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2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644306

RESUMO

Automatic facial recognition technology (AFR) is increasingly used in criminal justice systems around the world, yet to date there has not been an international survey of public attitudes toward its use. In Study 1, we ran focus groups in the UK, Australia and China (countries at different stages of adopting AFR) and in Study 2 we collected data from over 3,000 participants in the UK, Australia and the USA using a questionnaire investigating attitudes towards AFR use in criminal justice systems. Our results showed that although overall participants were aligned in their attitudes and reasoning behind them, there were some key differences across countries. People in the USA were more accepting of tracking citizens, more accepting of private companies' use of AFR, and less trusting of the police using AFR than people in the UK and Australia. Our results showed that support for the use of AFR depends greatly on what the technology is used for and who it is used by. We recommend vendors and users do more to explain AFR use, including details around accuracy and data protection. We also recommend that governments should set legal boundaries around the use of AFR in investigative and criminal justice settings.


Assuntos
Atitude , Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado , Direito Penal , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
3.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(5): 331-342, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the presence or absence of previous healthcare and criminal justice system (CJS) contacts in the histories of mentally ill offenders has been well-studied, the frequency of these contacts and when they occur in the period leading up to an index criminal event has received less research attention. AIMS: To explore patterns of healthcare and CJS use in the year prior to a criminal act leading to a Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) finding in Canada. METHODS: In this 3-year retrospective records study, the case files of all patients newly admitted to the British Columbia forensic psychiatric system after a finding of NCRMD between 1st July 2012 and 31st July 2015 were reviewed. Data were extracted on healthcare and CJS use for the 12 months before the act leading to the NCRMD finding. Time-based descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to investigate service use patterns. RESULTS: Among 94 eligible patients, only four had no service contacts in the year leading up to the index event, leaving 90 in the cohort for further analysis. On average, these 90 patients had seven contacts with health or criminal justice services in the year prior to the index offence. Cluster analysis revealed a high healthcare pathway group who had had many healthcare and few CJS contacts; a limited service user group who had had few contacts of any kind and a heavy service user group who had had a high volume of contacts with both types of service providers. CONCLUSIONS: The different patterns of patient contact prior to the index event imply that each practitioner-type has distinct and temporally relevant opportunities to provide preventative interventions to their patients or user groups.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Transtornos Mentais , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 108927, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) have a lower risk of mortality when using evidence-based medications for OUD (MOUD), only 20 % of people with OUD receive MOUD. Black patients are significantly less likely than White patients to initiate MOUD. We measured the association between various facilitators and barriers to initiation, including criminal justice, human services, and health care factors, and variation in initiation of MOUD by race. METHODS: We used data from a comprehensive, linked data set of health care, human services, and criminal justice programs from Allegheny County in Western Pennsylvania to measure disparities in MOUD initiation by race in the first 180 days after an OUD diagnosis, as well as mediation by potential facilitators and barriers to treatment, among Medicaid enrollees. This is a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Among 6374 Medicaid enrollees who met study criteria, Black enrollees were 18.2 percentage points less likely than White enrollees to start MOUD after controlling for gender, age, and Medicaid eligibility (95 % CI: -21.5 % - -14.8 %). Each day in the emergency department or county jail was associated with a decrease in the likelihood of initiation, as was the presence of a non-OUD substance use disorder diagnosis or participation in intensive non-MOUD treatment. Mediators accounted for approximately one-fifth of the variation in initiation related to race. CONCLUSIONS: Acute care facilities and settings in which people with OUD are incarcerated may have an opportunity to increase the use of MOUD overall and close the racial gap in initiation.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Direito Penal , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Medicaid , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(3): 167-171, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407381

RESUMO

The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among justice-involved persons is high. The validity of self-reported HCV status in this population has important public health implications, yet has not been studied. Justice-involved persons with HIV from Washington, DC, were enrolled in a study that investigated a mobile health intervention to support HIV treatment. Self-reported and laboratory-confirmed HCV status was compared. Among 103 participants, chronic HCV prevalence was 13%. Positive predictive value of self-reported positive chronic HCV status was low at 55%, and negative predictive value was 98%. Cohen's kappa statistic was 0.60 for agreement. Two women who reported negative HCV status were found to have HCV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Direito Penal , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Autorrelato
7.
Autism Res ; 14(10): 2053-2060, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402601

