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1.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(2): 251-264, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105129

RESUMO

Grounded in Psychology of Working Theory (PWT), the current study investigated predictors of decent work among a sample of employed women (N = 528). A structural equation model was examined finding that women's experiences of marginalization, work volition, and career adaptability all directly predicted the attainment of decent work, and economic constraints and marginalization experiences indirectly predicted decent work via work volition. Additionally, workplace climate for women employees was examined as both a predictor and moderator variable to explore best positioning of this additive construct. Workplace climate did not significantly moderate any model paths; however, it was a unique predictor of work volition and decent work, suggesting that this construct may be better positioned as a predictor variable in understanding the work experiences of women. These results highlight the importance of further investigating the role of workplace climate in PWT as well as the need for refining our understanding of how marginalized employees achieve decent work. Implications of the present study's results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Direitos da Mulher/métodos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Immunol ; 21(3): 254-258, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094649

RESUMO

Women have been at the forefront of tremendous achievements in immunology in the past decade. However, disparities still exist, limiting upward potential and further advancements. As four NIH intramural women scientists who care deeply about scientific progress and the progress of women in our field, we review ongoing challenges and discuss potential approaches to help advance the promotion of women in the sciences.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia/tendências , Sexismo/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Tutoria/tendências , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
3.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104416

RESUMO

Objetivo. Descrever as representações de ser mulher das usuárias do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM), com perspectiva de gênero e raça, e as mudanças que o PMM trouxe quanto ao empoderamento e cuidado da saúde. Métodos. Trata-se de um estudo de caso descritivo, de corte transversal. O trabalho de campo foi realizado mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas, aplicação de uma técnica evocativa de associação de palavras e grupos focais em municípios com médicos cubanos, com amostras de tipo nominal para escolha dos municípios e de tipo intencional para a escolha de participantes. O tamanho das amostras foi definido em campo com base na técnica da saturação teórica. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de conteúdo e análise prototípica. Resultados. A cobertura da atenção básica foi fortalecida com os aportes do programa, segundo os quatro gestores entrevistados. As mulheres (103 na técnica evocativa e 120 nos grupos focais) relataram mudanças no modelo de atendimento, que se tornou mais humanizado, com impacto sobre sua percepção sobre os serviços de saúde, sobre a consulta médica, sobre os médicos e sobre a imagem de si mesmas e, em menor medida, sobre as práticas de cuidado da saúde. Conclusões. O PMM trouxe ganhos no empoderamento individual das mulheres, com reflexos potencialmente positivos para os comportamentos em saúde.(AU)


Objective. To describe the representations of being a woman by users of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM) in Brazil, exploring the perspectives of gender and race, and the changes produced by PMM in terms of empowerment and health care. Methods. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The field work was performed using semi-structured interviews, with application of an evocative word technique and focal groups in municipalities with Cuban physicians, with nominal selection of municipalities and intentional selection of participants. The size of the sample was defined in the field based on saturation. The data were analyzed by content and prototypical analyses. Results. Primary health care coverage was strengthened by the PMM, according to the four municipal health secretaries interviewed. Participants (103 in the evocative technique and 120 from focal groups) reported changes in the model of care, which became more humanized, with impact on their perception of health care services, medical consultations, and physicians, on the image they had of themselves and, to a lesser extent, on their health care practices. Conclusions. PMM produced individual empowerment gains for study participants, with potentially positive impacts on health care behaviors.(AU)


Objetivo. Describir las representaciones de la condición de ser mujer hechas por las usuarias del programa Mais Médicos, con una perspectiva de género y raza, y los cambios producidos por este programa en materia de empoderamiento y cuidado de la salud. Métodos. Se trata de un estudio de caso descriptivo y transversal. El trabajo de campo se realizó mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, con aplicación de una técnica evocadora de asociación de palabras y grupos focales en municipios con presencia de médicos cubanos, con muestras de tipo nominal para la selección de los municipios y de tipo intencional para la selección de las participantes. El tamaño de las muestras se definió sobre el terreno con base en la técnica de la saturación teórica. Los datos se sometieron a análisis prototípico y de contenido. Resultados. Los aportes del programa fortalecieron la cobertura de la atención básica, según lo expresado por los cuatro gestores entrevistados. Las mujeres (103 de las entrevistadas con la técnica evocadora y 120 de los grupos focales) relataron cambios en los modelos de atención que hicieron que la atención se torne más humanizada y que incidieron en su percepción de los servicios de salud, las consultas médicas, los médicos, la imagen de sí mismas y, en menor grado, las prácticas de cuidado de la salud. Conclusiones. El programa Mais Médicos implicó adelantos en materia de empoderamiento individual de las mujeres, con repercusiones potencialmente favorables en los patrones de comportamiento relacionados con la salud.(AU)


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Assistência Integral à Saúde/métodos , Políticas Públicas não Discriminatórias , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Cuba , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/organização & administração
4.
Am J Nurs ; 119(9): 7, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449097

RESUMO

Nursing needs to be in the forefront of women's rights.


