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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention of age-related neurodegenerative disorders is an important issue in an aging society. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation resulting in dopaminergic neuron loss may lead to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin, induces neuroinflammatory microglial activation, contributing to dopaminergic neuron damage. Diosgenin is a phytosteroid sapogenin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, e.g., anti-inflammatory activity. However, the preventive effect of diosgenin on neuroinflammation is not clear. Thus, in this study, we further investigated the neuroprotective effect of diosgenin on LPS-induced neural damage in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For in vitro experiments, primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and primary microglia cultures isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Cells were pretreated with diosgenin and then stimulated with LPS. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cells was analyzed. In vivo, rats were fed a diet containing 0.1% (w/w) diosgenin for 4 weeks before being administered a unilateral substantia nigra (SN) injection of LPS. Four weeks after the LPS injection, the rats were assessed for lesion severity using the amphetamine-induced rotation test and TH immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Diosgenin pretreatment prevented LPS-induced neurite shortening in TH-positive neurons in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures. In addition, pretreatment of primary microglia with diosgenin significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Moreover, diosgenin pretreatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. In vivo, the intranigral injection of LPS in rats fed a diosgenin-containing diet significantly improved motor dysfunction and reduced TH expression in SN. CONCLUSION: These results support the effectiveness of diosgenin in protecting dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Neuritos/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4360-4366, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581038

RESUMO

Diosgenin is widely distributed in many plants, such as Polygonatum sibiricum, Paris polyphylla, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Costus speciosus, Tacca chantrieri, which has good anti-tumor activity and preferable effects on preventing atherosclerosis, protecting the heart, treating diabetes, etc. This review combed through the anti-tumor mechanisms of diosgenin encompassing lung, breast, gallbladder, liver, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, bone marrow, etc. Besides, it was discovered that diosgenin mainly exerts its effect by inhibiting tumor cell migration, suppressing tumor cell proliferation and growth, and inducing cell apoptosis. However, problems like low yield and bioavailability frequently exist in natural diosgenin. This review introduced methods such as structural modification, dosage form optimization and combination medication to improve the yield and anti-tumor activity of diosgenin. Via the summary of this paper, it is expected to provide theoretical basis for the rational exploitation and utilization of diosgenin.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Diosgenina , Trigonella , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Diosgenina/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5426, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521824

RESUMO

Much hope in drug development comes from the discovery of positive allosteric modulators (PAM) that display target subtype selectivity and act by increasing agonist potency and efficacy. How such compounds can allosterically influence agonist action remains unclear. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu) are G protein-coupled receptors that represent promising targets for brain diseases, and for which PAMs acting in the transmembrane domain have been developed. Here, we explore the effect of a PAM on the structural dynamics of mGlu2 in optimized detergent micelles using single molecule FRET at submillisecond timescales. We show that glutamate only partially stabilizes the extracellular domains in the active state. Full activation is only observed in the presence of a PAM or the Gi protein. Our results provide important insights on the role of allosteric modulators in mGlu activation, by stabilizing the active state of a receptor that is otherwise rapidly oscillating between active and inactive states.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/agonistas , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/química , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítio Alostérico , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ésteres do Colesterol/química , Ésteres do Colesterol/farmacologia , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Diosgenina/química , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Dissacarídeos/química , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Indanos/química , Indanos/farmacologia , Micelas , Octoxinol/química , Octoxinol/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/genética , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Xantenos/química , Xantenos/farmacologia
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103211, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425463

