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1.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 23(5): 436-451, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844614

RESUMO

Based on the interaction modes of the natural 20S proteasome inhibitors TMC-95A, we have previously discovered a dipeptide 1. To explore the SAR around compound 1, we designed and synthesized a series of dipeptides (8-38) with a fragment-based strategy. Among them, nine compounds showed significant inhibitory activities against the chymotrypsin-like activity of human 20S proteasome with IC50 values at the submicromolar level, which were comparable or even superior to the parent compound 1. Meanwhile, they displayed no significant inhibition against trypsin-like and caspase-like activities of 20S proteasome. The results suggested the feasibility to design dipeptides as novel and potent 20S proteasome inhibitors.[Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos , Inibidores de Proteassoma , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802083

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem associated with a number of comorbidities. Recent evidence implicates increased hemichannel-mediated release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the main underlying pathology of CKD. Here, we evaluate the effect of danegaptide on blocking hemichannel-mediated changes in the expression and function of proteins associated with disease progression in tubular epithelial kidney cells. Primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells (hPTECs) were treated with the beta1 isoform of the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGFß1) ± danegaptide. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting confirmed mRNA and protein expression, whilst a cytokine antibody array assessed the expression/secretion of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Carboxyfluorescein dye uptake and ATP biosensing measured hemichannel activity and ATP release, whilst transepithelial electrical resistance was used to assess paracellular permeability. Danegaptide negated carboxyfluorescein dye uptake and ATP release and protected against protein changes associated with tubular injury. Blocking Cx43-mediated ATP release was paralleled by partial restoration of the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, adherens and tight junction proteins and decreased paracellular permeability. Furthermore, danegaptide inhibited TGFß1-induced changes in the expression and secretion of key adipokines, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and interleukins. The data suggest that as a gap junction modulator and hemichannel blocker, danegaptide has potential in the future treatment of CKD.


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais , Túbulos Renais Proximais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/lesões , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carnosine is a dipeptide molecule (ß-alanyl-l-histidine) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-glycation, and chelating properties. It is used in exercise physiology as a food supplement to increase performance; however, in vitro evidence suggests that carnosine may exhibit anti-cancer properties. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of carnosine on breast, ovarian, colon, and leukemic cancer cell proliferation. We further examined U937 promonocytic, human myeloid leukemia cell phenotype, gene expression, and cytokine secretion to determine if these are linked to carnosine's anti-proliferative properties. RESULTS: Carnosine (1) inhibits breast, ovarian, colon, and leukemic cancer cell proliferation; (2) upregulates expression of pro-inflammatory molecules; (3) modulates cytokine secretion; and (4) alters U937 differentiation and phenotype. CONCLUSION: These effects may have implications for a role for carnosine in anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carnosina/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Células U937
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671801

RESUMO

Several derivatives containing morpholine/piperidine, anilines, and dipeptides as pending moieties were prepared using s-triazine as a scaffold. These compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), a colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), and a non-tumorigenic cell line (HEK 293). Tamoxifen was used as a reference. Animal toxicity tests were carried out in zebrafish embryos. Most of these compounds showed a higher activity against breast cancer than colon cancer. Compound 3a-which contains morpholine, aniline, and glycylglycinate methyl ester-showed a high level of cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of less than 1 µM. This compound showed a much lower level of toxicity against the non-tumorigenic HEK-293 cell line, and in the in vivo studies using zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, it induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. On the basis of our results, 3a emerges as a potential candidate for further development as a therapeutic drug to treat hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dipeptídeos/síntese química , Dipeptídeos/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Triazinas/síntese química , Triazinas/química , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 320(3): F518-F524, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522412

RESUMO

Monitoring renal function is a vital part of kidney research involving rats. The laborious measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with administration of exogenous filtration markers does not easily allow serial measurements. Using an in-house database of inulin clearances, we developed and validated a plasma creatinine- and plasma urea-based equation to estimate GFR in a large cohort of male rats [development cohort n = 325, R2 = 0.816, percentage of predictions that fell within 30% of the true value (P30) = 76%] that had high accuracy in the validation cohort (n = 116 rats, R2 = 0.935, P30 = 79%). The equation was less accurate in rats with nonsteady-state creatinine, in which the equation should therefore not be used. In conclusion, applying this equation facilitates easy and repeatable estimates of GFR in rats.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first equation, that we know of, which estimates glomerular filtration rate in rats based on a single measurement of body weight, plasma creatinine, and plasma urea.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Creatinina/sangue , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma , Ureia , Adamantano/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Plasma/metabolismo , Ratos , Ureia/metabolismo
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113188, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783985