Assuntos
Enfermagem/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Humanos , Política Pública , Estados Unidos
7.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 214, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's empowerment has a direct impact on maternal and child health care service utilization. Large scope measurement of contraceptive use in several dimensions is paramount, considering the nature of empowerment processes as it relates to improvements in maternal health status. However, multicountry and multilevel analysis of the measurement of women's empowerment indicators and their associations with contraceptive use is vital to make a substantial intervention in the Sub-Saharan Africa context. Therefore, we investigated the impact of women's empowerment on contraceptive use among women in sub-Saharan Africa countries. METHODS: Secondary data involving 474,622 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from the current Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in 32 Sub-Saharan Africa region was used in this study. Contraceptive use was the primary outcome variable. Multilevel analysis was conducted to examine the impact of women's empowerment on contraceptive use. Percentages were conducted in univariate analysis. Furthermore, multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between individual, compositional and contextual factors of contraceptive use. RESULTS: Results showed large disparities in the number of women who reportedly ever use contraceptive methods; this range from as low as 6.7% in Chad and as much as 72% in Namibia. More than one-third of the respondents had no formal education and more than half were active labor force. Contraceptive use was significantly more common among respondents from the richest households (28.5% versus 18.9%). Various components of women's empowerment were positively significantly associated with contraceptive use after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors. There was a significant variation in the odds of contraceptive use across the 32 countries (σ2= 1.12, 95% CrI 0.67 to 1.87) and across the neighbourhoods (σ2= 0.95, 95% CrI 0.92 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an increase in contraceptive use and by better extension maternal health care services utilization can be achieved by enhancing women's empowerment. Also, an increase in decision-making autonomy by women, their participation in labour force, reduction in abuse and violence and improved knowledge level are all key issues to be considered. Health-related policies should address inequalities in women's empowerment, education and economic status which would yield benefits to individuals, families, and societies in general.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/normas , Poder Psicológico , Direitos da Mulher/normas , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 42(4): 668-671, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387700

RESUMO

February 11th is the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. To mark this day, research centers and universities were invited by the Spanish Neuroscience Association to organize a symposium. Twenty-five centers in Spain participated in the event, with the intent of giving visibility to the existing problem of the scarcity of women compared with men in (neuro)science in positions of responsibility and command. Fourteen neuroscientists, all staff members of the University of Valencia, arranged the meeting. The morning included lectures by women neuroscientists in different phases of their career: a PhD student, a junior and a senior postdoctoral investigator, and a well-established investigator. In the evening, a roundtable composed of expert women philosophists, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) scientists, and social experts discussed why the gap exists. At the end of the meeting, the exhibition entitled, "Women in Science" commenced: pictures and a brief biography of women who made significant contributions to science were presented. More than 200 people attended the meeting, including the general public, scientists, and secondary school and university students.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Neurociências/tendências , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Neurociências/educação , Espanha , Direitos da Mulher/educação
9.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 32(1): 15-23, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049335

RESUMO

University hospitals are involved in the care of critically ill patients, pregraduate and postgraduate education, and medical research with an increasing demand on physicians due to a higher burden of disease. The number of female physicians is increasing; however, young female physicians are less willing to work at university hospitals under the given conditions. They often do not find appropriate working conditions in mostly hierarchically structured university hospitals. Institutional structures involuntarily erect barriers against the recruitment, retention, and career progression of women. Gendered working conditions remain firmly fixed, and this is even more challenging - overt discrimination has been replaced by less visible mostly implicit stereotypes and prejudices against women. Having children is an additional "career stopper" for female physicians: those with children are less likely to be promoted and have a lower income. Regulatory measures should act in several directions: cultural gender equality policies, family support policies, and active work policies.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Educação Médica/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Médicas/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Educação Médica/normas , Docentes de Medicina/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Médicas/normas , Direitos da Mulher/normas
11.
ABCS health sci ; 43(1): 41-46, maio 18, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-884000

RESUMO

Introdução: O abuso sexual deixa sequelas graves, como limitações sociais. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil das vítimas de violência sexual atendidas em um serviço especializado, na cidade de Mauá, São Paulo, entre 2008 a 2009. Métodos: Analisou-se 138 mulheres, assistidas em um Hospital Universitário. Estudo retrospectivo com levantamento de prontuários para coleta de dados. As variáveis estudadas foram: idade, etnia, relacionamento conjugal e sexual, hora da violência, número de agressores, busca por auxílio médico, uso de medicações e exames protocolares, comunicação por parte da vítima às autoridades competentes, uso de arma pelo agressor e número de gestações decorrentes. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 22 anos. A maioria não possuía relação estável, tinha atividade sexual previamente à violência, etnia branca, procurou auxílio médico em até 72 horas após o ocorrido usou medicações protocolares. No período noturno ocorreram mais crimes e a violência nesse momento teve maior probabilidade de ser praticada por mais de um agressor. Apenas 26,7% pacientes reconheceram os agressores e somente 42,9% e 21,8% das mulheres fizeram boletim de ocorrência e exame de corpo de delito, respectivamente. Em 40,8% foi utilizado algum tipo de arma na abordagem ou durante o crime. Por fim, nenhuma das pacientes que fez contracepção de emergência engravidou. Somente quatro engravidaram em decorrência da agressão. Conclusão: A caracterização das pessoas que sofrem violência sexual é de extrema importância para a criação de estratégias de atendimento para a profilaxia de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e seguimento ambulatorial até finalizar o tratamento, além de acompanhamento psicológico. (AU)


