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2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 7-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100686

RESUMO

Traffic guide signs play important roles in people's daily lives. However, the effectiveness and performance of traffic guide signs at intersections are significantly impacted by many factors, such as the types of information on traffic signs, their information volume and comprehensibility, the behavioral attributes of drivers, the geometric features of roadways, and weather and visibility conditions. When deploying traffic guide signs, efforts are needed to clarify whether the installation of a traffic guide sign is warranted. In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of traffic guide signs using simulation experiments. A traffic guide sign evaluation method (TGSEM) is developed and illustrated using examples of traffic guide sign schemes in suburban Beijing. The questionnaires showed that most drivers feel that the current traffic guide signs in suburban Beijing are insufficient and need to be rectified. Then, simulation experiments were conducted. Based on subjective experiments, the ergonomic evaluation model (DCI, the abbreviation of demand, comprehension, and information volume) was obtained. Of the four schemes, scheme 3 was shown to be the most popular. During driving simulation experiments, the analyses of average speed, standard deviation (SD) of speed, average acceleration, standard deviation of acceleration, travel time, braking frequency and throttle power showed that scheme 2 had a better impact on drivers' behavioral data. Finally, Grey relational analysis showed that scheme 2 has the highest degree of correlation and can be recommended to traffic management departments. The experimental tests and analysis results revealed that the TGSEM is suitable. The proposed approach provides a generic framework with which to assess the performance of traffic guide signs and their effectiveness at intersections, including their experimental design, data analysis, the implementation of simulation models, and data interpretation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/normas , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pequim , Ambiente Construído , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 84-93, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128444

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop a serious injury risk prediction algorithm for pedestrians, using data from the South Australian Traffic Accident Reporting System. Two algorithms were developed to estimate serious injury risk, using a logistic regression analysis of 6,868 vehicle-pedestrian crashes extracted from TARS data. In this study, an optimal model based on the best combination of risk factors according to the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was developed. Additionally, a secondary GPS model using only crash site characteristics that can be derived from GPS coordinates from the crash scene was also developed. The optimal model is based on site and environmental conditions that could be derived from GPS data (posted speed limit, distance from crash site, natural lighting conditions, road geometry, road horizontal alignment and road vertical alignment) as well as pedestrian age/gender, driver age/gender and vehicle model year. The second model only included features that could be derived from GPS data. The optimal model was reasonable in accuracy and gave an under-triage rate of 10% when the injury threshold was set to 15%, with a corresponding over-triage rate of around 60%. The GPS model, despite not being as accurate as the optimal model may be adequate in the absence of all the risk factors required for the optimal model, requiring an injury threshold of 20% to give an under-triage rate of 10%, with the corresponding over-triage rate being around 70%. Both models can potentially be used for serious injury risk prediction (SIRP) for pedestrians involved in a collision with a vehicle.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Austrália , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 87-93, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991291

RESUMO

Single vehicle crashes, particularly those classified as run-off-the-road, are very common on two-lane rural highways. One method to potentially reduce such crashes is to provide additional driver information in the form of wider longitudinal edgeline pavement markings. However, since these markings deteriorate over time, the primary objective of this research was to study the effects of longitudinal edgeline pavement markings with varying deterioration levels and widths and to assess a driver's ability to maintain lane position. The University of Idaho's driving simulator was used to examine these effects by incorporating different marking deterioration percentages and roadway geometries on a two-lane rural highway environment. Two different pavement marking widths (4 and 6 inch) and four different deterioration levels (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%) were assessed in daytime and nighttime conditions as part of this study. The results determined that while wider 6-in longitudinal edgeline pavement markings compared with standard four inch edgeline markings did not cause any significant changes in driver lane deviation during the day, statistically significant differences were observed in nighttime driving conditions. Drivers consistently maintained a lane position that slightly favored the edgeline side throughout the study and increasingly shifted away from the centerline as edgeline deterioration worsened.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Ambiente Construído , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/classificação , População Rural
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626149

