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2.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 73: 101605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157404

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the human rights of persons with mental and cognitive impairments subject to coercive powers in Australia. It sets out the relevant human rights in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which have been engaged by the COVID-19 pandemic and the government's response to it. It examines the effect of emergency legislation on the relaxation of human rights safeguards in mental health laws, with a focus on mental health tribunals (although it is limited by a lack of published decisions and gaps in publicly available information). However, some of the issues created for persons with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic are evident in some decisions published by the New South Wales Guardianship Tribunal. The paper critically analyses two guardianship decisions UZX [2020] NSWCATGD 3 (3 April, 2020) and GZK [2020] NSWCATGD 5 (23 April, 2020) and some emergency South Australian legislation COVID-19 Emergency Response Act, 2020 (SA) Schedule 1 to demonstrate the ways in which the human rights of persons with mental and cognitive impairments can be more at risk than those of the general population, even when the general population is itself in "lockdown."


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Coerção , Disfunção Cognitiva , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos/ética , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 73: 101632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045534

RESUMO

The emergence of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic in late 2019 and early 2020 presented new and urgent challenges to mental health services and legislators around the world. This special issue of the International Journal of Law and Psychiatry explores mental health law, mental capacity law, and medical and legal ethics in the context of COVID-19. Papers are drawn from India, Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Portugal, and the United States. Together, these articles demonstrate the complexity of psychiatric and legal issues prompted by COVID-19 in terms of providing mental health care, protecting rights, exercising decision-making capacity, and a range of other topics. While further work is needed in many of these areas, these papers provide a strong framework for addressing key issues and meeting the challenges that COVID-19 and, possibly, other outbreaks are likely to present in the future.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Direitos Humanos , Competência Mental , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , /epidemiologia , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/ética , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/ética , Serviços de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias
8.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 167-182, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910670

RESUMO

In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comissão de Ética , União Europeia , Liberdade , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/ética , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Espanha , UNESCO
9.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 183-202, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910671

RESUMO

The article deals with the analysis of the criteria for the allocation of scarce health resources during the pandemic produced by the COVID 19 virus in Spain. It critically analyses the absence of a legal-constitutional perspective in the elaboration of such criteria and suggests the incorporation of the criterion of equity as a guarantee of the effective exercise of the constitutional right to health protection by vulnerable persons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Constituição e Estatutos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Teoria Ética , Órgãos Governamentais , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Publicações , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Papel (figurativo) , Justiça Social , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/ética , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 456-457, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880550

RESUMO

In the midst of an unprecedented public health crisis, extraordinary containment measures must be implemented. These include both isolation and quarantine, either on a voluntary basis or enforced. In the transition from voluntary to mandatory isolation, conflicts arise at the intersection of ethics, human rights and the law. The Siracusa Principles adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1985 and enshrined in international human rights legislation and guidelines specify conditions under which civil liberties may be infringed. In order for isolation processes in South Africa to claim legitimacy, it is important that these principles as well as national laws and constitutional rights are embedded in state action.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768125

RESUMO

This article examines the changes made to mental health and capacity laws in Northern Ireland through temporary emergency legislation, known as the Coronavirus Act 2020. The purpose of the legislation was to respond to the emergency situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular the increase pressure placed on health services in the United Kingdom. An overview is provided of the government's rationale for the changes to Northern Ireland mental health and capacity laws, as well as exploring how they are likely to be operationalised in practice. Consideration is also given as to how such changes may impact upon existing human rights protections for persons assessed as lacking mental capacity. It is argued that it is important that regular parliamentary oversight is maintained in relation to the potential impact and consequences of such changes during the period they are in force. This should be done in order to assess whether they remain a necessary, proportionate and least restrictive response to the challenges faced in managing mental health and capacity issues in Northern Ireland during this public health emergency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768103

RESUMO

A state's real commitment to its international human rights obligations is never more challenged than when it faces emergency situations. Addressing actual and potential resourcing pressures arising from the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, amongst other things, modifications to Scottish mental health and capacity law and the issuing of new guidance relating to associated practice. Whether these emergency or ordinary measures are invoked during the crisis there are potential implications for the rights of persons with mental illness, learning disability and dementia notably those relating to individual autonomy and dignity. This article will consider areas of particular concern but how strict adherence to the legal, ethical and human rights framework in Scotland will help to reduce the risk of adverse consequences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Escócia/epidemiologia
14.
Cuad. bioét ; 31(102): 167-182, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194276

RESUMO

En este trabajo presento una reflexión sobre el modo de conciliar los esfuerzos por combatir la pandemia de la COVID-19 con la salvaguarda de los derechos humanos, desde una perspectiva bioética. Para ello desarrollo tres puntos: el marco normativo que justifica la restricción o suspensión de derechos ante amena-zas graves para la salud pública; las declaraciones de los comités internacionales de bioética sobre el modo en que se deben proteger los derechos humanos durante la crisis de salud pública que vivimos; y un repaso de los principales derechos amenazados tanto por la crisis de salud pública como por los medios adoptados para combatirla. Antes de entrar en cada uno de esos puntos, ofrezco una nota preliminar para esclarecer determinados conceptos jurídicos y subrayar la necesidad de superar los planteamientos disyuntivos en la consideración de los derechos humanos