Introduction: Sexual abuse leaves severe sequels, such as social limitations. Objective: To investigate aspects of sexual violence and the victims treated at a specialized service in the city of Mauá, São Paulo, between 2008 to 2009. Methods: We analyzed 138 women, assisted at a University Hospital. Study is retrospective with survey of medical records for data collection. We studied: age, ethnicity, marital and sexual relationship, time of violence, number of aggressors, search for medical assistance, use of medications and protocol examinations, communication to the competent authorities, use of the weapon by the aggressor and number of resulting pregnancies. Results: The mean age was 22 years. Most had no stable relationship, had sexual activity before the violence, were of white ethnicity, sought medical help within 72 hours after the event and used protocol medications. At night there were more crimes and violence at that time was more likely to be committed by more than one perpetrator. Only 26.7% of the patients acknowledged the perpetrators and only 42.9% and 21.8% of the women did report bullying and examination of the body of crime, respectively. In 40.8% some kind of weapon was used in the approach or during the crime. Finally, none of the patients who did emergency contraception became pregnant. Conclusion: The characterization of people who suffer sexual violence is of extreme importance for the creation of strategies for the care of prophylaxis of sexually transmitted diseases and outpatient follow-up until the end of treatment, as well as psychological counseling. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência contra a Mulher , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 28(2): 133-139, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171691

RESUMO

La mutilación genital femenina, condenada por todos los países miembros de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, se ha extendido alrededor del mundo como consecuencia de los flujos migratorios, y se realiza al amparo de una costumbre, tradición o cultura. En España está penada como delito de lesiones según el Código Penal vigente. Mediante un caso clínico se revisan las principales actuaciones de la matrona ante dicha lesión en una gestante en el trabajo de parto. Se exponen los datos recogidos en la exploración física y valoración según el modelo de Virginia Henderson, y se desarrolla un plan de cuidados completo. Del caso se puede concluir que, en el ámbito hospitalario, las matronas pueden y deben reforzar y completar el trabajo con estas mujeres y sus familias de informar, educar y fortalecer la decisión de no mutilar, el cual debería haber sido iniciado en el centro de salud (AU)


Female genital mutilation, condemned by all UN member countries has spread throughout the world as a result of migratory flows and is practiced under the guise of a custom, tradition or culture. In Spain, it is punishable as a personal injury offence under the current penal code. A clinical case study reviewed the main actions of the midwife in this kind of injury in a pregnant woman during labour. The data collected from the physical examination and the midwife's assessment according to the Virginia Henderson model are presented and a complete care plan developed. From the case it can be concluded that in the hospital area, midwives can and should reinforce and complete the work with these women and their families, of informing, educating and reinforcing the decision not to mutilate. This work should have been started in, the health centre (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Circuncisão Feminina/enfermagem , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/organização & administração , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Técnicas de Ablação Endometrial/métodos
16.
Neuron ; 96(4): 721-729, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144971

RESUMO

In the past 50 years, significant progress in women's equality has been made worldwide. Western countries, particularly European countries, have implemented initiatives to attain a more gender-balanced workforce with the introduction of family friendly policies, by trying to narrow the gender pay gap and by promoting women's career progression. In academia, however, fewer women reach top leadership positions than those in the political arena. These findings suggest that academia needs to carefully evaluate why these new policies have not been very effective. In this NeuroView, we report on the progress made in higher education, the shortcomings, and how new initiatives hold great promise for improving gender equality in academia around the globe.


Assuntos
Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Direitos da Mulher/tendências
17.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 52(6): 715-721, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016712

RESUMO

Aims: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights. Methods: Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified as punitive to women or supportive of them. The association between numbers of punitive policies and supportive policies in 2013 with a measure of state restrictions on reproductive rights and Alcohol Policy Effectiveness Scores (APS) was estimated using a Pearson's correlation. Results: The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased from 1 in 1974 to 43 in 2013. Through the 1980s, state policy environments were either punitive or supportive. In the 1990s, mixed punitive and supportive policy environments began to be the norm, with punitive policies added to supportive ones. No association was found between the number of supportive policies in 2013 and a measure of reproductive rights policies or the APS, nor was there an association between the number of punitive policies and the APS. The number of punitive policies was positively associated, however, with restrictions on reproductive rights. Conclusion: Punitive alcohol and pregnancy policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than effective efforts to curb public health harms due to alcohol use in the general population. Future research should explore the effects of alcohol and pregnancy policies. Short Summary: The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased since 1970 (1 in 1974 and 43 in 2013). Alcohol and pregnancy policies are becoming increasingly punitive. These punitive policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than policies that effectively curb alcohol-related public health harms.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Gravidez , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/tendências , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência
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