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is especially known as a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Current treatments for MS are mostly based on controlling neuroinflammation and there are no treatments to promote the remyelination process at present. Diosgenin is a known herbal anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, which has also been shown to stimulate the growth of myelin in vitro. However, there is no or little evidence about diosgenin effects; specially on myelination, neuroprotection and its corresponding mechanisms in vivo in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as the most valid experimental model of MS. In this study, the therapeutic effect of diosgenin on clinical signs of EAE, and the corresponding cellular and molecular mechanisms have been examined with emphasis on myelination and neuroprotection mechanisms. EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antigen in C57BL/6 mice. Diosgenin was gavaged (100 mg/kg) daily with the onset of paralysis signs (half tail paralysis) until the 18th post-immunization day in the treatment group. Blood and spinal cord tissue sampling was performed on post-immunization day 18. Lumbar spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration were assessed using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E), Luxol Fast Blue (LFB), and Bielschowsky's silver staining methods, respectively. Serum and spinal cord tissue level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and interleukin 17 (IL-17) as inflammatory markers, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A (MAP1LC3A), and activity dependent neuroprotector homeobox (ADNP) as neuroprotective markers were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The clinical score of EAE in the diosgenin treatment group was significantly reduced compared to the EAE group on days 15 to 18 after induction of the EAE (p < 0.001). Inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss scores also decreased significantly in the diosgenin treatment group compared to the EAE group (p < 0.05). Serum and spinal cord tissue level of TNFα and tissue level of MMP-9 considerably decreased in the diosgenin treatment group in comparison with the EAE group (p < 0.01). Diosgenin treatment had no significant effects on the tissue levels of IL-17, ADNP and MAP1LC3A. Therefore, diosgenin improved the clinical signs of EAE through lowering neuroinflammation, demyelination and axonal degeneration, but did not significantly affect the neuroprotective factors in this study. As a result, diosgenin could be a good candidate for new MS treatment strategies that, in addition to their anti-inflammatory effects, also enhance myelination.


Assuntos
Diosgenina , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Esclerose Múltipla , Animais , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Medula Espinal
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 857-873, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237604

RESUMO

Urochloa ruziziensis, a cover plant used in no-till systems, can suppress weeds in the field through their chemical compounds, but the mode of action of these compounds is still unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a saponin-rich butanolic extract from U. ruziziensis straw (BfUr) and one of its components, protodioscin on an eudicot Ipomoea grandifolia and a monocot Digitaria insularis weed. The anatomy and the morphology of the root systems and several parameters related to energy metabolism and antioxidant defense systems were examined. The IC50 values for the root growth inhibition by BfUr were 108 µg mL-1 in D. insularis and 230 µg mL-1 in I. grandifolia. The corresponding values for protodioscin were 34 µg mL-1 and 54 µg mL-1. I. grandifolia exhibited higher ROS-induced peroxidative damage in its roots compared with D. insularis. In the roots of both weeds, the BfUr and protodioscin induced a reduction in the meristematic and elongation zones with a precocious appearance of lateral roots, particularly in I. grandifolia. The roots also exhibited features of advanced cell differentiation in the vascular cylinder. These alterations were similar to stress-induced morphogenic responses (SIMRs), which are plant adaptive strategies to survive in the presence of toxicants. At concentrations above their IC50 values, the BfUr or protodioscin strongly inhibited the development of both weeds. Such findings demonstrated that U. ruziziensis mulches may contribute to the use of natural and renewable weed control tools.


Assuntos
Diosgenina , Saponinas , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas , Poaceae , Saponinas/farmacologia
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 43: 128092, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964436

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and its incidence is expected to increase as the global population ages. Recent studies provide increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Diosgenin, an active ingredient in Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a promising bioactive lead compound in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, which exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. To search for more efficient anti-Alzheimer agents, a series of novel diosgenin-triazolyl hybrids were designed, synthesized, and their neuroprotective effects against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neurotoxicity and LPS-induced NO production were evaluated. Most of these new hybrids displayed better activities than DIO. In particular, the promising compound L6 not only demonstrated an excellent neuroprotective effect but also showed the best anti-inflammatory activity. The structure-activity relationship study illustrated that the introduction of benzyl or phenyl triazole did improve the activity, and the introduction of benzyl triazole was better than that of phenyl triazole. The results we obtained showed that the diosgenin skeleton could be a promising structural template for the development of new anti-Alzheimer drug candidates, and compound L6 has the potential to be an important lead compound for further research.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diosgenina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Conformação Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 557: 213-220, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878610