In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioética/tendências , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Políticas Públicas de Saúde
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687522

RESUMO

Access to water for rural populations is vital not only for personal consumption and hygiene but also for food production, income generation and cultural practices. To deepening the understanding of this issue, this research addressed the access to water in a settlement of the Landless Workers Movement. The perspective of the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation was used as a theoretical framework, assessing how inadequate access to water impacts the quality of rural populations. A qualitative research was used, through participant observation and individual interviews with 12 rural workers, living at the Ulisses Oliveira settlement. The findings reflect that water is not sufficiently available to meet the community's social, economic and cultural needs and that such conditions can lead to a loss of identity. Therefore, access to water must be understood in the light of its political, social and cultural dimensions and the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation can be used as an instrument to public policies.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Saneamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Discriminação Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697775

RESUMO

States often seek to regulate the use of police force though citizen complaint systems. This paper examines these systems, specifically, whether patterns of bias found in other juridical contexts are mirrored in the adjudication of police assault. The analysis focuses on prosecutors as the first instance of adjudication who determine whether to move forward with investigation, effectively deciding the majority of cases. We ask whether prosecutor sex is associated with the probability that a police assault claim will be investigated. We leverage a natural experiment in Sweden where prosecutors are assigned through a modified lottery system, effectively randomizing appointment. Our findings suggest that prosecutor gender plays a role in judicial outcomes: women prosecutors are 16 percentage points more likely to investigate claims of police assault than their male counterparts. These findings have implications for scholars interested in state human rights abuses, democratic institutions, and judicial inequality.


Assuntos
Função Jurisdicional , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência
17.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 100-101, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657677

RESUMO

The South African Constitution provides that children have the right to healthcare, as well as all other rights. Furthermore, in all matters affecting them, their best interests must be 'of paramount importance'. It seems common practice that, when parents refuse blood transfusions for their children solely on religious grounds, doctors and health authorities apply for a court order to overturn such refusals. However, since the implementation of the Children's Act of 2005, it may be that the onus is no longer on doctors and authorities to apply to court to reverse the decision of parents and guardians. It can be argued instead that the burden has shifted to the parents to apply to court for an order to overrule the decision of doctors, by proving to the court that alternative choices are available. Guidance is given for situations, particularly in the public sector, where alternative choices are not available.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/legislação & jurisprudência , Pais , Religião e Medicina , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Função Jurisdicional , África do Sul
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499859

RESUMO

Medical practice usually involves different activities which if not professionally handled, may give rise to liabilities on the part of the medical practitioner. These liabilities may arise in tortious claims and in some other cases, may go beyond the realm of civil liabilities to criminal liabilities. This review focuses on liabilities that amount to negligence both under the civil and criminal laws in Nigeria, other instances of malpractices which may not amount to negligence but may suffice to give rise to a successful cause of action in other branches of substantive law including claims for breach of fundamental human rights; contract; and fiduciary relationship. The review concludes by emphasizing the need for caution and the need to ensure that justice is seen to be done not only to the victims but also to the medical practitioners who deserve all legal protection in the exercise of their professional duties.


Assuntos
Responsabilidade Legal , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Erros Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrões de Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(2): 75-80, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193994

RESUMO

En los últimos años la genética ha adquirido una gran importancia en los procesos de identificación masiva de víctimas y constituye, en muchos casos, la única herramienta útil. Algunas instituciones externalizan estos análisis en laboratorios especializados. Es el caso de la Unidad de Derechos Humanos del Servicio Médico Legal (SML) de Chile, creada con el objetivo de identificar y restituir a las familias los restos de las víctimas de la dictadura cívico-militar instaurada en el país entre 1973 y 1990, que provocó más de 1.300 desaparecidos y muertos sin entrega. La externalización de los análisis impone la necesidad de establecer una rigurosa sistemática de revisión y control de calidad de los análisis realizados por el laboratorio externo, lo que incluye asegurar la trazabilidad de las muestras y los análisis, además de reproducir tanto la comparación de los perfiles genéticos como su valoración estadística. En este trabajo se presenta la experiencia del SML en esta materia y se establecen una serie de recomendaciones que pueden ser utilizadas como guía por otras instituciones que decidan externalizar los análisis genéticos en procesos de identificación masiva de víctimas


In recent years, genetics has acquired great importance in the processes of mass victim identification and, in many cases, is the only useful tool. Some institutions outsource these analyses to specialized laboratories. This is the case of the Human Rights Unit of the Legal Medical Service (SML) of Chile, created with the objective of identifying and restoring to families the remains of the victims of the civic-military dictatorship established in the country between 1973 and 1990, which caused more than 1,300 missing and dead without delivery. The outsourcing of the analyses imposes the need to establish a rigorous systematic review and quality control of the analyses performed by the external laboratory, which includes ensuring traceability of the samples and analyses, in addition to reproducing the comparison of the genetic profiles and their statistical assessment. This paper presents the experience of the SML in this area and establishes a series of recommendations that can be used as a guide by other institutions that decide to outsource genetic analysis in processes of mass identification of victims


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/organização & administração , Identificação de Vítimas , Genética Forense/métodos , Gestão da Qualidade Total/métodos , Chile/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
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