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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110887, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626840

RESUMO

Studies have shown that 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate (EEA), a major diterpenoid lactone in the tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera, can induce hepatotoxicity in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using the integrated transcriptomic and metabolomics method, in this study we investigated the global effect of EEA exposure on the transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles in mice. The abundance of 7131 genes and 42 metabolites in the liver, as well as 43 metabolites in the serum were altered. It should be noted that EEA mainly damaged hepatic cells through the aberrant regulation of multiple systems primarily including bile acid metabolism, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. In addition, an imbalance of bile acid metabolism was found to play a key pat in response to EEA-triggered hepatotoxicity. In summary, these findings contributed to understanding the underlying mechanisms of EEA hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
2.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(2): e22422, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729780

RESUMO

M1 macrophages serve one edge as proinflammatory and M2 macrophages serve the other edge as an anti-inflammatory macrophage. It appears that a related "switch" in macrophage morphology may also happen in the course of atherosclerosis, which has not yet been elucidated. An atherogenic diet (AD) was given to rats, and induction of macrophage differentiation and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) were investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Chemokines were analyzed using an antibody array with 32 target proteins. M2 macrophage transformation was confirmed in diosgenin-treated aorta by immunofluorescence and was validated in vitro using THP-1 cells. MAC387 (macrophage marker) and NFκBp65 (inflammatory hub) were upregulated in oxidatively-modified low-density lipoprotein (OxyLDL) and AD-induced condition. Macrophage differentiation, which induced the formation of inflammatory mediators, was not significantly suppressed by the inhibition of NFκB using dexamethasone. M1 macrophage polarization was identified in OxyLDL-induced monocytes, which are proinflammatory in nature, whereas M2 macrophage polarization was noticed in diosgenin-treated monocytes, which exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. M1-and M2-specific chemokines were analyzed using chemokine antibody array. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory macrophage (M1) was noticed in AD-induced aorta and anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) was observed in diosgenin-treated aorta. This is the first report where, unifying the mechanism of diosgenin as aan nti-atherosclerotic and the expression of M1 and M2 specific chemokines is shown by downregulating NFκB and not by preventing the differentiation of monocyte into a macrophage, but by allowing macrophage to differentiate into M2, which aids in preventing the atherosclerotic progression.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Antígenos CD36/genética , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dieta Aterogênica/efeitos adversos , Dioscorea/química , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Fator de Transcrição RelA/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
3.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104393, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669721

RESUMO

The extract of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright rhizomes is found to be effective in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Steroidal saponins make substantial contribution. Previous study has proposed that methylprotodioscin (MP) may promote cholesterol efflux by increasing ABCA1 expression. But the other main saponins ingredients are not referred to. The aim of the present work was to reveal the effect and mechanism of protodioscin (PD), MP and pseudoprotodioscin (PPD) on the synthesis-related gene expression of cholesterol and triglycerides. MTT assay apoptosis assay with annexin AV-APC and 7-AAD double staining were performed. MicroRNA assay and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the gene expression which regulates synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides. Western blot was to demonstrate the levels of target proteins. Cholesterol efflux assay was executed to study the stimulative effect of saponins on cholesterol efflux. In Hep G2 cells, PPD increased ABCA1 protein and mRNA levels, and promoted the effluxion of ApoA-1-mediated cholesterol. The underlying mechanisms involved that PPD inhibited SREBP1c and SREBP2 transcription by decreasing microRNA 33a/b levels. This procedure reciprocally led to the increase of ABCA1 levels. In THP-1 macrophages, PPD showed the similar effect, which reduced HMGCR, FAS and ACC mRNA levels and promoted low density lipoprotein receptor by decreasing the PCSK9 levels. These studies demonstrated that PPD is a potential agent for cholesterol efflux, SREBPs and microRNA 33a/b inhibition, which related to the gene expression for the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides.