RESUMO

Researchers have identified that autistic individuals are encountering the criminal justice system as victims, offenders, and witnesses at high rates. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing and generating a comprehensive approach to addressing criminal justice system involvement among autistic individuals is a timely and urgent need. Revisions to an established framework generated for use among individuals with mental health diagnoses, the sequential Intercept Model (SIM), were produced by an international consortium of interdisciplinary stakeholders presenting a new opportunity to identify gaps in ASD research and generate preventive solutions across the criminal justice system. The revised SIM maps each criminal justice system component, or Intercept, and includes paths for the experiences of autistic individuals as victims or witnesses to crimes as well as offenders to catalyze new and interdisciplinary research, policy, and practice efforts. As the field of ASD research continues to grow, the revised SIM is a promising pathway to avoiding siloed research approaches, including diverse autistic voices, and contributing to international dialogue about criminal justice reform at a critical juncture. LAY SUMMARY: Autistic individuals are encountering the criminal justice system as victims, offenders, and witnesses at high rates. A revised version of the SIM generated by an international consortium provides a cohesive framework to ensure research focused on this topic extends across the criminal justice system. Preventing and improving interactions between autistic individuals and the criminal justice system is an urgent research, policy, and practice need.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Criminosos , Direito Penal , Humanos , Prevalência
8.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 215-228, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study integrates several distinct lines of jury decision-making research by examining how the racial identities of the defendant and an informant witness interact in a federal drug conspiracy trial scenario and by assessing whether jurors' individual racial identity and jury group racial composition influence their judgments. HYPOTHESES: We predicted that jurors would be biased against the Black defendant and would be more likely to convict after exposure to a White informant, among other hypotheses. METHOD: We recruited 822 nonstudent jury-eligible participants assigned to 144 jury groups. Each group was assigned to one of four onditions where defendant race (Black or White) and informant race (Black or White) was manipulated. Each group watched a realistic audio-visual trial presentation, then deliberated as a group to render a verdict. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the conditions depicting a Black defendant yielded lower conviction rates compared to those with a White defendant-at both the predeliberation individual (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54) and postdeliberation group level (OR = 2.91)-while the informant race did not influence verdict outcomes. We also found that jurors rated the government witnesses as more credible when the defendant was White compared to when he was Black. Credibility ratings and verdict outcomes were also predicted by jurors' own race, although juror race did not interact with the race conditions when predicting verdicts. CONCLUSIONS: Jurors are sensitive to defendant race, and this sensitivity appears to strengthen after deliberation-but in a direction opposite to what was expected. One potential implication of our findings is that juries may operate as a check on system bias by applying greater scrutiny to law enforcement-derived evidence when the defendant is Black. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Tráfico de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Julgamento , Função Jurisdicional , Fatores Raciais , Racismo/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Direito Penal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 256-270, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: According to the pristine conditions hypothesis, high-confidence identifications will be "remarkably accurate" when identification procedures (i.e., system variables, e.g., fair filler selection, double-blind administration, unbiased lineup instructions) are optimal, even if estimator variables (e.g., weapon presence, lighting, distance) are suboptimal (Wixted & Wells, 2017, p. 10). This has led some to conclude that estimator variables are not of much importance under those conditions. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that when multiple estimator variables are deficient, even high-confidence identifications will be less accurate than they would be when multiple estimator variables are optimal. METHOD: With a sample of 2,191 college students (Mage = 20.14, 73% women), we conducted a strong test of this hypothesis by comparing a situation in which estimator variables were manipulated to produce either very good or very poor memory performance. RESULTS: High-confidence suspect identifications were made significantly less frequently under poor viewing conditions than under good viewing conditions, and these differences are substantial if one assumes low base rates of guilt. CONCLUSIONS: Estimator variables can be important for evaluating even high-confidence suspect identifications and establish some important boundary conditions for the pristine conditions hypothesis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Reconhecimento de Identidade , Memória , Direito Penal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 78: 101730, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399138

