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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 59-75, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192094

RESUMO

Este artículo describe el discurso de actores relevantes sobre la noción y argumentos de la objeción de conciencia en el contexto del aborto en Chile. Los resultados dan cuenta de la complejidad para abordar esta temática. Hay actores que consideran la objeción de conciencia un derecho fundamental. Para otros, constituye un privilegio y una manifestación de desigualdad ante la ley. Los principales argumentos aluden a la libertad de conciencia y religión. Se considera contrastar la objeción de conciencia con el compromiso de conciencia, debiendo incorporarse la reflexión ética en la formación y capacitación de los equipos de salud. Deben generarse instancias de fiscalización y regulación, evitando vulnerar los derechos de las mujeres que puedan resultar afectadas por esta objeción


This article describes the discourse of relevant actors on the notion and arguments of conscientious objection to abortion in Chile. The results show the complexity of addressing this issue. There are actors who consider conscientious objection a fundamental right. For others, it constitutes a privilege and a manifestation of legal inequality. The main arguments refer to freedom of conscience and religion. It is considered to contrast conscientious objection with conscientious commitment, and ethical reflection should be incorporated into the education and training of health teams. Monitoring and regulatory instances must be created to avoid violating the rights of women who may be affected by this objection


Aquest article descriu el discurs d'actors rellevants sobre la noció I arguments de l'objecció de consciència en el context de l'avortament a Xile. Els resultats evidencien la complexitat per abordar aquesta temàtica. Hi ha actors que consideren l'objecció de consciència un dret fonamental. Per altres, constitueix un privilegi I una manifestació de desigualtat davant la llei. Els principals arguments al·ludeixen a la llibertat de consciència I religió. Es considera contrastar l'objecció de consciència amb el compromís de consciència, I s'ha d'incorporar la reflexió ètica a la formació I capacitació dels equips de salut. S'han de generar instàncies de fiscalització I regulació, evitant vulnerar els drets de les dones que puguin resultar afectades per aquesta objecció


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aborto , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Consciência , Saúde Reprodutiva/ética , Saúde Sexual/ética , Chile , Saúde da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética Médica
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281015

RESUMO

Canada decriminalized abortion, uniquely in the world, 30 years ago. We present the timeline of relevant Canadian legal, political, and policy events before and since decriminalization. We assess implications for clinical care, health service and systems decisions, health policy, and the epidemiology of abortion in the absence of criminal legislation. As the criminal abortion law was struck down, dozens of similar private member's bills, and one government bill, have been proposed, but none were passed. Key findings include that initially Canadian provinces attempted to provide restrictive regulations and legislation, all of which have been revoked and largely replaced with supportive policies that improve equitable, accessible, state-provided abortion service. Abortion rates have been stable over 30 years since decriminalization, and a falling proportion of abortions occur late in the second trimester. Canada demonstrates that abortion care can safely and effectively be regulated as a normal component of usual medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Legal , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Legislação como Assunto , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395317

RESUMO

In May 2018, the Irish electorate voted to remove from the Constitution one of the most restrictive abortion bans in the world. This referendum followed 35 years of legal cases, human rights advocacy, feminist activism and governmental and parliamentary processes. The reframing of abortion as an issue of women's health rather than foetal rights was crucial to the success of law reform efforts. The new law, enacted in 2018, provides for access to abortion on a woman's request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy and in situations of risk to the life or of serious harm to the health of the pregnant woman and fatal foetal anomaly thereafter. Abortion is now broadly accessible in Ireland; however, continued advocacy is needed to ensure that the state meets international human rights standards and that access to abortion care and abortion rights is fully secured within the law.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Política , Gravidez , Gestantes , Saúde Reprodutiva
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230835

RESUMO

This chapter reviews the evolving consensus in international human rights law, first supporting the liberalization of criminal abortion laws to improve access to care and now supporting their repeal or decriminalization as a human rights imperative to protect the health, equality, and dignity of people. This consensus is based on human rights standards or the authoritative interpretations of U.N. and regional human rights treaties in general comments and recommendations, individual communications and inquiry reports of treaty monitoring bodies, and in the thematic reports of special rapporteurs and working groups of the U.N. and regional human rights systems. This chapter explores the reach and influence of human rights standards, especially how high courts in many countries reference these standards to hold governments accountable for the reform and repeal of criminal abortion laws.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501010

RESUMO

Latin America hosts the most restrictive abortion legislation globally. In 2007, Mexico, the second largest Catholic country in the world, decriminalized elective abortion within the first twelve weeks of pregnancy in the capital: Mexico City (also known as Federal District of Mexico). Following the reform, the Mexico City Ministry of Health (MX-MOH) implemented safe and legal services. Free services are provided to Mexico City residents and a sliding fee of up to $100 is applied to women from other Mexican states. Conscientious objection (CO) was addressed and included in service provision guidelines. Since 2007, 18 of 32 states amended their penal codes to restrict abortion. The road toward increasing access to abortion services at the MX-MOH included a shift from dilation and curettage (D&C) to medical abortion (MA), first with the misoprostol-alone regimen, followed by the combined mifepristone-misoprostol regimen. Manual vacuum aspiration is offered to out-of-state-women or to those beyond the gestational age where MA is less effective. Contraceptive uptake among abortion seekers is high (up to 95% of them prefer a free method of their choice). The Legal Interruption of Pregnancy program at the MX-MOH continues to provide effective, safe, reliable, and free services. However, women from indigenous groups residing in rural areas, those with low schooling, and adolescents with an unintended pregnancy who live in rural, urban, peri-urban districts, and at the state level are underserved despite being legally eligible to receive abortion services. Therefore, information and services for the disadvantaged groups need to be strengthened.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Anticoncepção Pós-Coito , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , México , Mifepristona , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Curetagem a Vácuo
8.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 97-107, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885440