Assuntos
Colesterol/biossíntese , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Saponinas/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Dioscorea/química , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Células THP-1
4.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7022-7036, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687707

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death in patients with cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Although some progress has been made in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases still continue to rise. At present, it is an important topic for researchers to develop safe and effective drugs from natural products to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Diosgenin (DSG) is a plant sterol saponin mainly found in natural medicinal plants such as fenugreek seeds and wild yam tubers. More and more studies have reported that DSG has significant pharmacological activities such as anticancer, cardiovascular protection, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, diosgenin is also an important basic raw material for the preparation of steroids and contraceptives in the pharmaceutical industry. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that DSG has great potential in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases in vivo and in vitro, especially in atherosclerosis. This review mainly discusses the effects of DSG on endothelial dysfunction, lipid profile, and macrophage foam cell formation, VSMC viability, thrombosis and inflammation during the formation of atherosclerosis. Also, the mechanism of DSG on atherosclerosis was elaborated in detail. It is noteworthy that newly synthesized DSG derivatives and DSG delivery systems have good antithrombotic activity and pharmacokinetic characteristics.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Diosgenina/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Dioscorea/química , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Humanos , Trigonella/química
5.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104285, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386897

RESUMO

Botanical-based natural products are an important resource for medicinal drug discovery and continue to provide diverse pharmacophores with therapeutic potential against cancer and other human diseases. A prototype Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plant extract library has been established at the US National Cancer Institute, which contains both the organic and aqueous extracts of 132 authenticated medicinal plant species that collectively represent the potential therapeutic contents of most commonly used TCM herbal prescriptions. This library is publicly available in 96- and 384- well plates for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets, as well as in larger quantities for isolation of active chemical ingredients. Herein, we present the methodology used to generate the library and the preliminary assessment of the anti-proliferative activity of this crude extract library in NCI-60 human cancer cell lines screen. Particularly, we report the chemical profiling and metabolome comparison analysis of four commonly used TCM plants, namely Brucea javanica, Dioscorea nipponica, Cynanchum atratum, and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in the identification of the active compounds, and different extraction methods were compared for their abilities to extract cytotoxic compounds and to concentrate biologically active natural products.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Brucea/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Cynanchum/química , Dioscorea/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Estados Unidos
6.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(6): 593-596, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432791

RESUMO

In this study, the synthesis of ultra-fine grade antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) using plant extract for the first time is reported. Antimony chloride was used as a starting material and Dioscorea alata tuber extract was used as a reducing and capping agent. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD analysis indicates the formation of pure Sb2O3 nanoparticles. The result from FE-SEM and DLS showed that the particles have a cube-like morphology and have an average size of 346.4 nm which falls within the range of ultra-fine grade Sb2O3.


Assuntos
Antimônio/química , Dioscorea/química , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Teste de Materiais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
7.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 3382-3390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422707

RESUMO

Objective: Antibiotics have saved hundreds of millions of patient's lives, but there are also many side effects. This paper mainly studies the regulation of Chinese yam on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, normal control group, antibiotic group, and Chinese yam group. In the antibiotic group and the yam group, a rat model of intestinal dysfunction was established by intragastric administration of imipenem/cilastatin sodium (antibiotic) for 21 days. The yam group was also given yam decoction for intervention. The fecal samples of each group of rats were analyzed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method to find potential biomarkers. The DNA in the feces was extracted, and analyzed using 16S rDNA method to find the differential flora. Spearman correlation analysis was performed on differential flora and differential metabolites to determine the main metabolic pathways of the host after intestinal flora dysregulation. Results: The administration of antibiotics can lead to disorders of intestinal flora, decreased microbial diversity, and changes in host metabolic phenotype. Chinese yam can significantly improve the intestinal flora, making the host's metabolic phenotype tend toward normal. Conclusion: Long-term use of Imipenem/cilastatin sodium can cause disturbance of intestinal flora in normal rats. Chinese yam may regulate intestinal flora disorder and have potential prebiotic effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Dioscorea/química , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metabolômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disbiose/microbiologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426303