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the anti-tumor effects of dioscin, a steroidal saponin, on melanoma cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited cell viability and induced cell death of melanoma cells in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Furthermore, dioscin increased the concentration of intracellular ferrous irons, MDA and ROS. This effect could be inhibited by L-g-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA), compound 968 and ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1). Furthermore, dioscin induced ferroptosis by affecting the expression of transferrin and ferroportin which are regulators of intracellular levels of iron. Finally, dioscin in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents showed synergistic effects against melanoma cells. Our data suggested that dioscin exerted anti-tumor effects in melanoma cells by inducing ferroptosis. Dioscin alone or with other agents might be applied as a promising strategy to treat melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transferrina/genética , Transferrina/metabolismo
8.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(4): 255-266, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875166

RESUMO

Polyphyllin I (PPI) purified from Polyphyllarhizomes displays puissant cytotoxicity in many kinds of cancers. Several researches investigated its anti-cancer activity. But novel mechanisms are still worth investigation. This study aimed to explore PPI-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as well as the underlying mechanism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cell viability or colony-forming was detected by MTT or crystal violet respectively. Cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by flow cytometry. Gene and protein levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Protein interaction was determined by immunoprecipitation or immunofluorescence assay. Gene overexpression or silencing was carried out by transient transfection with plasmids or small interfering RNAs. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), survival analysis, gene expression statistics or pathway enrichment assay. PPI inhibited the propagation of NSCLC cells, increased non-viable apoptotic cells, arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase, induced ROS levels but failed to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. High levels of GRP78 indicates poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. PPI selectively suppressed unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced GRP78 expression, subsequently protected CHOP from GRP78-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. We demonstrated that the natural product PPI, obtained from traditional herbal medicine, deserves for further study as a valuable candidate for lead compound in the chemotherapy of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 419: 115518, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812963

RESUMO

Lung cancer is considered the main cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI, has been approved and administrated for treating patients with either EGFR T790M mutation or EGFR sensitive mutation. However, resistance to osimertinib emerges and has been considered to be the main obstacle in lung cancer treatment. Polyphyllin I is isolated from the natural herb Paris polyphylla and exhibits anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we identify Polyphyllin I to reverse the resistance of osimertinib in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Polyphyllin I reversed the resistance of osimertinib through promoting apoptosis, modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling, and regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in osimertinib-resistant cell lines. In vivo study confirmed the results, showing that the tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the Polyphyllin I/osimertinib group compared to the osimertinib group. It has been clarified that Polyphyllin I could reverse the resistance of osimertinib in osimertinib-resistant non-small cell of lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism might be related to the downregulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling and increase of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, suggesting that Polyphyllin I was a promising therapeutic agent for reversing the resistance of osimertinib.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786612

RESUMO

Dioscin, an extract from traditional Chinese herbal plants, displays various biological and pharmacological effects on tumors, including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of DNA damage. However, the effects of dioscin on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells are not completely understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of dioscin on OSCC cell proliferation. Cell Counting Kit­8 and 5­ethynyl­2'­deoxyuridine incorporation assays were performed to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was conducted to detect alterations in the cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation were performed to determine protein expression levels. In SCC15 cells, dioscin treatment significantly induced cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation compared with the control group. Mechanistically, the tumor suppressor protein Ras association domain­containing protein 1A (RASSF1A) was activated and oncoprotein yes­associated protein (YAP) was phosphorylated by dioscin. Furthermore, YAP overexpression and knockdown reduced and enhanced the inhibitory effects of dioscin on SCC15 cells, respectively. In summary, the results demonstrated that, compared with the control group, dioscin upregulated RASSF1A expression in OSCC cells, which resulted in YAP phosphorylation, thus weakening its transcriptional coactivation function, enhancing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibiting cell proliferation. The present study indicated that dioscin may serve as a therapeutic agent for OSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6401, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737640