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial herb that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a natural sweetener plant known as "Sweet Leaf", "Sweet Herbs" and "Honey Leaf", which is estimated to be 300 times more sweetening than sugar cane. Stevia has been used as a traditional treatment for diabetes in many countries for hundreds of years. Several animal studies referred to the antihyperglycemic activity of stevia. However, the combined use of stevia with saxagliptin has not been studied so far, so this study has been done. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of stevia alone and in combination with saxagliptin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in rats by i.p. injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Animals were divided into five groups, each contains eight rats. Group I: included negative controland group II: included diabetic control that received saline. Group III: included diabetic rats that received 400 mg/kg/day stevia aqueous extract. Group IV: included diabetic rats that received saxagliptin 10 mg/kg/day. Group V: included diabetic rats that received stevia 400 mg/kg + saxagliptin 10 mg/kg. Food and water intake were measured daily while body weight was measured weekly. After 3 weeks animals were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were collected. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, serum dipeptidylepeptidase-4 (DPP-4), TC, TGs, LDL, HDL, GSH and MDA were measured in treated and control rats by colorimetric and ELISA methods. RESULTS: Both stevia and saxagliptin significantly reduced food, water intake, body weight and FBG. Stevia with saxagliptin produced more significant decrease in FBG. While serum insulin increased significantly in stevia, saxagliptin treated groups and their combination. Serum DPP-4 decreased significantly in all treated groups, concerning lipid profile, stevia and saxagliptin notably lowered TC, TGs, and LDL and increased HDL. Both stevia and saxagliptin remarkably decreased MDA and increased GSH compared to diabetic rats. In addition, stevia significantly improved the antidiabetic effects of saxagliptin. CONCLUSION: Stevia has an antihyperglycemic effect and could enhance the antidiabetic activity of saxagliptin. DPP-4 attenuation, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity as well as improvement of insulin sensitivity may be involved in the antidiabetic action of stevia.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Stevia/química , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Niacinamida , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 127867, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829293

RESUMO

This is the first time that active double-layered furcellaran/gelatin hydrolysate films containing Ala-Tyr peptide were developed and characterised for their properties. Afterwards, films were used on Atlantic mackerel stored at -18 °C for 4 months and samples were analysed for changes in their microbiological quality, TVB-N, biogenic amine content, fatty acid composition and TBARS. Active films had higher TS (13.4 MPa) and lower WS (62.8%). The films showed no DPPH radical scavenging properties but high FRAP (6.6 mMol Trolox/mg). No significant effects on the oxidation of fish samples were observed with TBARS increasing from 12.04 to 22.50 mg/kg. Freezing successfully inhibited the growth of microorganisms and no differences in microbiological growth or biogenic amine formation were observed. However, the application of films inhibited the formation of TVB-N. Antimicrobiological properties of the film should be further investigated during storage of perishable food products at temperatures above 0 °C.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Dipeptídeos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gelatina/química , Perciformes/metabolismo , Gomas Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Perciformes/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Resistência à Tração
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 535: 73-79, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341676

RESUMO

The Wnt/ß-catenin pathway is an attractive target for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), since aberrant activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway contributes to carcinogenesis in various types of cancers including AML. Screening of an in-house compound library, constructed at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, identified a novel compound designated "31" that was found to be an inhibitor of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. The compound inhibited T-cell factor (TCF) activity in a TCF firefly luciferase-reporter assay and suppressed the proliferation of several human AML cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 31 arrested the cell cycle of AML cells at the G1 stage and induced apoptosis. Decrease in protein and mRNA expression level of Wnt pathway-related molecules was confirmed by the analyses of western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, compound 31 combined with idarubicin synergistically inhibited the proliferation of AML cells. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that compound 31 has potential as a novel anti-AML agent targeting the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Idarubicina/farmacologia , Luciferases/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4571, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917871