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to compare the composition and physicochemical properties (SEM, XRD, solubility, swelling power, paste clarity, retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability, thermal property, and pasting property) of three Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) starches (CYYS-1, CYYS-2, and CYYS-3) in Yunlong town, Haikou, Hainan Province, China. Our results show that all the CYYS gave a typical C-type X-ray diffraction pattern. The swelling power of CYYS varied from 10.79% to 30.34%, whereas solubility index was in the range of 7.84-4.55%. The freeze-thaw stability of each CYYS showed a contrary tendency with its amylose content. In addition, CYYS-3 showed the highest To (81.1 °C), Tp (84.8 °C), Tc (91.2 °C), and ΔH (14.1 J/g). The pasting temperature of CYYS-1 increased significantly with sucrose addition. NaCl could inhibit the swelling power of CYYS. There were significant decreases in pasting temperature and pasting time of CYYS when pH decreased.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Amido/química , Sacarose/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Solubilidade , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Amido/ultraestrutura , Molhabilidade
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6572-6581, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a pretreatment before drying, the purpose of osmotic dehydration (OD) is to reduce the initial water content of samples and shorten the drying time. When OD is combined with pulse vacuum, the mass transfer is enhanced. Furthermore, the properties of materials, which affect the absorption and dissipation of microwaves, can be changed by OD. In this work, pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration (PVOD) with sucrose solution was adopted before microwave freeze-drying (MFD). The effects of PVOD on the drying characteristics and quality of dried products were studied. RESULTS: Results showed that the unfrozen water content was increased by PVOD, which made the dielectric constant and loss factor of Chinese yam larger than that of untreated samples, and the difference amplified with the increasing temperature. Thus, the shortened drying time (up to 38.5%) and increased average drying rate (up to 16.8%) were achieved by MFD combined with PVOD. While in traditional freeze-drying, PVOD resulted in slightly shortened drying time but decreased drying rate. The mechanism of PVOD on improving drying rate of MFD was analyzed from the perspective of unfrozen water content and dielectric properties. Furthermore, the quality assessments indicated that PVOD treatment retained a better color and improved the total phenolic content of dried yams compared to untreated and dried samples. CONCLUSION: PVOD using sucrose solution was an effective method to change the characteristics of yam, enhancing the MFD rate and improving the product qualities. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Dioscorea/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Tubérculos/química , Água/análise , Cor , Dessecação/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Liofilização , Micro-Ondas , Osmose , Fenóis/análise
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 218: 299-306, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221333

RESUMO

Dioscorea opposita Thunb. is widely used as functional foods and traditional Chinese medicine in China for its activity of regulating function of spleen and stomach. Polysaccharides may contribute to the function of regulation. To investigate structure features and bioactivities of polysaccharides from D. opposita, the rhizome of D. opposita was extracted with boiling water, yielding crude polysaccharides DOP. A novel polysaccharide named DOP0.1-S-1 was isolated from DOP by further purification. The average molecular weight of DOP0.1-S-1 was 10,000 Da and the range was around 12,000 -1,200 Da. The carbohydrate content of DOP0.1-S-1 was 100% and no protein was detected. The monosaccharide analysis showed that DOP0.1-S-1 was mostly composed of galactose. Methylation and NMR spectra analysis indicated that DOP0.1-S-1 was a 1,4-ß-galactan. Bioactivity test showed that DOP0.1-S-1 could promote the growth of B. thetaiotaomicron and B. ovatus and produce the short-chain fatty acids during the utilization of the polysaccharide.