RESUMO

In a mouse model of Graves' disease (GD), diosgenin has been shown to have a therapeutic effect on GD by alleviating goitre. However, research on the effect of diosgenin on autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is lacking. In this study, transcriptomics was used to comprehensively analyse the protective effect of diosgenin against AIT in rats and the possible mechanism. The results showed that in the diosgenin-intervention group, compared to the model group, the expression of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine was decreased and that of thyroid-stimulating hormone was increased; these changes were accompanied by the downregulation of thyroglobulin, TSH receptor antibody and thyroid peroxidase expression in serum. Furthermore, transcriptome detection, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry verification revealed that in thyroid tissue, the relative mRNA and protein expression of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (Creb) were increased and the mRNA expression of S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) was decreased in the diosgenin groups. In summary, diosgenin alleviates the development of AIT, possibly via the activation of the cAMP/PKA/Creb pathway and downregulation of S100A9 gene expression.


Assuntos
Calgranulina B/sangue , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , AMP Cíclico/sangue , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/sangue , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Receptores da Tireotropina/sangue , Tireoglobulina/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 151: 112101, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684518

RESUMO

Diosgenin (DG) isolated from yam roots revealed various bioactivities and applications as drug carrier. In the present study, a conjugate of DG with cytarabine (Ara-C) was used to prepare the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) of DG-Ara-C by a nanoprecipitation method. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the size and the morphology of NPs, respectively. The stability and absorption of DG-Ara-C NPs were measured. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the NPs was determined via MTT assay. The results indicated that the average particle size of DG-Ara-C NPs was around 190 nm with a narrow size distribution (PDI = 0.1). TEM showed that DG-Ara-C NPs had a spherical morphology. Compared to free DG or Ara-C, the self-assembled DG-Ara-C NPs exhibited a better anti-tumor activity against solid tumor cells as well as leukemia cells. In conclusion, DG possesses dual role in the self-assembled NPs of DG-Ara-C conjugate, being as a promising anticancer drug and drug carrier.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citarabina/química , Diosgenina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/farmacologia , Diosgenina/administração & dosagem , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114018, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dioscin and diosgenin derived from plants of the genus Dioscoreaceae such as D. nipponica and D. panthaica Prain et Burk. Were utilized as the main active ingredients of traditional herbal medicinal products for coronary heart disease in the former Soviet Union and China since 1960s. A growing number of research showed that dioscin and diosgenin have a wide range of pharmacological activities in heart diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To summarize the evidence of the effectiveness of dioscin and diosgenin in cardiac diseases, and to provide a basis and reference for future research into their clinical applications and drug development in the field of cardiac disease. METHODS: Literatures in this review were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science. All eligible studies are analyzed and summarized in this review. RESULTS: The pharmacological activities and therapeutic potentials of dioscin and diosgenin in cardiac diseases are similar, can effectively improve hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, myocardial I/R injury and cardiotoxicity caused by doxorubicin. But the bioavailability of dioscin and diosgenin may be too low as a result of poor absorption and slow metabolism, which hinders their development and utilization. CONCLUSION: Dioscin and diosgenin need further in-depth experimental research, clinical transformation and structural modification or research of new preparations before they can be expected to be developed into new therapeutic drugs in the field of cardiac disease.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Diosgenina/efeitos adversos , Diosgenina/química , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 217: 113361, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740546