RESUMO

This paper examines how issues related to abortion have historically been influenced by population control policies in South Korea and how the contemporary reproductive justice movement in South Korea has contributed to social change. On April 11, 2019, South Korea's Constitutional Court ruled that the ban on abortion was unconstitutional. As a result, South Korea's legislature must revise the 66-year-old anti-abortion law by December 31, 2020. This historic decision was closely related to the advocacy of a number of feminist groups, doctors' organizations, disability rights groups, youth activists, and religious groups in South Korea, who collectively formed the Joint Action for Reproductive Justice (Joint Action) in 2017. This paper describes the activism and actions of Joint Action as a key part of reproductive justice movements in Korea. Joint Action was initiated by an organization for women with disabilities, and once formed, they worked collectively to frame abortion as a social justice issue that goes beyond the pro-choice versus pro-life binary. By focusing on the composition, strategies, and main agenda of Joint Action, this paper analyzes how Joint Action influenced the Constitutional Court's 2019 decision to decriminalize abortion in South Korea and how the court established that it is the government's responsibility to ensure every individual's reproductive health and rights.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Feminismo , Governo , Humanos , República da Coreia , Mudança Social
9.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 121-131, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885442

RESUMO

Until as recently as September 2017, Chile was one of the few countries in the world that did not permit abortion under any circumstances. Although the Health Code had permitted therapeutic abortion (i.e., on health grounds) from 1931, this was repealed in 1989 as one of General Pinochet's last acts in office. It took more than 25 years to reverse the ban. Finally, a new act was approved allowing abortion on three grounds: when a woman's life is in danger, when there are fetal anomalies incompatible with life, and in the case of rape. Since the law allows abortion only in limited cases, most women must continue to seek illegal abortions, as previously. In this paper, we explore the historical context in which Chile's 2017 bill was finally passed. We then analyze the legislative debate leading up to the passage of the law. Lastly, we present the results of a community-based participatory research effort carried out by an alliance between feminist and human rights organizations. Chile's law was passed almost two years ago, and this research shows the persistence of various obstacles that hinder women's access to legal abortion, such as the use of conscientious objection, a lack of trained health care providers, and a lack information for women.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Dissidências e Disputas , Recusa do Médico a Tratar/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/ética , Chile , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Feminismo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Gravidez
10.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 133-144, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885443

RESUMO

This article analyzes the ways in which rights-based arguments are utilized by anti-abortion activists in the UK. Drawing on an ethnographic study featuring 30 abortion clinic sites, anti-abortion marches, and other campaigns, we argue that rights-based claims form an important part of their arguments. In contrast to the way in which human rights law has been interpreted to support abortion provision, anti-abortion activists seek to undermine this connection through a number of mechanisms. First, they align their arguments with scientific discourse and attempt to downplay the religious motivation for their action. While this is an attempt to generate greater credibility for their campaign, ultimately, the coopting of scientific arguments actually becomes embedded in their religious practice, rather than being separate from it. Second, they reconfigure who should be awarded human rights, arguing not only that fetuses should be accorded human rights but also that providing abortion to women goes against women's human rights. This article is important in showing how rights claims are religiously reframed by anti-abortion activists and what the implications are regarding debates about access to abortion services in relation to religious rights and freedom of belief.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Religião , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Antropologia Cultural , Feminino , Feto , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Gravidez , Reino Unido
11.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 157-167, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885445

RESUMO

Rape of girls under the age of 14 is common in Latin America, and forced pregnancy and motherhood among these girls is a major public health and human rights problem. Even though abortion in the case of rape is legal in a handful of the countries in the region, and is legal in most countries when the life or health of the pregnant woman is in danger, many girls under 14 are forced to continue pregnancies conceived due to rape and to become mothers long before they have the capacity to do so.1 The paper demonstrates how forced pregnancy and motherhood among girls aged 9-14 in the Latin America region who have been the victims of rape adversely affects all aspects of their health and lives, exacerbated by discrimination and the absence of legal abortion services. It then describes a multidimensional strategy, which includes legal, communications, and advocacy work developed by Planned Parenthood Global and partners in response to these realities. This unique strategy seeks to ensure that access to legal abortion is universally available and accessible to girls aged 9-14 on the grounds that continuing pregnancy poses a serious risk to their health and lives.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia
12.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 169-179, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885446

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to assess The Gambia's laws on abortion. It argues that the restrictive laws on abortion are less a function of religious doctrine and more due to the historical and contemporary structure of the Gambian state, influenced by autocratic rule. As such, the current shift from an authoritarian regime to a democratic one suggests that there may be potential for legal mobilization in the advancement of women's sexual and reproductive rights, including broadening the legal grounds for abortion. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, the article suggests that a critical mass of support through collaborative networking between parliamentarians, health professionals, human rights activists, the media, and women's rights supporters is needed. Advocacy for expanding the grounds for safe abortion would be premised on international norms and standards, as well as support for research on the magnitude of unsafe abortion and its impact, while addressing the sociocultural context. These different strategies should be adopted to expand access to safe, legal abortion in The Gambia.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Democracia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Gâmbia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
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