RESUMO

Early therapeutic interventions are essential to prevent Alzheimer Disease (AD). The association of several inflammation-related genetic markers with AD and the early activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in AD suggest inflammation as a plausible therapeutic target. Inflammatory Caspase-1 has a significant impact on AD-like pathophysiology and Caspase-1 inhibitor, VX-765, reverses cognitive deficits in AD mouse models. Here, a one-month pre-symptomatic treatment of Swedish/Indiana mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPSw/Ind) J20 and wild-type mice with VX-765 delays both APPSw/Ind- and age-induced episodic and spatial memory deficits. VX-765 delays inflammation without considerably affecting soluble and aggregated amyloid beta peptide (Aß) levels. Episodic memory scores correlate negatively with microglial activation. These results suggest that Caspase-1-mediated inflammation occurs early in the disease and raise hope that VX-765, a previously Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for human CNS clinical trials, may be a useful drug to prevent the onset of cognitive deficits and brain inflammation in AD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Serpinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/sangue , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite/metabolismo , Encefalite/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Serpinas/sangue , Serpinas/farmacologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/sangue , Proteínas Virais/farmacologia , para-Aminobenzoatos/sangue , para-Aminobenzoatos/farmacologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21409, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aim at evaluating the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin vs monotherapy as added to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHOD: PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched up to 31 December 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) applicable in dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin vs monotherapy as added to metformin in the treatment of T2DM were included. The outcomes included changes in HbA1c, FPG, body weight, SBP, DBP and adverse reactions. Fixed or random effects model were used to assess these outcomes. RESULTS: In this study, 8 RCTs involved 7346 patients were included. Compared with dapagliflozin plus metformin(DM) group, patients treated with dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin add on to metformin(DSM) could significantly increase the adjusted mean change levels of HbA1c, FPG, SBP and DBP(P < .00001, SMD = -4.88, 95%CI = -6.93∼-2.83; P < .00001, SMD = -6.50, 95%CI = -8.55∼-4.45; P < .00001, SMD = -0.97, 95%CI = -1.15∼-0.78; P < .00001, SMD = -2.00, 95%CI = -2.20∼-1.80), but no major difference in body weight loss showed(P = .12, SMD = 0.92, 95%CI = -0.22∼2.06). Furthermore, DSM therapy displayed better effects than saxagliptin plus metformin(SM) in the adjusted mean change levels of HbA1c, FPG, body weight and SBP(P < .00001, SMD = -7.75, 95%CI = -8.84∼-6.66; P < .00001, SMD = -7.75, 95%CI = -8.84∼-6.66; P = .04, SMD = -3.40, 95%CI = -6.64∼-0.17; P = .04, SMD = -7.75, 95%CI = -8.84∼-6.66), whereas no obvious difference in lowering DBP(P = .18, SMD = -16.35, 95%CI = -40.12∼7.41). Additionally, compared with DM and SM groups, there were no remarkable difference in the incidence of nausea, influenza, headache, diarrhea, urinary tract infection and renal failure for patients taking DSM, but the incidence of genital infection and hypoglycemia were higher in DSM group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking the DSM therapy had better effects in reducing the level of HbA1c, FPG, body weight, SBP and DBP than the DM and SM therapy. However, patients treated with DSM therapy are more likely to have hypoglycemia and genital infection. Dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin may be a suitable therapy strategy for patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin, and this will provide a clinical reference for the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Adamantano/farmacologia , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697798

RESUMO

Adenoviruses cause upper respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and gastrointestinal illness. These can be fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Adenoviruses have also been engineered into viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes or induce immunity as vaccine carriers. The success of ocular gene therapy is driven partly by the immunologic and biochemical influences of the intraocular environment. We have shown that versican and hyaluronan modulate adenoviral vector transgene expression through CD44 signaling. Herein we explored the role of these pathways on virus replication and viral protein expression of wild type adenovirus. We report that the addition of vitreous humor (which contains both versican and hyaluronan) increases viral hexon protein levels. Vitreous humor also increased wild type adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. Metalloproteinase and γ-secretase inhibitors, which inhibit CD44 proteolytic activation, blocked adenoviral replication in vitro. Similarly, protein kinase C and RhoA kinase inhibitors, both proteins associated with CD44 mediated pathways, also inhibited wild type adenoviral replication in vitro. Application of metalloproteinase and γ-secretase inhibitors to human conjunctival explants sharply decreased adenoviral vector gene expression. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologic delivery of these inhibitors is easily achievable. The inhibition of these enzymes should be explored as potential therapies of wild type adenoviral infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vetores Genéticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Administração Oftálmica , Amidas/farmacologia , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Diaminas/farmacologia , Diaminas/uso terapêutico , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Maleimidas/farmacologia , Maleimidas/uso terapêutico , Metaloproteases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Proteína Quinase C/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Versicanas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
12.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1555-1572, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490531