Assuntos
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron/efeitos dos fármacos , Dioscorea/química , Galactanos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Galactanos/química , Galactanos/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Prebióticos , Rizoma/química
11.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207987

RESUMO

Starches from the bulbils of Dioscoreae opposita Thunb. cv. Tiegun were isolated by aqueous steeping (SBS), enzyme extraction (EBS), and alkaline extraction (ABS) methods, respectively. The physicochemical, mineral composition, thermal and morphological characteristics of these starches were investigated. The starch granules were oval, spherical and kidney-shaped and its crystal type is a mixture of A-type and B-type patterns. The starches having larger average granule size showed more amylose and phosphorus contents than those with smaller average granule size. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the SBS had an endothermic transition ranging from 65.8 °C to 76.3 °C with an enthalpy of 2.0 J/g. The endothermic transitions of ABS and EBS showed the regions of 67.9 °C to 73.0 °C, and 66.8 °C to 82.0 °C, respectively. The gelationization enthalpies of ABS and EBS were 13.8 and 11.5 J/g, respectively. Additionally, ABS presented greater clarity in comparison with EBS and SBS. Pasting properties indicated that ABS had the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, but SBS had the lowest trough, final viscosity, setback, and pasting temperature. Generally, ABS and EBS could be used as food thickener or frozen food additives. SBS and EBS were potential technological alternatives in quality preservation of frozen starch-based products and other industrial applications.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Amido/química , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/ultraestrutura , Termodinâmica , Difração de Raios X
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152790

RESUMO

Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill (DH), also known a tropical yam or intoxicating yam is a bitter wild tuber which is consumed as a staple food and traditionally used as a remedy in Malaysia. However, DH is also notorious for its intoxicating effects and there is currently a dearth of study of possible effects of DH on liver and placental tissues and hence its safe consumption warrants in-depth investigation. This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed on relative liver and placental weights of animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight DH extract. The placental numbers were decreased with the increased of DH extract concentration. Liver histological examination in all treated groups showed that tissues underwent degeneration characterized by hepatocyte swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cytolysis, margination and clumping of nucleus chromatin. Changes of the basal and labyrinth zone were observed in placental tissues in all treated groups. Glycogen cells were reduced with fibrin deposition in the basal zone, while irregular vessel formation was demonstrated in the labyrinth zone. UHPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence four steroidal saponins DH. In conclusion, DH aqueous extract exert hepatotoxicity and adverse effects on the placenta of rats. However, the underlying mechanism and phytochemicals inducing the observed toxicity require further investigation.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2642-2650, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025041

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the interventional effect of resistant starch (RS) obtained from purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.) on regulating lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Compared to low level RS (LR) treatment, high dosage of RS (HR) administration in hamsters was shown to be more efficient in controlling the body weight and adipose tissue mass, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were observed. Fat accumulation in the liver was reduced by RS, and the injury caused due to a high-fat diet on the histomorphology of the cecum and colon was repaired. Furthermore, HR altered the gut community composition by increasing the relative abundances of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Coprococcus, and Allobaculum, while decreasing Parabacteroides and Dorea. Probiotics, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus, were dramatically increased and highly correlated with blood lipid levels. These results suggested that the usage of RS obtained from purple yam could ameliorate lipid metabolism in association with gut microbiota modulation, which could provide references for further medication.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 133: 1201-1209, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986466