RESUMO

Traffic signs play an important role in traffic management systems. A variety of studies have focused on drivers' comprehension of traffic signs. However, the travel safety of prospective users, which has been rarely mentioned in previous studies, has attracted considerable attention from relevant departments in China. With the growth of international and interregional travel demand, traffic signs should be designed more universally to reduce the potential risks to drivers. To identify key factors that improve prospective users' sign comprehension, this study investigated eight factors that may affect users' performance regarding sign guessing. Two hundred and one Chinese students, all of whom intended to be drivers and none of whom had experience with daily driving after obtaining a license or visits to Germany, guessed the meanings and rated the sign features of 54 signs. We investigated the effects of selected user factors on their sign guessing performance. Additionally, the contributions of four cognitive design features to the guessability of traffic signs were examined. Based on an analysis of the relationships between the cognitive features and the guessability score of signs, the contributions of four sign features to the guessability of traffic signs were examined. Moreover, by exploring Chinese users' differences in guessing performance between Chinese signs and German signs, cultural issues in sign design were identified. The results showed that vehicle ownership and attention to traffic signs exerted a significant influence on guessing performance. As expected, driver's license training and the number of years in college were dominant factors for guessing performance. With regard to design features, semantic distance and confidence in guessing were two dominant factors for the guessability of signs. We suggest improving the design of signs by including vivid, universal symbols. Thus, we provide several suggestions for designing more user-friendly signs.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Atenção , China , Compreensão , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Disabil Health J ; 12(2): 180-186, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symbols are used to convey messages in a clear, understandable manner, without the use of written language. The most widely recognized symbol used to denote access for persons with disabilities is the International Symbol of Access. This symbol has been criticized for its inadequate representation of disability diversity poorly representing universal design of space and products. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study explored individual comprehension and perceptions of nine existing and newly created accessibility pictograph symbols and identified one that represented universal access to fitness equipment. METHODS: A survey was disseminated electronically and face-to-face to individuals, groups and organizations affiliated with inclusive fitness equipment, space and programming. Quantitative data was analyzed for descriptive statistics, rank order of symbols and group comparisons of rankings. Thematic analysis of open-ended question results revealed themes to enhance understanding of symbol rank order. RESULTS: 981 participants completed the survey. Symbol four, shaped as a Venn diagram containing three icons representing individuals with varying ability levels, was ranked highest with no significant differences in group comparisons between participants with and without a disability and U.S. residents versus non-U.S. residents. 85.4% of participants demonstrated accurate comprehension of this symbol. Though symbol five had the same symbol rank median value, this symbol's distribution of scores was lower. CONCLUSIONS: Participants accurately comprehended symbol four and it was identified as the highest ranked symbol representing universal access to fitness equipment. Because of symbol unfamiliarity, adoption will require education and consistency of use and placement.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 122: 332-341, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078983

RESUMO

In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator-related injuries and enhance the safety of passengers, this study analyzed 950 escalator-related injuries in Guangzhou metro stations to identify the characteristics and the risk factors associated with escalator-related injuries in China. The data extracted from Management Information System of Guangzhou Metro covers the site and time of the accident, age and gender of the victims, escalator condition and injury information. The results from the statistical analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator-related injuries was caused by failing to stand firm (287 cases, 30.2%), passengers carrying out other tasks (214 cases, 22.5%), not holding the handrail (168 cases, 17.7%) and unhealthy passengers (18 cases, 9.3%). Age was associated with all factors except for need for an ambulance and the distribution law of these factors differed with age groups. Elderly passengers (aged 66 years and above) accounted for the highest proportion of all injuries (49.1%), and failing to stand firm (18.63%) was the main cause of escalator-related injuries of elderly passengers. The most common mechanism of injury for all age groups was a fall, accounting for (51.0%) injuries. Proportion of injuries caused by a fall increased with age, whereas injuries attributed to entrapment decreased. Female passengers (65.9%) were more likely to be involved escalator-related injuries than male passengers (34.1%), while male passengers were more likely to have accidents caused by unhealthy physical condition than female passengers. These results based on the analysis of current accident data can be used to help metro operation corporation develop effective injury prevention measures and document the need for continued improvement of escalator safety in metro stations.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Elevadores e Escadas Rolantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 122: 342-349, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217271

RESUMO

The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) for Streets and Highways recommends hill signs be placed in advance of downgrade descent of mountain passes. Mountain passes increase the risk of a runaway, or out of control trucks and so the advance warning signs inform the driver to take special precautions such as reducing speed or using lower gears during the descent. The Wyoming Department of Transportation has installed steep grade advance warning systems on Wyoming mountain passes. However, concerns for out of control trucks on the mountain passes persist. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety effectiveness of steep grade advance warning signs for trucks on Wyoming mountain passes. The safety evaluation was carried out by implementing a zero-inflated negative binomial modeling technique for predicting truck crashes on mountain passes. The outcome was two models that showed the risk of runaway truck accidents were high at locations where either the grades were steep and long or the grades were long with multiple vertical curves. The analysis showed the current advance warning systems were not significantly impacting truck crash risks at the high risk locations. The study, therefore, recommends some improvements to the current advanced warning signs or implementing an improved Federal Highway Administration Grade Severity Rating System based warning system that will significantly improve truck safety at the hazardous locations. The study informs policy makers on the safety issues on Wyoming Mountain passes with regards to runaway trucks and makes recommendations for reducing the risk of runaway truck crashes on mountain passes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/normas , Veículos Automotores , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco , Wyoming
9.
Appl Ergon ; 75: 155-160, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509520