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized pathological dilation of the aorta exceeding the normal diameter (∼20 mm) by more than 50% of its original size (≥30 mm), accounting for approximately 150000-200000 deaths worldwide per year. We previously reported that Notch inhibition does not decrease the size of pre-established AAA at late stage of the disease. Here, we examined whether a potent pharmacologic inhibitor of Notch signaling (DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester)), regresses an actively growing AAA. In a mouse model of an aneurysm (Apoe-/- mice; n=44); DAPT (n=17) or vehicle (n=17) was randomly administered at day 14 of angiotensin II (AngII; 1 µg/min/kg), three times a week and mice were killed on day 42. Progressive increase in aortic stiffness and maximal intraluminal diameter (MILD) was observed in the AngII + vehicle group, which was significantly prevented by DAPT (P<0.01). The regression of aneurysm with DAPT was associated with reduced F4/80+Cd68+ (cluster of differentiation 68) inflammatory macrophages. DAPT improved structural integrity of aorta by reducing collagen fibrils abnormality and restoring their diameter. Mechanistically, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (Ccr7)+F4/80- dendritic cells (DCs), implicated in the regression of aneurysm, were increased in the aorta of DAPT-treated mice. In the macrophages stimulated with AngII or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), DAPT reverted the expression of pro-inflammatory genes Il6 and Il12 back to baseline within 6 h compared with vehicle (P<0.05). DAPT also significantly increased the expression of anti-inflammatory genes, including c-Myc, Egr2, and Arg1 at 12-24 h in the LPS-stimulated macrophages (P<0.05). Overall, these regressive effects of Notch signaling inhibitor emphasize its therapeutic implications to prevent the progression of active AAAs.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Apoptose , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13457-13467, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482868

RESUMO

The protooncogene MYC regulates a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation and metabolism. Maintaining MYC at homeostatic levels is critical to normal cell function; overexpression drives many cancers. MYC stability is regulated through phosphorylation: phosphorylation at Thr58 signals degradation while Ser62 phosphorylation leads to its stabilization and functional activation. The bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) is a transcriptional and epigenetic regulator with intrinsic kinase and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities that activates transcription of key protooncogenes, including MYC We report that BRD4 phosphorylates MYC at Thr58, leading to MYC ubiquitination and degradation, thereby regulating MYC target genes. Importantly, BRD4 degradation, but not inhibition, results in increased levels of MYC protein. Conversely, MYC inhibits BRD4's HAT activity, suggesting that MYC regulates its own transcription by limiting BRD4-mediated chromatin remodeling of its locus. The MYC stabilizing kinase, ERK1, regulates MYC levels directly and indirectly by inhibiting BRD4 kinase activity. These findings demonstrate that BRD4 negatively regulates MYC levels, which is counteracted by ERK1 activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Acetilação , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Ubiquitinação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365077

RESUMO

The physiological actions of orally ingested peptides on the brain remain poorly understood. This study examined the effects of 39 orally administered synthetic Tyr-containing dipeptides on the enhancement of brain norepinephrine metabolism in mice by comparing the concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG). Although Tyr-Tyr administration increased blood and cerebral cortex (Cx) Tyr concentrations the most, Tyr-Trp increased Cx MHPG concentration the most. The oral administration of Tyr-Trp ameliorated a short-term memory deficit of a mouse model of cognitive dysfunction induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35. Gene expression profiling of mouse brain using a microarray indicated that Tyr-Trp administration led to a wide variety of changes in mRNA levels, including the upregulation of genes encoding molecules involved in catecholamine metabolism. A comparative metabolome analysis of the Cx of mice given Tyr-Trp or Tyr-Tyr demonstrated that Tyr-Trp administration yielded higher concentrations of Trp and kynurenine pathway metabolites than Tyr-Tyr administration, as well as higher L-dopa levels, which is the initial product of catecholamine metabolism. Catecholamines were not significantly increased in the Cx of the Tyr-Tyr group compared with the Tyr-Trp group, despite a marked increase in Tyr. Presumably, Tyr-Trp administration enhances catecholamine synthesis and metabolism via the upregulation of genes involved in Tyr and Trp metabolism as well as metabolites of Tyr and Trp. These findings strongly suggest that orally ingested Tyr-Trp modulates the brain metabolome involved in catecholamine metabolism and contributes to higher brain function.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/análise , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos adversos , Animais , Catecolaminas/biossíntese , Córtex Cerebral/química , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos
15.
Prostate ; 80(11): 831-849, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449814