RESUMO

Diosgenin (DSG) has attracted attention recently as a potential anticancer therapeutic agent due to its profound antitumor activity. To better utilize DSG as an antitumor compound, two series of DSG-amino acid ester derivatives (3a-3g and 7a-7g) were designed and synthesized, and their cytotoxic activities against six human cancer cell lines (K562, T24, MNK45, HepG2, A549, and MCF-7) were evaluated. The results obtained showed that a majority of derivatives exhibited cytotoxic activities against these six human tumor cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the introduction of l-tryptophan to the C-3 position of DSG and the C-26 position of derivative 5 was the preferred option for these compounds to display significant cytotoxic activities. Among them, compound 7g exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line (IC50 = 4.41 µM) and was 6.8-fold more potent than diosgenin (IC50 = 30.04 µM). Further cellular mechanism studies in K562 cells elucidated that compound 7g triggered mitochondrial-related apoptosis by increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was associated with upregulation of the gene and protein expression levels of Bax, downregulation of the gene and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 and activation of the caspase cascade. The above results suggested that compound 7g might be considered a promising scaffold for further modification of more potent anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diosgenina/síntese química , Diosgenina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Endocr Regul ; 55(1): 52-60, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600664

RESUMO

Objectives. The application of nanoparticles is experiencing a rapid growth, but it faces a problem of their toxicity, especially adverse effects on female reproduction. Food and medicinal plants and their isoflavones can be protectors against environmental stressors, but their ability to abate the adverse effects of nanoparticles has not been studied yet. In the present study, we examined the effect of silver (AgNPs) and titanium dioxide (titania, TiO2NPs) nanoparticles alone or in combination with plant phytoestrogens/antioxidants (resveratrol, diosgenin, and quercetin) on accumulation of nanoparticles, and progesterone release by cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cells.Methods. Porcine granulosa cells were incubated in the presence of AgNPs or TiO2NPs (0.1, 1, 10 or 100 µg/ml) alone or in combination with resveratrol, diosgenin or quercetin (10 µg/ml) for 48 h. The accumulation of tested nanoparticles by granulosa cells was assessed under light microscope. Progesterone concentration in culture media was measured by ELISA kit.Results. Cells accumulated both AgNPs and TiO2NPs in a dose-dependent manner. AgNPs, but not TiO2NPs, at highest dose (100 µg/ml) resulted in a destruction of cell monolayer. Both Ag-NPs and TiO2NPs reduced progesterone release. Resveratrol, diosgenin, and quercetin promoted accumulation of both AgNPs and TiO2NPs in ovarian cells and inhibited the progesterone output. Furthermore, resveratrol and diosgenin, but not quercetin, prevented the suppressive action of both AgNPs, and TiO2NPs on progesterone release.Conclusions. These observations (1) demonstrate accumulation of AgNPs and TiO2NPs in ovarian cells, (2) confirm the toxic impact of AgNPs, and TiO2NPs on these cells, (3) confirm the inhibitory effects of plant polyphenols/phytoestrogens on ovarian steroidogenesis, (4) show the ability of these isoflavones to increase the accumulation of AgNPs and TiO2NPs, and (5) show their ability to reduce the suppressive effect of AgNPs and TiO2NPs on ovarian progesterone release. The suppressive effect of AgNPs and TiO2NPs on ovarian functions should be taken into account by their exposition. However, these adverse effects could be mitigated by some plant isoflavones.


Assuntos
Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/metabolismo , Titânio/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Prata/toxicidade , Suínos , Titânio/toxicidade
16.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562835

RESUMO

Natural products have continued to offer tremendous opportunities for drug development, as they have long been used in traditional medicinal systems. SHP2 has served as an anticancer target. To identify novel SHP2 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity, we screened a library containing 658 natural products. Polyphyllin D was found to selectively inhibit SHP2 over SHP1, whereas two other identified compounds (echinocystic acid and oleanolic acid) demonstrated dual SHP1 and SHP2 inhibition. In a cell-based assay, polyphyllin D exhibited cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells, an acute lymphoma leukemia cell line, whereas the other two compounds were ineffective. Polyphyllin D also decreased the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), a proliferation marker in Jurkat cells. Furthermore, knockdown of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)N6 (SHP1) or PTPN11 (SHP2) decreased p-ERK levels. However, concurrent knockdown of PTPN6 and PTPN11 in Jurkat cells recovered p-ERK levels. These results demonstrated that polyphyllin D has potential anticancer activity, which can be attributed to its selective inhibition of SHP2 over SHP1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/antagonistas & inibidores , Saponinas/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113842, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460752