RESUMO

A previously unknown, water-soluble polysaccharide, named DOTP-B, was isolated from the roots of the plant Dioscorea opposita Thunb, a well-known edible and medicinal plant in China. DOTP-B was found to be neutral in charge, with an average molecular weight of 5623 Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis by GC-MS revealed that DOTP-B was a hetero-polysaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 14.6:1.0. Structural features of DOTP-B were investigated with a combination of chemical and instrumental methods, including complete acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, methylation, GC-MS, FTIR and several NMR spectra. Highly correlated results demonstrated that the main chain of DOTP-B consisted of →4)-α-d-glc(1 → residues, with about 6% internal →6)-ß-d-gal(1 → residues. The antioxidant activity of DOTP-B was also evaluated as the EC50 values against DPPH and PTIO radicals were 2.1 ±â€¯0.1 mg/mL and 1.6 ±â€¯0.1 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the polysaccharide DOTP-B could be possibly developed as a promising natural antioxidant for application in medical and food industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Dioscorea/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Água/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solubilidade
15.
Phytomedicine ; 61: 152857, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of the Chinese yam extract and adenosine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac anomalies and the underlying mechanisms involved. METHODS: Chinese yam extract [1630 mg/kg, intragastric (i.g.), 2 times/day] and adenosine (50 mg/kg, i.g., 2 times/day) were administered for 3 days, followed by the induction of sepsis by injecting LPS intraperitoneally [10 mg/kg, 2 h prior, intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. Also, estrogen receptor (ER)-unspecific antagonist Faslodex (ICI182,780, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before the treatments of Chinese yam extract or adenosine to evaluate whether the observed effects elicited by yam and adenosine were mediated via ERs. The heart function and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reversed mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), renin-angiotensin system (RAS), apoptosis markers, ER, and SHC/Ras/Raf1 were examined. The antagonistic effect of ICI182,780 (1 µM) and FTS (1 µM) against the Chinese yam extract (0.1 mg/ml) and adenosine (5 µM) in LPS (20 µg/ml, 24 h)-induced H9c2 cells was also investigated. RESULTS: The Chinese yam extract and adenosine improved heart function, downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, reversed MAPK and RAS, transformed the apoptosis markers, and increased the expression of ER and SHC/Ras/Raf1 following LPS challenge. These effects could be blocked by ICI182,780. FTS could not block the expression of ER on the Chinese yam extract and adenosine interposed on LPS-induced H9c2 cells, demonstrating that ER might be the upstream signaling regulator of SHC/Ras/Raf1. CONCLUSION: The Chinese yam extract and adenosine ameliorated LPS-induced cardiac contractility through the inhibition of RAS and apoptosis possibly via an ER-SHC/Ras/Raf1-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Adenosina/farmacologia , Dioscorea/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Adaptadoras da Sinalização Shc/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
16.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(2): 423-437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827153

RESUMO

Dioscin, a steroidal saponin isolated from Dioscorea nipponica Makino, has previously been shown to possess antiarthritic effects. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of dioscin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice and related mechanism. Cytokine production in CII-specific immune responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Th17 cell-related gene expression, including IL-17A, ROR γτ and IL-23p19, were detected by qPCR analysis; Surface marker, T regulatory (Treg) cells and intracellular cytokines (IL-17A and IFN- γ ) were evaluated by flow cytometry. We performed Th17 cell differentiation assay in vitro. Results showed that, in vivo, dioscin treatment significantly reduced the severity of CIA, which was accompanied by decreased Th17 response, but not Th1 and Treg response; dioscin-treated mice also showed lower percentage of CD11b + Gr-1 + neutrophils; In vitro, dioscin treatment suppressed the differentiation of naive CD4 + T cells into Th17 cell and decreased IL-17A production. Collectively, our results indicate that dioscin exerts antiarthritic effects by inhibiting Th17 cell immune response.


Assuntos
Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite/imunologia , Colágeno/efeitos adversos , Dioscorea/química , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Fitoterapia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diosgenina/administração & dosagem , Diosgenina/isolamento & purificação , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA
17.
Food Chem ; 283: 11-18, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722849

RESUMO

Starch nanoparticles (SNP) were produced employing a simple ultrasound method without chemical additives from cassava, corn, and yam starches, which contain 18%, 25% and 30% amylose, respectively. Simultaneously, starch microparticles (SMP) were also obtained, which were significantly smaller than the native starch granules. The yield of the process for all starch sources was 12 ±â€¯1% SNP and 88 ±â€¯5% SMP, starting with aqueous starch suspensions at 10% and 30 min of sonication. Yam starch (higher amylose content) resulted in smaller SMP (1-3 µm) and SNP (8-32 nm) than did those obtained from corn (SMP = 3-6 µm; SNP = 36-68 nm) and cassava (SMP = 3-7 µm; SNP = 35-65 nm) starches. Nanoparticles from all starch sources had lower crystallinity and lower thermal stability than did the native starches or SMP. Ultrasonication was efficient to yield SNP and SMP without the addition of any chemical reagent or employing a purification step.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Manihot/química , Nanopartículas/química , Amido/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Zea mays/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
18.
J Med Food ; 22(3): 248-256, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735081

