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3.
Recurso educacional aberto em Espanhol | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-3880

RESUMO

1º Jornada «Derecho a la Salud», organizada por el CVSP Nodo Argentina, la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba y la Escuela de Salud Pública y Ambiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas–UNC. La misma se llevó a cabo el día 4 de diciembre del corriente año en el Salón Rojo de la Secretaría de Graduados en Ciencias de la Salud FCM-UNC. La jornada contó con la presencia de Profesionales de la Salud, Profesionales del Derecho, alumnos de postgrado de las Carreras de Ciencias Médicas, Derecho y Ciencias Sociales y público en general. Conferencia dictada por el Dr. José María Palacio. Abogado- Doctor en Ciencias de la Salud. Miembro de la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba.


Assuntos
Ética , Bioética/tendências , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulação e Fiscalização em Saúde
6.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 43-54, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184865

RESUMO

En este trabajo se plantean algunas reflexiones respecto de la edición genética y su impacto en la responsabilidad. Me centraré en la investigación y en las prácticas que se realizan en línea germinal, ya que son las que más preocupan a nuestra sociedad. Aunque estas tecnologías no generan problemas realmente novedosos, cuestionan el alcance de nuestra noción tradicional de responsabilidad y nos plantean nuevos desafíos respecto de cómo afrontarlas. Podemos pensar la responsabilidad de manera individual, en tanto progenitores, a la hora de decidir respecto de nuestra descendencia. Pero también se puede plantear una responsabilidad colectiva: por ejemplo, en tanto científicos a la hora de regular la ciencia, o en tanto sociedad. En este último sentido pareciera que deberíamos considerar cómo estas tecnologías puedan afectar el sistema público de acceso al cuidado de la salud así como también tener en cuenta si determinados grupos de pacientes corren el riesgo de ser postergados sin olvidar cuál pueda ser el impacto en las futuras generaciones


En aquest treball es plantegen algunes reflexions respecte de l'edició genètica i el seu impacte en la responsabilitat. Em centraré en la recerca i en les pràctiques que es realitzen en la línia germinal, ja que són les que més preocupen la nostra societat. Encara que aquestes tecnologies no generen problemes realment nous, qüestionen l'abast de la nostra noció tradicional de responsabilitat i ens plantegen nous desafiaments respecte de com afrontar-les. Podem pensar la responsabilitat de manera individual, en tant progenitors, a l'hora de decidir respecte de la nostra descendència. Però també es pot plantejar una responsabilitat col•lectiva: per exemple, en tant que científics a l'hora de regular la ciència, o en tant que societat. En aquest últim sentit hauríem de considerar com aquestes tecnologies poden afectar el sistema públic d'accés a la salut així com també tenir en compte si determinats grups de pacients corren el risc de ser postergats sense oblidar quin pugui ser l'impacte en les futures generacions


In this article I would like to examine gene editing and its impact on responsibility. I will focus on germ line’ research and practice. Though these technologies do not raise novel issues, they make us re-think the scope of traditional responsibility. I will examine responsibility from an individual perspective: for example our role as parents and the impact of our decisions on our descendants. I will also examine responsibility from a collective perspective: scientists should examine how to regulate these technologies. In addition, as a society we should address how these technologies may affect public access to health care, or if groups of patients might be overlooked. We should also think the impact gene editing may have on future generations


Assuntos
Humanos , Edição de Genes/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Células Germinativas , Sistemas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Anthropol Med ; 26(3): 280-295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550907

RESUMO

As immigration and health policy continue to be contentious topics globally, anthropologists must examine how policy creates notions of health-related deservingness, which may have broad consequences. This paper explores hidden relationships between immigration enforcement laws and the most recent health reform law in the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which excludes immigrants from certain types of health services. Findings in this paper show how increasingly harsh immigration enforcement efforts provide health facilities a 'license to discriminate' against undocumented immigrants, resulting in some facilities 'dumping' undocumented patients or unlawfully transferring them from one hospital to another. Due to changes made through the ACA, patient dumping disproportionately complicates public hospitals' financial viability and may have consequences on public facilities' ability to provide care for all indigent patients. By focusing on the converging consequences of immigrant policing and health reform, findings in this paper ultimately show that examining deservingness assessments and how they become codified into legislation, which I call 'deservingness projects', can reveal broader elements of state power and demonstrate how such power extends beyond targeted populations. Exercises of state power can thus have 'spillover effects' that harm numerous vulnerable populations, highlighting the importance of medical anthropology in documenting the broad, hidden consequences of governmental actions that construct populations as undeserving of social services.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hispano-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Transferência de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Antropologia Médica , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/etnologia
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(6): 2167-2172, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269175

