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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0220219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813699

RESUMO

The location of defunct environmentally hazardous businesses like gas stations has many implications for modern American cities. To track down these locations, we present the directoreadr code (github.com/brown-ccv/directoreadr). Using scans of Polk city directories from Providence, RI, directoreadr extracts and parses business location data with a high degree of accuracy. The image processing pipeline ran without any human input for 94.4% of the pages we examined. For the remaining 5.6%, we processed them with some human input. Through hand-checking a sample of three years, we estimate that ~94.6% of historical gas stations are correctly identified and located, with historical street changes and non-standard address formats being the main drivers of errors. As an example use, we look at gas stations, finding that gas stations were most common early in the study period in 1936, beginning a sharp and steady decline around 1950. We are making the dataset produced by directoreadr publicly available. We hope it will be used to explore a range of important questions about socioeconomic patterns in Providence and cities like it during the transformations of the mid-1900s.


Assuntos
Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Análise de Dados , Diretórios como Assunto , Gasolina/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , Humanos , Rhode Island , Software/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 140: 105511, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278939

RESUMO

It has been suggested that Variable Message Signs (VMS) become less effective at communicating important traffic information when irrelevant information is also displayed on them. The purpose of this study was to examine if practice reading irrelevant information on a VMS influenced compliance with, and memory for a detour message. Thirty-nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups who drove a simulated road; one receiving only a detour message on the VMS, one group received irrelevant VMS messages before the detour message, and a third group received the same messages but the detour message was inconsistent with their destination. Of interest were both the participants' compliance with the target detour message, as well as their later recall and recognition of the message. The results suggested that, first and foremost, there was significantly lower compliance with the detour message when it had been preceded by irrelevant messages on the VMS. All of the groups showed reasonably good memory for the detour message. The implications of the present study are that presentation of irrelevant messages, including advertisements and safety slogans, may result in reduced compliance to traffic-relevant messages on VMSs.


Assuntos
Atenção , Direção Distraída , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Percepção Visual , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 138: 105479, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178794

RESUMO

Research on the effect of advertising billboards on road safety has accumulated over the past seven decades, but has led to inconclusive data, which prevent clear-cut conclusions. To enhance road safety, it was suggested that researchers should shift their efforts to exploring which billboard characteristics are distracting by nature. This line of research may promote the establishment of concrete guidelines for the least distracting permissible billboards. A previous study classified billboards into three clusters: 1. Loaded (colorful billboards with small quantities of graphic elements and large quantities of text); 2. Graphical (colorful billboards with large quantities of graphic elements and small quantities of text); and 3. Minimal (billboards with few or no graphic elements, few colors, and a small amount of text). The current study systematically explores the effect of these three clusters on drivers' performance in a driving simulator. Eighteen participants drove in scenarios which systematically manipulated the following variables: the perceptual load on the road, the perceptual load on the sides of the road, location of preplanned critical events, and the presence of billboards from each one of the three previously identified clusters. The findings show that the presence of billboards from the Loaded and Minimal clusters significantly compromised road safety in various experimental conditions. However, the presence of billboards from the Graphical cluster significantly affected drivers' performance only in one experimental condition. The conclusion, for the time being, is that Graphical billboards, which include a large quantity of graphic elements with few or no textual elements, are the least harmful while driving.


Assuntos
Direção Distraída/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/classificação , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Publicidade/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 138: 105465, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050109