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate smooth muscle contraction is critical for etiology and treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Integrins connect the cytoskeleton to membranes and cells to extracellular matrix, what is essential for force generation in smooth muscle contraction. Integrins are composed of different subunits and may cooperate with integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Here, we examined effects of inhibitors for different integrin heterodimers and ILK on contraction of human prostate tissues. METHODS: Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Integrins and ILK were detected by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and double fluorescence staining. Smooth muscle contractions of prostate strips were studied in an organ bath. Contractions were compared after application of solvent (controls), the ILK inhibitor Cpd22 (N-methyl-3-(1-(4-(piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-5-(4'-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)propanamide), the integrin α2ß1 inhibitor BTT-3033 (1-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[4[[(phenylamino)carbonyl]amino]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide), or the integrin α4ß1/α9ß1 inhibitor BOP (N-(benzenesulfonyl)- l-prolyl- l-O-(1-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)tyrosine sodium salt). RESULTS: Western blot analyses of prostate tissues using antibodies raised against integrins α2b, α4, α9, ß1, and ILK revealed bands matching the expected sizes of corresponding antigens. Expression of integrins and ILK was confirmed by RT-PCR. Individual variations of expression levels occurred independently from divergent degree of BPH, reflected by different contents of prostate-specific antigen. Double fluorescence staining of prostate sections using antibodies raised against integrins α2 and ß1, or against ILK resulted in immunoreactivity colocalizing with calponin, suggesting localization in prostate smooth muscle cells. Electric field stimulation (EFS) induced frequency-dependent contractions, which were inhibited by Cpd22 (3 µM) and BTT-3033 (1 µM) (inhibition around 37% by Cpd22 and 46% by BTT-3033 at 32 Hz). The thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were inhibited by Cpd22 and BTT-3033 (around 67% by Cpd22 and 39% by BTT-3033 at 30 µM U46619). Endothelin-1 induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were not affected by Cpd22 or BTT-3033. Noradrenaline and the α1 -adrenergic agonists methoxamine and phenylephrine-induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were not or very slightly inhibited by Cpd22 and BTT-3033. BOP did not change EFS- or agonist-induced contraction. CONCLUSIONS: Integrin α2ß1 and ILK inhibitors inhibit neurogenic and thromboxane A2 -induced prostate smooth muscle contraction in human BPH. A role for these targets for prostate smooth muscle contraction may appear possible.


Assuntos
Integrina alfa2beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido 15-Hidroxi-11 alfa,9 alfa-(epoximetano)prosta-5,13-dienoico/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/fisiologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tromboxano A2/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232981, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396580

RESUMO

Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/fisiologia , Receptores Notch/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Equinodermos/efeitos dos fármacos , Equinodermos/genética , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Notch/genética , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Arch Med Res ; 51(4): 303-309, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The study is aimed to demonstrate whether saxagliptin treatment may reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative damage, and inflammation in the liver of fructose-induced insulin resistance (IR) rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight rats were divided as control, IR, saxagliptin treatment (ST) and IR+ST groups. IR caused by fructose (10%) administration for 10 weeks and, ST was administered for 15 d. The liver tissues were obtained from rats. ER stress markers were analyzed using Real-Time PCR. Oxidative stress was measured. The inflammation in the liver was detected by the streptavidin-biotin immunostaining method. RESULTS: The values of total oxidant/antioxidant status were the same between control and IR rats. The numbers of IL-6, NF-κB and PPARγ immune+ cells showed significant changes in the liver among four groups. The increased mRNA expression levels of ER stress and apoptosis markers as GRP78, PERK, IRE1α, ATF-4 and -6, CHOP, Caspase-3, -8, -9 and -12 in IR reduced with ST. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that saxagliptin treatment may ameliorate IR by reducing ER stress rather than inflammation and oxidative stress in the liver.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Adamantano/farmacologia , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4303, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152427