RESUMO

This paper presents the issue of judicialization of the right to health in Brazil. Data from the National Council of Justice evidence a substantial increase in the number of lawsuits concerning the right to health. We emphasize that the national doctrine exhaustively discusses ways to make the authority more effective, but it does not, as a general rule, discuss the economic aspect of health judicialization. Using the concept of opportunity cost extracted from economics science, it is shown that the judge, by deferring the lawsuit formulated by the plaintiff, automatically forces the Executive Branch to reduce the scope of other policies to generate resources to meet the court order. In specific contexts, this setting ends up favoring individual rights at the expense of the collective rights of SUS users, in violation of the principle of isonomy and efficiency. Finally, the case of the judicialization promoted by the hemophiliac patients in the Federal District is shown as a way of evidencing, at the factual level, the consequences of judicialization in the SUS policies.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Hemofilia A/terapia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia
10.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (46): 47-66, jul. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184851

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the main ethical, legal and social implications (ELSIs) concerning social humanoid robots that have their base in artificial intelligence (AI). The main dilemma highlighted touches upon the expansion of the concept of legal personhood, and the attribution of appropriate legal responses to govern the future proliferation of AI systems vis-à-vis social humanoid robots. The paper cautions on the need to carefully reflect on notions of personhood and human dignity for AI systems, balanced against the underlying representation of values and behaviors that may threaten to erode the human rights discourse. Additionally, it questions the wisdom of the broad expanse of the European legal response to the development and use of AI systems


Este artículo trata los principales aspectos éticos, legales y las implicaciones sociales (ELSI, por sus siglas en inglés) de los robots humanoides sociales basados en inteligencia artificial (IA). El principal dilema se refiere a la expansión del concepto de persona jurídica y la atribución de respuestas jurídicas apropiadas para regir la futura proliferación de los sistemas de IA frente a los robots humanoides sociales. El artículo advierte la necesidad de reflexionar cuidadosamente sobre las nociones de persona y dignidad humana para los sistemas de IA, que se equilibren con la representación subyacente de valores y comportamientos que pueden amenazar con erosionar el discurso de los derechos humanos. Además, cuestiona el juicio de la respuesta jurídica europea al desarrollo y uso de los sistemas de IA


Aquest article tracta els principals aspectes ètics, legals i les implicacions socials (ELSI, per les seves sigles en anglès) dels robots humanoides socials basats en intel•ligència artificial (IA). El principal dilema es refereix a l'expansió del concepte de persona jurídica i l'atribució de respostes jurídiques apropiades per a regir la futura proliferació dels sistemes de IA enfront dels robots humanoides socials. L'article adverteix la necessitat de reflexionar acuradament sobre les nocions de persona i dignitat humana per als sistemes de IA, que s'equilibrin amb la representació subjacent de valors i comportaments que poden amenaçar amb erosionar el discurs dels drets humans. A més, qüestiona el judici de la resposta jurídica europea al desenvolupament i ús dels sistemes de IA


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/ética , Robótica/ética , Robótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (46): 37-84, jul. 2019. graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-184852

RESUMO

dÉ a pessoa que inaugura a existência jurídica do ser: sem ela é difícil se chegar a acordos acerca das especificidades de direitos e deveres. No entremeio dessa relação, o transhumanismo, filosofia que advoga por um ser humano melhorado de modo a transcender sua natureza biológica, encontra respaldo prático na interação da tecnologia com a biologia, resultando na ampliação paulatina dos modos de "ser" humano, onde o ciborgue emerge como potencial humano diferenciado em vulnerabilidades e potencialidades em comparação ao Homo sapiens moderno. Assim, a personalidade jurídica contemporaneamente considerada é afetada e repensar sua formulação faz-se necessário. Sustenta-se que as inéditas possibilidades de proteção e responsabilização do ciborgue implicam sua existência jurídica através de uma nova pessoa, a pessoa não-natural


Es la persona que inaugura la existencia jurídica del ser: sin ella, es difícil llegar a acuerdos sobre las especificidades de derechos y deberes. En el centro de esa relación, el transhumanismo, filosofia que defiende un ser humano mejorado de manera a transcender su natureza biológica, encuentra respaldo práctico en la interacción de la tecnología con la biología, culminando en la ampliación paulatina de los modos de "ser" humano, donde el ciborg emerge como potencial humano diferenciado en vulnerabilidades y potencialidades en comparación al Homo sapiens moderno. Así, la personalidad jurídica contemporánea considerada es afectada y repensar su formulación se hace necesario. Se sustenta que las inéditas posibilidades de protección y responsabilización del ciborg implican su existencia jurídica a través de una nueva persona, la persona no-natural


És la persona que inaugura l'existència legal de l'ésser: sense ella és difícil arribar a acords sobre les especificitats dels drets i deures. Enmig d'aquesta relació, el transhumanisme, filosofia que advoca per un ésser humà millorat per a transcendir la seva naturalesa biològica, troba suport pràctic en la interacció de la tecnologia amb la biologia, resultant en l'expansió gradual de les maneres de "ser" humà, on el cyborg emergeix com un potencial humà diferenciat en vulnerabilitats i potencialitats enfront de l'Homo sapiens modern. Així, la personalitat jurídica contemporània es veu afectada i és necessari replantejar-se la seva formulació. S'argumenta que les possibilitats de protecció i responsabilitat del ciborg impliquen una existència jurídica sense precedents a través d'una nova persona, la persona no natural