RESUMO

Advance guide signs for exit ramps along urban expressways are increasingly critical, enhancing safety and mobility by improving the flow of vehicles exiting urban expressways. However, research has devoted scant attention to advance guide signs for exit ramps. This study aimed to identify and propose optimal design alternatives for exit ramp advance guide signs for different types of exit spacing. This study conducted a driving simulation experiment consisting of five design alternatives of advance guide signs and two exit ramp spacing variation. Eight indicators were measured. The repeated-measure analysis of variances (ANOVA) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were performed for the influence analysis and efficiency evaluation of different schemes. Influence analysis results showed better design alternatives in five schemes of advance guide signs, enabling drivers to more easily locate destination exits and change lanes fewer times, in addition to reducing drivers' need to decelerate, and improving traffic flow in the key influence range of destination exit ramps. The percentage of drivers successfully locating the destination exits also increased with optimal design alternatives of advance guide signs. When the exit ramp spacing tightened, on the other hand, drivers had to make more lane changes and accelerate and decelerate more frequently in the key influence range. As a result, a lower percentage of drivers successfully located destination exits. Efficiency evaluation results were also obtained. In tight spacing, three advance guide signs are recommended to be placed at 1 km, 0.5 km and 0 km prior to the beginning of the tapered deceleration lane. If conditions are limited, at least two advance guide signs should be used. With greater spacing, four advance guide signs are recommended, located at 2 km, 1 km, 0.5 km, and 0 km prior to the beginning of the tapered deceleration lane. If road conditions are limited, three advance guide signs should be used.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ambiente Construído/normas , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/normas , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Desaceleração/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 93, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with which over 37 million peoples are living is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The rapid expansion of antiretroviral treatment has dramatically reduced HIV related deaths and transmissions. Patient satisfaction could be an indispensable parameter used to measure patients' desired fulfillment by the services. Hence, this study aimed to determine the level of patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy services and determinants at Gondar town health centers. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to 30, 2018. The systematic random sampling technique was used to select 663 HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy follow-ups. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and patient medical document reviews. Summary statistics such as means, medians and proportions were calculated and presented in the form of tables, graphs, and texts. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to assess the strength of association. Variables with p-value 0.05 at multivariable logistic regression considered significant determinants of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: The overall patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy services was 75.4% (95%CI, 71.9 to 79%). Patients' age 38-47 years (AOR = 5.90, 95%CI: 3.38,10.31) and ≥ 48 years (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI:1.38,5.12), absence of signs and directions to ART clinic (AOR = 0.53,95%CI:0.35,0.82), Azezo health center (AOR = 2.68,95%CI:1.47,4.66) and Teda health center (AOR = 4.44,95%CI:1.73,11.30), and travel that took more than 1 h (AOR = 0.56;95% CI:0.32,0.97) were determinants of patient satisfaction with the services. CONCLUSION: The overall patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy service was lower than the national target of 85% with the marked difference among health centers. Older age, absence of signs and directions to ART clinics, and longer travel from home to health centers were factors influencing patient satisfaction with antiretroviral treatments. This suggests that further improvement of accessibility is likely needed to increase patient satisfaction.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597383

RESUMO

Increased stair climbing reduces cardiovascular disease risk. While signage interventions for workplace stair climbing offer a low-cost tool to improve population health, inconsistent effects of intervention occur. Pedestrian movement within the built environment has major effects on stair use, independent of any health initiative. This paper used pooled data from UK and Spanish workplaces to test the effects of signage interventions when pedestrian movement was controlled for in analyses. Automated counters measured stair and elevator usage at the ground floor throughout the working day. Signage interventions employed previously successful campaigns. In the UK, minute-by-minute stair/elevator choices measured effects of momentary pedestrian traffic at the choice-point (n = 426,605). In Spain, aggregated pedestrian traffic every 30 min measured effects for 'busyness' of the building (n = 293,300). Intervention effects on stair descent (3 of 4 analyses) were more frequent than effects on stair climbing, the behavior with proven health benefits (1 of 4 analyses). Any intervention effects were of small magnitude relative to the influence of pedestrian movement. Failure to control for pedestrian movement compromises any estimate for signage effectiveness. These pooled data provide limited evidence that signage interventions for stair climbing at work will enhance population health.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Subida de Escada , Caminhada/psicologia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Reino Unido
7.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20191000. 79 p. graf, ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1005189