RESUMO

This study reviews sentencing decisions of people diagnosed with intellectual disabilities who have been convicted of sexual offences by judges in Canada. Given the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities managed within the criminal justice system (CJS), courts have increasingly been faced with issues concerning appropriate sentencing. In addition, many people with intellectual disabilities have complex social and medical backgrounds that require multidisciplinary perspectives to account for each person's legal and moral culpability, which in turn influences sentencing decisions, including placement in prisons versus rehabilitation programs. The legal databases Canlii and LexisNexis Quicklaw were used to search full text judgements from Canadian courts for adults (over the age of 18) diagnosed with an intellectual disability and charged with a sexual offence. In total, 61 cases were included within the full-text review. These cases were analyzed based on the accused's demographics, past social history, past medical history, current diagnoses, past criminal record, current charges, mitigating/aggravating factors, use of a Gladue report, sentence, and other pertinent information that contributed to the final judgement. Recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the CJS in trying and sentencing people with intellectual disabilities are made based on the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Canadá , Direito Penal , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(10): 1075-1083, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People in prison have an extremely high risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to describe all suicides in the Norwegian prison population from 2000 to 2016, during and following imprisonment; to investigate the timing of suicides; and to investigate the associations between risk of suicide and types of crime. METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian Prison Release study (nPRIS) including complete national register data from the Norwegian Prison Register and the Norwegian Cause of Death Register in the period 1.1.2000 to 31.12.2016, consisting of 96,856 individuals. All suicides were classified according to ICD-10 codes X60-X84. We calculated crude mortality rates (CMRs) per 100,000 person-years and used a Cox Proportional-Hazards regression model to investigate factors associated with suicide during imprisonment and after release reported as hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Suicide accounted for about 10% of all deaths in the Norwegian prison population and was the leading cause of death in prison (53% of in deaths in prison). The CMR per 100,000 person years for in-prison suicides was 133.8 (CI 100.5-167.1) and was ten times higher (CMR = 1535.0, CI 397.9-2672.2) on day one of incarceration. Suicides after release (overall CMR = 82.8, CI 100.5-167.1) also peaked on day one after release (CMR = 665.7, CI 0-1419.1). Suicide in prison was strongly associated with convictions of homicide (HR 18.2, CI 6.5-50.8) and high-security prison level (HR 15.4, CI 3.6-65.0). Suicide after release was associated with convictions of homicide (HR 3.1, CI 1.7-5.5). CONCLUSION: There is a high risk of suicide during the immediate first period of incarceration and after release. Convictions for severe violent crime, especially homicide, are associated with increased suicide risk, both in prison and after release.


Assuntos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 2943-2946, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427848

RESUMO

Transition from detention to the community for Black men who have sex with men with criminal justice involvement (BMSM-CJI) represents a particularly vulnerable period for HIV acquisition and transmission. We examined levels of HIV PrEP awareness among BMSM-CJI. PrEP awareness among BMSM-CJI was low (7.9%) with evidence of lower awareness levels among those with STI. There was evidence that HIV testing history was associated with higher PrEP awareness. Study findings highlight needs for further assessment of PrEP knowledge among BMSM-CJI. The strong association between HIV testing and PrEP awareness underscores an opportunity to integrate PrEP education within HIV/STI testing services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Cidades , Direito Penal , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Med Leg J ; 89(3): 166-172, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219537

RESUMO

Criminal justice liaison and diversion services identify people with mental health needs and ensure they receive appropriate support. We describe a 25-year period of one such service that deals with a population of 864,540 in South East London that was set up in 1991. We used data from three time periods. A diagnosis of a mental illness was recorded in 70.0-80.3% of court liaison and diversion referrals. The proportion receiving a hospital order declined from 15.4% in 1991/1992 to 1.1% in 2015/2016; 54/199 (27.1%) of referrals to the police liaison and diversion service were detained in hospital. Although the service is designed to support any individual with a mental health issue, these results suggest that it has dealt mainly with people who have severe mental illness. Further research is required to understand how best to benefit a wider range of people with mental health issues who attend the lower (Magistrates') courts, and whether screening for mental disorders can be applied in liaison and diversion settings to aid the implementation of national policy. We also need to understand how disposal decisions are made, and which are most effective.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Direito Penal , Humanos , Londres , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254578, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, over 11 million individuals were admitted to prisons and jails in the United States. Because the majority of these individuals will return to the community, addressing their health needs requires coordination between community and correctional health care providers. However, few systems exist to facilitate this process and little is known about how physicians perceive and manage these transitions. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to characterize physicians' views on transitions both into and out of incarceration and describe how knowledge of a patient's criminal justice involvement impacts patient care plans. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 2018 and May 2019 with physicians from three community clinics in Hennepin County, Minnesota. Team members used a hybrid approach of deductive and inductive coding, in which a priori codes were defined based on the interview guide while also allowing for data-driven codes to emerge. RESULTS: Four themes emerged related to physicians' perceptions on continuity of care for patients with criminal justice involvement. Physicians identified disruptions in patient-physician relationships, barriers to accessing prescription medications, disruptions in insurance coverage, and problems with sharing medical records, as factors contributing to discontinuity of care for patients entering and exiting incarceration. These factors impacted patients differently depending on the direction of the transition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified four disruptions to continuity of care that physicians viewed as key barriers to successful transitions into and out of incarceration. These disruptions are unlikely to be effectively addressed at the provider level and will require system-level changes, which Medicaid and managed care organizations could play a leading role in developing.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Médicos/psicologia , Humanos , Prisões Locais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(2): 127-131, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232777