It is the person who inaugurates the legal existence of the being: without it, it is difficult to reach agreements on the specificities of rights and duties. In the midst of this relationship, transhumanism, a philosophy that advocates an improved human being to transcend his biological nature, finds practical support in the interaction of technology with biology, resulting in the gradual expansion of human "being" modes, where the cyborg emerges as a human potential differentiated in vulnerabilities and potentialities in front of modern Homo sapiens. Thus, the contemporary legal personality is affected and it is necessary to rethink its formulation. It is argued that the possibilities of protection and responsibility of the cyborg imply an unprecedented legal existence through a new person, the non-natural person


Assuntos
Humanos , Cibernética/ética , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Robótica/ética , Aptidão/ética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ergonomia , Desenvolvimento Humano , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Robótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
14.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(1): 30-34, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237255

RESUMO

Sexuality is a vital component of human life. Sexuality deals with procreation and pleasure. Sexual behaviours and orientations vary and may be related to mental health. Some sexual orientations may be discriminated or censored by religious or political beliefs, and this has a big impact on sexual variations. Frequently, sexual variations are considered to be pathological and need to be medically treated. However, it should be accepted that sexuality includes a continuum of behaviours, thoughts, fantasies, acts, and attractions that are beyond procreation. Modern sexology introduced the concept of gender identity and sexual fluidity to describe how gender and sexual orientation vary and are flexible over time. Healthcare professionals and policy makers should be aware of these new definitions in order to meet health needs of sexually variant people and prevent sexuality discrimination.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(1): 179-189, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239625

RESUMO

The ongoing water crises in Detroit and Flint, Michigan, offer dramatic cases of retrogression in realizing the human right to water-particularly striking in a region that enjoys access to one-fifth of the world's freshwater and a country that has historically enjoyed near-universal access to water and sanitation. Efforts to secure safe, sufficient, affordable, acceptable, and accessible water in these cities reveal a troubling inability to protect the human right to water through legal measures. Compounding the challenge is the lack of reliable government data on the scope and impacts of the water crises-a void that residents have organized to fill. Activists have engaged a number of citizen-led research projects to demonstrate the health impacts of unsafe and unaffordable water. This paper discusses the process and potential of such projects to advance the substance of the human right to water in the United States, considering their effects within and outside the law. These research efforts have significant methodological and legal constraints with respect to widespread water insecurity, exposing a serious vulnerability in communities' ability to protect drinking water and public health in the United States through legal means. However, drawing on Amartya Sen's theory of human rights, I elaborate the extra-juridical powers of human rights, emphasizing their power to galvanize action and articulate ethical demands. Citizen science is a powerful mode of engaging residents in the articulation-and quantification-of those human rights demands, as I demonstrate with local cases.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Michigan , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência
16.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(1): 203-214, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239627

RESUMO

This paper evaluates an approach for strengthening environmental rights for children to safeguard child health. We focus on children as beneficiaries of environmental rights on account of their vulnerability to environmental impacts on their physical and mental health. Current legal frameworks, unless explicitly identifying children as beneficiaries, arguably tend to be adult-centric. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive rights-based framework to ensure that children are protected against adverse environmental impacts. We argue that approaches that safeguard children's rights to life, health, and education should include environment-related issues, standards, and protections for those rights to be fully implemented. We propose employing sustainable development as a framework under which to develop an international treaty to promulgate the environmental rights of the child, thereby promoting health, environmental stewardship, and quality of life for children and future generations. We further argue that children's environmental rights extend beyond basic "needs"-such as clean air, clean water, sanitation, and a healthful environment, among others-to include the right to benefit from access to nature of a certain quality and the wealth of educational, recreational, developmental, and health benefits that come with ensuring protection of the environment for children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global , Humanos
20.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 65: 1-4, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009838

RESUMO

Article 2 of the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) protects the Right to Life that is invoked in an inquest where the diseased has expired in circumstances of custody or control by an agency of state. The High Court in 2012 ordered the second inquest in the Hillsborough case where the correct directions to the jury were read as to when there is a breach of such a duty. The inquest findings resulted in criminal charges being brought against two former senior police officers, who were indicted linked to the disaster. This paper examines the inquest process where there is a jury and considers the framework of the Coroners Court in the context of Article 2 where death has occurred under circumstances of duress.


Assuntos
Médicos Legistas/legislação & jurisprudência , Polícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Lesões por Esmagamento/mortalidade , Desastres , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Má Conduta Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Futebol , Reino Unido
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