RESUMO

Single substances within complex vertebrate chemical signals could be physiologically or behaviourally active. However, the vast diversity in chemical structure, physical properties and molecular size of semiochemicals makes identifying pheromonally active compounds no easy task. Here, we identified two volatile cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cyclo(L-Pro-L-Pro), from the complex mixture of a chemical signal in terrestrial vertebrates (lizard genus Sceloporus), synthesised one of them and investigated their biological activity in male intra-specific communication. In a series of behavioural trials, lizards performed more chemosensory behaviour (tongue flicks, lip smacks and substrate lickings) when presented with the synthesised cyclo(L-Pro-L-Pro) chemical blend, compared to the controls, the cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) blend, or a combined blend with both cyclic dipeptides. The results suggest a potential semiochemical role of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Pro) and a modulating effect of cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) that may depend on the relative concentration of both compounds in the chemical signal. In addition, our results stress how minor compounds in complex mixtures can produce a meaningful behavioural response, how small differences in structural design are crucial for biological activity, and highlight the need for more studies to determine the complete functional landscape of biologically relevant compounds.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiotaxia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Dipeptídeos/química , Glândulas Exócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lagartos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
19.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(3): 234-243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115530

RESUMO

Diphenhydramine, a sedating antihistamine, is an agonist of human bitter taste receptor 14 (hTAS2R14). Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) was used as a model bitter medicine to evaluate whether the umami dipeptides (Glu-Glu and Asp-Asp) and their constituent amino acids (Glu, Asp) could suppress its bitterness intensity, as measured by human gustatory sensation testing and using the artificial taste sensor. Various concentrated (0.001-5.0 mM) Glu-Glu, Asp-Asp, Glu and Asp significantly suppressed the taste sensor output of 0.5 mM DPH solution in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of umami dipeptides and their constituent amino acids was tending to be ranked as follows, Asp-Asp > Glu-Glu >> Gly-Gly, and Asp > Glu >> Gly (control) respectively. Whereas human bitterness intensity of 0.5 mM DPH solution with various concentrated (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) Glu-Glu, Asp-Asp, Glu and Asp all significantly reduced bitterness intensity of 0.5 mM DPH solution even though no statistical difference was observed among four substances. The taste sensor outputs and the human gustatory sensation test results showed a significant correlation. A surface plasmon resonance study using hTAS2R14 protein and these substances suggested that the affinity of Glu-Glu, Asp-Asp, Glu and Asp for hTAS2R14 protein was greater than that of Gly-Gly or Gly. The results of docking-simulation studies involving DPH, Glu-Glu and Asp-Asp with hTAS2R14, suggested that DPH is able to bind to a space near the binding position of Glu-Glu and Asp-Asp. In conclusion, the umami dipeptides Glu-Glu and Asp-Asp, and their constituent amino acids, can all efficiently suppress the bitterness of DPH.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Difenidramina/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/química , Dipeptídeos/química , Difenidramina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007755, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163418

RESUMO

The cysteine protease cruzipain is considered to be a validated target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of Chagas disease. A series of 26 new compounds were designed, synthesized, and tested against the recombinant cruzain (Cz) to map its S1/S1´ subsites. The same series was evaluated on a panel of four human cysteine proteases (CatB, CatK, CatL, CatS) and Leishmania mexicana CPB, which is a potential target for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The synthesized compounds are dipeptidyl nitriles designed based on the most promising combinations of different moieties in P1 (ten), P2 (six), and P3 (four different building blocks). Eight compounds exhibited a Ki smaller than 20.0 nM for Cz, whereas three compounds met these criteria for LmCPB. Three inhibitors had an EC50 value of ca. 4.0 µM, thus being equipotent to benznidazole according to the antitrypanosomal effects. Our mapping approach and the respective structure-activity relationships provide insights into the specific ligand-target interactions for therapeutically relevant cysteine proteases.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Leishmania mexicana/enzimologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Humanos
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