RESUMO

La directiva está estructurada de manera jerárquica basándose en la funcionalidad de cada señalización, desde la identificación del establecimiento de salud, de cada uno de sus edificios y sus unidades funcionales, así como de las rutas principales y secundarias que las conectan, las señales orientadoras de ubicación a través de mapas y directorios, proporcionando información crucial, regulando comportamientos e identificando los servicios y ambientes en forma automática.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Instalações de Saúde , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização
8.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 102-110, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280793

RESUMO

This paper discusses the design and evaluation of connected and cooperative vehicle in-vehicle sign designs displayed on a mobile phone: Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW), Traffic Condition Warning, and Road Works Warning. Appropriateness and comprehension of each design alternative were assessed using quantitative (i.e. Likert scales) and qualitative (i.e. open-ended questions) methods. Forty-four participants took part in the study and were shown twelve dashboard camera videos presenting a total of eleven designs alternatives, displayed with or without a legend. Despite their appropriateness, EEBL and EVW signs displayed with a legend were better comprehended and less ambiguous than those displayed without a legend. Moreover, displaying a legend below the signs to warn drivers of an emergency braking ahead was efficient in low visibility condition and could potentially increase safety in critical situations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Emergências/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Equipamentos de Proteção , Adulto , Automóveis , Compreensão , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nurs Philos ; 20(4): e12263, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218781

RESUMO

To what extent do we pay attention to the text and images that cover our hospital walls and do we offer any critique either as professionals or service users? In the past we might have expected to see functional or helpful instructions about where to go (or not to go) and in more well-endowed buildings, perhaps we would see some works of art, sculpture, stained glass even, with the intention to encourage, distract or even forewarn us. However, it is now common in UK hospitals, for wall space to be used as a  portal for a range of institutional political messages, that convey information about everything from its own values, behaviours to  advertisements for products and services to requirements for rule following. Michel Foucault's ideas about Heterotopic space can help us to see that hospitals tend to fall (awkwardly) between being a public and personal health care space, and this is a possible explanation for the confused material culture and messages that are shared there. This paper draws on ethnographic methods to reflect on personal experience in order to offer a critique of the contemporary political discourse which has become 'literally' written onto our hospital walls.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Ambiente Construído , Inglaterra , Humanos , Medicina Estatal
10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217512, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170210

RESUMO

The Nankai Trough in Japan has been identified as a geological feature that could cause extensive damage in the event of a major earthquake. In this study, we investigated the impact of effective guidance signs for hearing-impaired individuals requiring special care when escaping to a tsunami evacuation building (emergency evacuation location) using geographical information system (GIS) and viewshed analysis. We selected an area we considered would suffer severe damage following a major earthquake and tsunami; we identified difficulties in the provision of escape routes. Using GIS, we determined the time required for escape and tsunami arrival time if effective signs were installed; we undertook such analysis using the height data of buildings in the target area. With effectively installed guidance signs, the average required evacuation time was 36.88 minutes; without such signs (which is currently the case in the target area), the average time was 47.10 minutes: that would result in citizens getting caught by the tsunami. Installing effective guidance signs would allow hearing-impaired individuals to escape to an evacuation building before being hit by the tsunami.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Tsunamis , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Humanos , Japão
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 84-93, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128444

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop a serious injury risk prediction algorithm for pedestrians, using data from the South Australian Traffic Accident Reporting System. Two algorithms were developed to estimate serious injury risk, using a logistic regression analysis of 6,868 vehicle-pedestrian crashes extracted from TARS data. In this study, an optimal model based on the best combination of risk factors according to the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was developed. Additionally, a secondary GPS model using only crash site characteristics that can be derived from GPS coordinates from the crash scene was also developed. The optimal model is based on site and environmental conditions that could be derived from GPS data (posted speed limit, distance from crash site, natural lighting conditions, road geometry, road horizontal alignment and road vertical alignment) as well as pedestrian age/gender, driver age/gender and vehicle model year. The second model only included features that could be derived from GPS data. The optimal model was reasonable in accuracy and gave an under-triage rate of 10% when the injury threshold was set to 15%, with a corresponding over-triage rate of around 60%. The GPS model, despite not being as accurate as the optimal model may be adequate in the absence of all the risk factors required for the optimal model, requiring an injury threshold of 20% to give an under-triage rate of 10%, with the corresponding over-triage rate being around 70%. Both models can potentially be used for serious injury risk prediction (SIRP) for pedestrians involved in a collision with a vehicle.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Austrália , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 7-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100686

