1ß and Interferon γ. hAC were isolated and characterized by the expression of pluripotency marker SSEA4, epithelial marker CK7, HLA-G antigen, mRNA for PTGS2, NOS2 and HLA-G gene, and secretion of soluble mediators as HLA-G and PGE2 in the culture medium in presence or absence of INF-γ and IL-1ß. Heterogeneity of the cultured hAC was proved, with 50 ±â€¯8% of cells positive for epithelial marker (CK7), and 73 ±â€¯3% expressing SSEA4 pluripotency marker. Priming effect by in vitro exposure to INF-γ and IL-1ß resulted in a significant increase in expression of PTGS2, NOS2 and HLA-G gene, with a peak between 32 and 64 h. The highest PGE2 concentration was measured in the culture medium at 48 h. At 96 h, a significant difference in the percentage of SSEA4+ hAC between activated and non-activated cells, as well as the highest expression of HLA-G - especially in SSEA4+ cells, and highly elevated concentration of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in the medium of activated cells, were found. The prolonged exposure of primary human amnion-derived cells to inflammatory cytokines INF-γ and IL-1ß may result in enhanced expression and secretion of immunomodulatory molecules important in allogenic therapies.


Assuntos
Âmnio/citologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Adulto , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-G/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo
20.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(5): 572-579, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353535

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) synthesis inhibiting effects of intravenous (IV) and transdermal (TD) flunixin meglumine in eight, adult, female, Huacaya alpacas. A dose of 2.2 mg/kg administered IV and 3.3 mg/kg administered TD using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined using a commercially available ELISA. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed using noncompartmental methods. Plasma PGE2 concentrations decreased after IV flunixin meglumine administration but there was minimal change after TD application. Mean t1/2 λz after IV administration was 4.531 hr (range 3.355 to 5.571 hr) resulting from a mean Vz of 570.6 ml/kg (range, 387.3 to 1,142 ml/kg) and plasma clearance of 87.26 ml kg-1  hr-1 (range, 55.45-179.3 ml kg-1  hr-1 ). The mean Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 λz for flunixin following TD administration were 106.4 ng/ml (range, 56.98 to 168.6 ng/ml), 13.57 hr (range, 6.000-34.00 hr) and 24.06 hr (18.63 to 39.5 hr), respectively. The mean bioavailability for TD flunixin was calculated as 25.05%. The mean 80% inhibitory concentration (IC80 ) of PGE2 by flunixin meglumine was 0.23 µg/ml (range, 0.01 to 1.38 µg/ml). Poor bioavailability and poor suppression of PGE2 identified in this study indicate that TD flunixin meglumine administered at 3.3 mg/kg is not recommended for use in alpacas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Clonixina/administração & dosagem , Clonixina/sangue , Clonixina/metabolismo , Clonixina/farmacocinética , Dinoprostona/sangue , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Meia-Vida
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