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional medicinal plants have gained attention as a potential therapeutic agent to combat cancer and inflammation. Diosgenin rich fresh extracts of Paris polyphylla rhizome from Indian Himalaya is traditionally used as wound healing, anti-bleeding, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent by the folk healers. AIM OF THE STUDY: Present study was aimed to prepare two types of extracts from Paris polyphylla rhizome of Indian Himalayan landraces - 1. ethanolic extract of Paris polyphylla rhizome (EEPPR) and 2. Diosgenin enriched Paris polyphylla rhizome extract (DPPE), quantification of diosgenin content, and to evaluate their in vitro anti-oxidant, in vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activities of the DPPE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diosgenin content of EEPPR was quantified through GC-MS while diosgenin content of DPPE was quantified through HPTLC, and the diosgenin yield from EEPPR and DPPE were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities of DPPE were performed using DPPH, NOD, RP and SOD assay while in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of DPPE were evaluated in dextran induced hind paw edema in rats. In vitro cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activities of DPPE were evaluated in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa) and Hep-2 cell lines. RESULTS: EEPPR obtained through cold extraction method using 70% ethanol showed maximum diosgenin content of 17.90% quantified through GC-MS while similar compounds pennogenin (3.29%), 7ß-Dehydrodiosgenin (1.90%), 7-Ketodiosgenin acetate (1.14%), and 7 ß-hydroxydiosgenin (0.55%) were detected in low concentration, and thus confirmed diosgenin as major and lead phytochemical. However, DPPE obtained through both cold and repeated hot extraction with the same solvent (70% ethanol) showed diosgenin content of 60.29% which is significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the diosgenin content in EEPPR. DPPE demonstrated significant in vitro antioxidant activities by dose-dependently quenched (p < 0.001) SOD free radicals by 76.66%, followed by DPPH (71.43%), NOD (67.35%), and RP (63.74%) at a max concentration of 2 µg/µl of ascorbic acid and test drugs with remarkable IC50 values (p < 0.01). Further, DPPE also showed potent anti-inflammatory activities by dose-dependently suppressed dextran induced paw edema in rats (p < 0.01) from 2 h to 4 h. DPPE suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Hep-2 and HeLa cell lines. Maximum activity was observed in MCF-7 cells. The DPPE also induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell lines as measured by AO/PI and DAPI staining, as well as DNA laddering, cell cycle analysis and phosphatidylserine externalization assay. The growth-inhibitory effect of DPPE on MCF-7 breast cancer cells was further confirmed from the colony-formation assay. DPPE upregulated expression of Bax and downregulated Bcl-2 and survivin mRNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: DPPE obtained through both cold and repeated hot extraction using ethanol showed significantly higher content of diosgenin than the diosgenin content detected in EEPPR. However, diosgenin yield of both the extracts (EEPPR & DPPE) clearly confirmed diosgenin as major and lead phytochemical of Paris polyphylla rhizome of Indian Himalayan landraces. Further, DPPE also demonstrated potent in vitro anti-oxidative and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities and showed in vitro cytotoxicity and significant anti-cancer (apoptosis) effects in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Melanthiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dextranos/toxicidade , Diosgenina/química , Diosgenina/isolamento & purificação , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Ratos Wistar , Survivina/genética , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
18.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(13): 1646-1665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402081