RESUMO

Diosgenin is a phytoestrogen and a constituent of Dioscorea. It has several biological effects, and some of them are anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, and vasodilatory. The present study investigated both the vasorelaxing and antioxidant mechanisms of diosgenin in isolated rat aortic rings. Female rats weighing 200-220 g were subjected to sham or OVX operations at 8 weeks of age. Ovariectomy was performed for menopause induction after anesthesia. Diosgenin (10-9 M-3 × 10-4 M) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine (1 µM), exhibiting Emax value of 55.34% ± 7.7% (in endothelium-intact rings) and Emax value of 30.30% ± 5.7% (in endothelium-denuded rings). In the endothelium-intact rings, the vasorelaxing effect of diosgenin was reduced by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 µM), atropine (1 µM), indomethacin (10 µM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (10 µM), 4-aminopyridine (1 mM), tetraethylammonium (3 mM), glibenclamide (10 µM), apamin (10 µM), and Tiron (1 µM). Diosgenin (10-5 M) inhibited the contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10-9-10-5 M). The 28-days treatment with diosgenin (50 mg/kg, v.o.) did not imply changes in the myeloperoxidase parameter, but increased significantly, levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and nitric oxide, as well as reduced the concentration of malondialdehyde related to lipid peroxidation. Our results suggest that diosgenin induced relaxation in aortic rings via an endothelium-dependent pathway, which involves the EDRF, the opening of potassium channels and antioxidant action.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/administração & dosagem , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Dioscorea/química , Diosgenina/química , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Menopausa/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vasodilatadores/química
19.
Food Chem ; 284: 118-124, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744835

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.) flour substitution for wheat flour on in vitro starch digestibility of wheat bread. The enzyme-resistant starch content increased from 34.9% for wheat flour bread to 41.3% for bread made with 70% wheat flour and 30% purple yam flour. Meanwhile, the content of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch decreased with the addition of purple yam flour in the bread. The results from differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, polarized light and scanning electron microscopy showed that purple yam starch granules were not completely disrupted during bread baking. The fluorescence intensity of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase was reduced in bread made with purple yam flour. The decreased digestibility of starch in bread made with purple yam flour was due to the relatively intact starch granules from purple yam flour and possibly an inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes by purple yam flour.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Dioscorea/química , Farinha/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Amido/química , Difração de Raios X , alfa-Amilases
20.
Phytomedicine ; 56: 103-117, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of breast cancer patients in Asian countries has been found to consume dietary supplements including phytoestrogen-rich Chinese herbal medicines with an expectation to alleviate the side effects of conventional cancer therapies. PURPOSE: The question of whether estrogenic Chinese herbal medicines are beneficial or detrimental to the health of breast cancer patients remains uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: The present study aimed at establishing a systematic approach to look at the safety profiles of estrogenic Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). METHODS: The effects of estrogenic CHM on the growth of human breast cancer cells as well as the progression of breast tumors in mice have been investigated. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that among 10 selected estrogenic CHM, the aqueous extracts of Cistanche deserticola (CD) and Dioscorea opposita (DO) at 0.4 to 1.6 mg/ml significantly stimulated cell viability in both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MDA-MB-361 and MCF-7) and ER-negative (SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells. However, results from animal studies showed that no significant difference was found on the size of mouse 4T1 breast tumors in CD- and DO-treated mice when compared with the control group, while the number of proliferative cells were found to be increased in DO-treated group. Besides, CD and DO treatments induced significant immunomodulatory effects on 4T1 tumor-bearing mice by increasing the production of cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ and modulation of regulatory T-cells. Furthermore, CD and DO treatments did not stimulate, but in fact suppressed human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast xenografts growth in immunodeficiency mice. CONCLUSION: The considerable concerns on the use of CD and DO in breast cancer patients could be relieved to some extents upon the findings of this pre-clinical study. The potential harmful effects of estrogenic Chinese herbal medicines on breast cancer growth should be verified in both cell-based and tumor-bearing mice models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistanche/química , Dioscorea/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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