RESUMO

Traffic guide signs play important roles in people's daily lives. However, the effectiveness and performance of traffic guide signs at intersections are significantly impacted by many factors, such as the types of information on traffic signs, their information volume and comprehensibility, the behavioral attributes of drivers, the geometric features of roadways, and weather and visibility conditions. When deploying traffic guide signs, efforts are needed to clarify whether the installation of a traffic guide sign is warranted. In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of traffic guide signs using simulation experiments. A traffic guide sign evaluation method (TGSEM) is developed and illustrated using examples of traffic guide sign schemes in suburban Beijing. The questionnaires showed that most drivers feel that the current traffic guide signs in suburban Beijing are insufficient and need to be rectified. Then, simulation experiments were conducted. Based on subjective experiments, the ergonomic evaluation model (DCI, the abbreviation of demand, comprehension, and information volume) was obtained. Of the four schemes, scheme 3 was shown to be the most popular. During driving simulation experiments, the analyses of average speed, standard deviation (SD) of speed, average acceleration, standard deviation of acceleration, travel time, braking frequency and throttle power showed that scheme 2 had a better impact on drivers' behavioral data. Finally, Grey relational analysis showed that scheme 2 has the highest degree of correlation and can be recommended to traffic management departments. The experimental tests and analysis results revealed that the TGSEM is suitable. The proposed approach provides a generic framework with which to assess the performance of traffic guide signs and their effectiveness at intersections, including their experimental design, data analysis, the implementation of simulation models, and data interpretation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/normas , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pequim , Ambiente Construído , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 87-93, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991291

RESUMO

Single vehicle crashes, particularly those classified as run-off-the-road, are very common on two-lane rural highways. One method to potentially reduce such crashes is to provide additional driver information in the form of wider longitudinal edgeline pavement markings. However, since these markings deteriorate over time, the primary objective of this research was to study the effects of longitudinal edgeline pavement markings with varying deterioration levels and widths and to assess a driver's ability to maintain lane position. The University of Idaho's driving simulator was used to examine these effects by incorporating different marking deterioration percentages and roadway geometries on a two-lane rural highway environment. Two different pavement marking widths (4 and 6 inch) and four different deterioration levels (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%) were assessed in daytime and nighttime conditions as part of this study. The results determined that while wider 6-in longitudinal edgeline pavement markings compared with standard four inch edgeline markings did not cause any significant changes in driver lane deviation during the day, statistically significant differences were observed in nighttime driving conditions. Drivers consistently maintained a lane position that slightly favored the edgeline side throughout the study and increasingly shifted away from the centerline as edgeline deterioration worsened.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Ambiente Construído , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/classificação , População Rural
14.
Disabil Health J ; 12(2): 180-186, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symbols are used to convey messages in a clear, understandable manner, without the use of written language. The most widely recognized symbol used to denote access for persons with disabilities is the International Symbol of Access. This symbol has been criticized for its inadequate representation of disability diversity poorly representing universal design of space and products. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study explored individual comprehension and perceptions of nine existing and newly created accessibility pictograph symbols and identified one that represented universal access to fitness equipment. METHODS: A survey was disseminated electronically and face-to-face to individuals, groups and organizations affiliated with inclusive fitness equipment, space and programming. Quantitative data was analyzed for descriptive statistics, rank order of symbols and group comparisons of rankings. Thematic analysis of open-ended question results revealed themes to enhance understanding of symbol rank order. RESULTS: 981 participants completed the survey. Symbol four, shaped as a Venn diagram containing three icons representing individuals with varying ability levels, was ranked highest with no significant differences in group comparisons between participants with and without a disability and U.S. residents versus non-U.S. residents. 85.4% of participants demonstrated accurate comprehension of this symbol. Though symbol five had the same symbol rank median value, this symbol's distribution of scores was lower. CONCLUSIONS: Participants accurately comprehended symbol four and it was identified as the highest ranked symbol representing universal access to fitness equipment. Because of symbol unfamiliarity, adoption will require education and consistency of use and placement.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626149