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how well a Faculty First-Year Seminar incorporated criminal justice health (CJH) and substance use disorder (SUD) content. Students completed a survey during the first and last classes of the semester, evaluating their level of knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding SUD in criminal justice (CJ) involved persons. Answers to both open-ended and close-ended questions were evaluated. Students reported significantly higher confidence in course content after the semester compared with baseline. Findings indicated students' increased confidence in knowledge of CJH in individuals with SUD, and of CJ policy and advocacy. Social justice course content can be successfully developed and evaluated for nursing curricula.


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Direito Penal , Currículo , Docentes , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047340, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV prevalence among criminal justice (CJ)-involved adults is five times higher than the general population. Following incarceration, CJ-involved individuals experience multilevel barriers to HIV prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a widely available, daily medication efficacious in preventing HIV. Little is known about PrEP knowledge, acceptability, initiation and sustained use among CJ-involved persons or about how these outcomes vary by multilevel factors. The Southern Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study (SPECS) will investigate barriers and facilitators for PrEP initiation and sustained use among CJ-involved adults, building a foundation for PrEP interventions for this underserved population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: SPECS uses a mixed-methods sequential design, including a multisite, prospective cohort study in three southern states-North Carolina, Florida and Kentucky-and subsequent qualitative interviews. HIV-negative adults clinically indicated for PrEP with CJ-involvement in the past year (n=660; 220 per site)-will be recruited for four quantitative interviews separated by 6 months, with 18 months of follow-up. Interviews will measure CJ involvement, substance use, sexual behaviours, PrEP acceptability and use, healthcare access and utilisation, support systems and psychological and emotional well-being. We will estimate probabilities of PrEP acceptability and use in a CJ-involved population using descriptive and multivariable analyses. After the follow-up, a subsample that never initiated PrEP, initiated but did not sustain PrEP or sustained PrEP will be asked to participate in a qualitative interview to contextualise their experiences and decisions around PrEP. An inductive approach will guide qualitative analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: PrEP initiation and sustained use rates are unknown among CJ-involved adults. This research will identify individual, social and structural factors that predict PrEP initiation and use. Data generated from the study have the potential to guide research and the development and tailoring of PrEP interventions to CJ-involved populations and provide context to HIV-related outcomes for those with CJ experiences.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Direito Penal , Florida , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Kentucky , North Carolina , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Child Sex Abus ; 30(7): 828-846, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129807

RESUMO

We developed the first Fear of False Accusations scale, measuring the public's fear of personally being the target of untrue child sexual abuse allegations despite no actual wrongdoing as well as the fear of false allegations being a common problem in society. The scale was statistically reliable within a diverse sample of 964 participants. Several months later, in an ostensibly unrelated mock trial experiment, a subset of the participants assumed the role of mock juror and considered a criminal case involving an accusation of child sexual abuse. As predicted, (a) mock jurors with higher levels of fear were less likely than others to believe a specific child sexual abuse allegation (but did not differ in ratings of victim credibility nor responsibility), (b) men had significantly higher levels of this fear than did women, and (c) mediational analyses revealed that gender differences in fear partially explained men's tendency to believe the child abuse allegation less than women did. This research is important for developing the first empirically validated measure of fear of false accusation and linking this fear to perceptions of specific child sexual abuse allegations, and for finding a partial explanation for gender differences in mock jurors' reactions to child sexual abuse allegations.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Direito Penal , Tomada de Decisões , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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