RESUMO

During cancer progression, the unrestricted proliferation of cells is supported by the impaired cell death response provoked by certain oncogenes. Both autophagy and apoptosis are the signaling pathways of cell death, which are targeted for cancer treatment. Defects in apoptosis result in reduced cell death and ultimately tumor progression. The tumor cells lacking apoptosis phenomena are killed by ROS- mediated autophagy. The autophagic programmed cell death requires apoptosis protein for inhibiting tumor growth; thus, the interconnection between these two pathways determines the fate of a cell. The cross-regulation of autophagy and apoptosis is an important aspect to modulate autophagy, apoptosis and to sensibilise apoptosis-resistant tumor cells under metabolic stress and might be a rational approach for drug designing strategy for the treatment of cancer. Numerous proteins involved in autophagy have been investigated as the druggable target for anticancer therapy. Several compounds of natural origin have been reported, to control autophagy activity through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR key pathway. Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin has emerged as a potential candidate for cancer treatment. It induces ROS-mediated autophagy, inhibits PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and produces cytotoxicity selectively in cancer cells. This review aims to focus on optimal strategies using diosgenin to induce apoptosis by modulating the pathways involved in autophagy regulation and its potential implication in the treatment of various cancer. The discussion has been extended to the medicinal chemistry of semi-synthetic derivatives of diosgenin exhibiting anticancer activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
J Proteome Res ; 20(1): 645-660, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107303

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia is a well-known key risk factor for gout and can cause a variety of metabolic diseases. Several studies have shown that dioscin could improve metabolic symptoms and reduce the uric acid level in blood. However, there is no comprehensive metabolomic study on the anti-hyperuricemia effects of dioscin. A total of 29 adult male Kunming mice were divided into three groups: Normal (blank), PO (potassium oxonate-administrated, 200 mg/kg/day), and Dioscin (potassium oxonate + dioscin, potassium oxonate 200 mg/kg/day, dioscin 50 mg/kg/day). All mice were treated for 42 days via oral gavage. This paper implemented an untargeted metabolomics study based on 1H NMR and LC-MS to discover the comprehensive mechanism of dioscin. Furthermore, a targeted lipidomics was fulfilled to further analyze the lipid metabolism disorder. Finally, the metabolic pathway mediated by dioscin was verified at the gene level by means of transcriptomics. The results show 53 different metabolites were closely related to the improvement of dioscin in PO-induced hyperuricemia, and 19 of them were lipids. These metabolites are mainly involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism. According to the transcriptomics study, the levels of 89 genes were significantly changed in the PO group compared to the normal control. Among them, six gene levels were restored by the treatment of dioscin. The six changed genes (tx1b, Tsku, Tmem163, Psmc3ip, Tcap, Tbx15) are mainly involved in the cell cycle and energy metabolism. These metabolites and genes might provide useful information for further study of the therapeutic mechanism of dioscin.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Hiperuricemia , Animais , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Ácido Úrico
20.
J Nat Med ; 75(1): 37-47, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761488

RESUMO

Monosodium urate (MSU)-mediated inflammation is closely related to gouty arthritis (GA). Dioscin, an active ingredient, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. Nevertheless, the role of dioscin in GA and the underlying mechanism have not been fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of dioscin on MSU-induced GA through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Histopathological analysis showed that dioscin alleviated the severity of GA concomitant with the lowered uric acid and creatinine levels. Moreover, the increasing IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels induced by MSU were decreased via administration of dioscin in mice and human synoviocytes. Western blotting results suggested that dioscin inhibited the activation of NLRP3 through down-regulating the protein expressions of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), cleaved-caspase-1, as well as IL-1ß. In addition, TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), p-IKKß, p-p65, and NF-κB p65 in nuclei levels were significantly reduced by dioscin. Importantly, dioscin remarkably lowered the NF-κB p65-DNA activity in MSU-treated mice utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis. Taken together, dioscin had a protective effect against MSU-initiated inflammatory response via repressing the production of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of inflammasome NLRP3 and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. The above findings revealed that dioscin could be a potential drug for the treatment of GA.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/efeitos adversos , Animais , Artrite Gotosa/patologia , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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