RESUMO

Traffic signs play an important role in traffic management systems. A variety of studies have focused on drivers' comprehension of traffic signs. However, the travel safety of prospective users, which has been rarely mentioned in previous studies, has attracted considerable attention from relevant departments in China. With the growth of international and interregional travel demand, traffic signs should be designed more universally to reduce the potential risks to drivers. To identify key factors that improve prospective users' sign comprehension, this study investigated eight factors that may affect users' performance regarding sign guessing. Two hundred and one Chinese students, all of whom intended to be drivers and none of whom had experience with daily driving after obtaining a license or visits to Germany, guessed the meanings and rated the sign features of 54 signs. We investigated the effects of selected user factors on their sign guessing performance. Additionally, the contributions of four cognitive design features to the guessability of traffic signs were examined. Based on an analysis of the relationships between the cognitive features and the guessability score of signs, the contributions of four sign features to the guessability of traffic signs were examined. Moreover, by exploring Chinese users' differences in guessing performance between Chinese signs and German signs, cultural issues in sign design were identified. The results showed that vehicle ownership and attention to traffic signs exerted a significant influence on guessing performance. As expected, driver's license training and the number of years in college were dominant factors for guessing performance. With regard to design features, semantic distance and confidence in guessing were two dominant factors for the guessability of signs. We suggest improving the design of signs by including vivid, universal symbols. Thus, we provide several suggestions for designing more user-friendly signs.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Atenção , China , Compreensão , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Ergonomics ; 62(6): 734-747, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644336

RESUMO

Traffic sign comprehension is significantly affected by their compliance with ergonomics design principles. Despite the UN Convention, designs vary among countries. The goal of this study was to establish theoretical and methodological bases for evaluating the design of conventional and alternative signs. Thirty-one conventional signs and 1-3 alternatives for each conventional sign were evaluated for their compliance with three ergonomics guidelines for sign design: physical and conceptual compatibility, familiarity and standardisation. Twenty-seven human factors and ergonomics experts from 10 countries evaluated the signs relative to their compliance with the guidelines. Analysis of variance across alternatives revealed that for 19 of the 31 signs, an alternative design received a significantly higher rating in its ergonomics design than the conventional sign with the same meaning. We also found a very high correlation between the experts' ratings and comprehension from previous studies. In conclusion, many countries use signs for which better alternative designs exist, and therefore UN Convention signs should be re-examined, and ergonomics experts evaluation can serve as a good surrogate for road users' comprehension surveys. Practitioner summary: This study presents theoretical and methodological bases for evaluating the design of UN Conventional and alternative traffic signs. Human factors and ergonomics experts evaluated 31 conventional and 68 alternative road signs, based on ergonomics principles for sign design. Results indicated the need to re-examine poorly designed UN Convention signs.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Ergonomia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Public Health ; 167: 1-7, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mecklenburg County (Charlotte, North Carolina) Board of County Commissioners took the unique step of passing a Tobacco-Free Parks Ordinance designating most county parks as tobacco-free including all smoking products, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. The objective of the baseline phase of the Ordinance evaluation sought to assess whether signage in the parks was associated with the presence of tobacco-use litter. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted with photography as the method of observation across Mecklenburg County parks in North Carolina. METHODS: A representative sample of 42 parks was selected from the 186 county park properties. Photographs were taken at a list of specific types of locations within each park, with attention to signage and tobacco-use litter (butts, e-cigarette). RESULTS: Tobacco-use evidence was mostly found in parks' picnic areas (67%) and walking trails (67%), with least found in parks' athletic courts (23%). At least 80% of parks have some tobacco litter. Evidence of tobacco use was not significantly associated with signage. CONCLUSION: Little research has focused on the effect of local public policies limiting tobacco use in public outdoor spaces. Findings from this evaluation have potential to inform policy implementation efforts regarding efforts to limit tobacco use in public spaces.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Política Antifumo , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , North Carolina , Fotografação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
18.
Appl Ergon ; 75: 155-160, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509520

RESUMO

Illuminated emergency exit signs inform building occupants about safe egress routes in emergencies. These exit signs are often found in the presence of other colored signs, which may distract occupants when searching for safe exits. Such distractions can lead to confusing and even harmful outcomes, especially if occupants misinterpret the sign colors, mistaking non-exit signs for exit signs. We studied which colored signs people were most likely to infer were exit signs in a simulated emergency evacuation using virtual reality (VR). Participants were immersed in a virtual room with two doors (left and right), and an illuminated sign with different colored vertical bars above each door. They saw all pairwise combinations of six sign colors across trials. On each trial, a fire alarm sounded, and participants walked to the door that they thought was the exit. We tested two hypotheses: a local exposure hypothesis that color inferences are determined by exit sign colors in the local environment (i.e., red) and a semantic association hypothesis that color inferences are determined by color-concept associations (i.e. green associated with "go" and "safety"). The results challenged the local exposure hypothesis and supported the semantic association hypothesis. Participants predominantly walked toward green signs, even though the exit signs in the local environment-including the building where the experiment took place-were red. However, in a post-experiment survey, most participants reported that exit signs should be red. The results demonstrated a dissociation between the way observers thought they would behave in emergency situations (red = exit) and the way they did behave in simulated emergencies (green = exit). These findings have implications for the design of evacuation systems. Observers, and perhaps designers, do not always anticipate how occupants will behave in emergency situations, which emphasizes the importance of behavioral evaluations for egress safety.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Cor , Emergências/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Confusão , Reação de Fuga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
19.
Appl Ergon ; 75: 193-200, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509527

RESUMO

This study evaluated the identification performance of a set of tactile symbols used in public environments for the visually impaired. A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the public environment needs from 60 visually impaired associations. A two-stage experiment with a matching test was then conducted to explore the identification efficiency of graphic tactile public information symbols. Eighty-one students were recruited as participants from a school for the visually impaired. The survey results show that fourteen public buildings were frequently visited and ten architectural elements were mostly needed by the visually impaired. The experimental results showed the correct response of graphic symbols tested in both two-stage experiments could meet the identification criterion of 90% and even better except for the escalator/elevator with 87.0% in the second stage. Relevant confusion among the graphic symbols tested was found. Some suggestions were made in the study.


Assuntos
Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Semântica , Estudantes/psicologia , Percepção do Tato , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia , Adolescente , Confusão , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 122: 342-349, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217271

RESUMO

The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) for Streets and Highways recommends hill signs be placed in advance of downgrade descent of mountain passes. Mountain passes increase the risk of a runaway, or out of control trucks and so the advance warning signs inform the driver to take special precautions such as reducing speed or using lower gears during the descent. The Wyoming Department of Transportation has installed steep grade advance warning systems on Wyoming mountain passes. However, concerns for out of control trucks on the mountain passes persist. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety effectiveness of steep grade advance warning signs for trucks on Wyoming mountain passes. The safety evaluation was carried out by implementing a zero-inflated negative binomial modeling technique for predicting truck crashes on mountain passes. The outcome was two models that showed the risk of runaway truck accidents were high at locations where either the grades were steep and long or the grades were long with multiple vertical curves. The analysis showed the current advance warning systems were not significantly impacting truck crash risks at the high risk locations. The study, therefore, recommends some improvements to the current advanced warning signs or implementing an improved Federal Highway Administration Grade Severity Rating System based warning system that will significantly improve truck safety at the hazardous locations. The study informs policy makers on the safety issues on Wyoming Mountain passes with regards to runaway trucks and makes recommendations for reducing the risk of runaway truck crashes on mountain passes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/normas , Veículos Automotores , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco , Wyoming
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