RESUMO

Illuminated emergency exit signs inform building occupants about safe egress routes in emergencies. These exit signs are often found in the presence of other colored signs, which may distract occupants when searching for safe exits. Such distractions can lead to confusing and even harmful outcomes, especially if occupants misinterpret the sign colors, mistaking non-exit signs for exit signs. We studied which colored signs people were most likely to infer were exit signs in a simulated emergency evacuation using virtual reality (VR). Participants were immersed in a virtual room with two doors (left and right), and an illuminated sign with different colored vertical bars above each door. They saw all pairwise combinations of six sign colors across trials. On each trial, a fire alarm sounded, and participants walked to the door that they thought was the exit. We tested two hypotheses: a local exposure hypothesis that color inferences are determined by exit sign colors in the local environment (i.e., red) and a semantic association hypothesis that color inferences are determined by color-concept associations (i.e. green associated with "go" and "safety"). The results challenged the local exposure hypothesis and supported the semantic association hypothesis. Participants predominantly walked toward green signs, even though the exit signs in the local environment-including the building where the experiment took place-were red. However, in a post-experiment survey, most participants reported that exit signs should be red. The results demonstrated a dissociation between the way observers thought they would behave in emergency situations (red = exit) and the way they did behave in simulated emergencies (green = exit). These findings have implications for the design of evacuation systems. Observers, and perhaps designers, do not always anticipate how occupants will behave in emergency situations, which emphasizes the importance of behavioral evaluations for egress safety.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Cor , Emergências/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Confusão , Reação de Fuga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
10.
Appl Ergon ; 75: 193-200, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509527

RESUMO

This study evaluated the identification performance of a set of tactile symbols used in public environments for the visually impaired. A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the public environment needs from 60 visually impaired associations. A two-stage experiment with a matching test was then conducted to explore the identification efficiency of graphic tactile public information symbols. Eighty-one students were recruited as participants from a school for the visually impaired. The survey results show that fourteen public buildings were frequently visited and ten architectural elements were mostly needed by the visually impaired. The experimental results showed the correct response of graphic symbols tested in both two-stage experiments could meet the identification criterion of 90% and even better except for the escalator/elevator with 87.0% in the second stage. Relevant confusion among the graphic symbols tested was found. Some suggestions were made in the study.


Assuntos
Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Semântica , Estudantes/psicologia , Percepção do Tato , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia , Adolescente , Confusão , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 120: 64-73, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096449

RESUMO

Wildlife-vehicle collisions cause human fatalities and enormous economic and ecological losses on roads worldwide. A variety of mitigation measures have been developed over the past decades to separate traffic and wildlife, warn humans, or prevent wildlife from entering a road while vehicles are passing by, but only few are economical enough to be applied comprehensively. One such measure, wildlife warning reflectors, has been implemented over the past five decades. However, their efficacy is questioned because of contradictory study results and the variety of applied study designs and reflector models. We used a prospective, randomized non-superiority cross-over study design to test our hypothesis of the inefficacy of modern wildlife warning reflectors. We analyzed wildlife-vehicle collisions on 151 testing sites of approximately 2 km in length each. During the 24-month study period, 1984 wildlife-vehicle collisions were recorded. Confirmatory primary and exploratory secondary analyses using a log-link Poisson mixed model with normal nested random intercepts of observation year in road segment, involved species, and variables of the road segment and the surrounding environment showed that reflectors did not lower the number of wildlife-vehicle collisions by a relevant amount. In addition, variables of the road segment and the surrounding environment did not indicate differential effects of wildlife warning reflectors. Based on our results, we conclude that wildlife warning reflectors are not an effective tool for mitigating wildlife-vehicle collisions on roads.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais Selvagens , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 120: 122-129, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107331

RESUMO

This study intended to investigate the interactions between accident severity levels and traffic signs in state roads located in Croatia, and explore the correlation within accident severity levels and heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. The data from 410 state roads between 2012 and 2016 were collected from Traffic Accident Database System maintained by the Republic of Croatia Ministry of the Interior. To address the correlation and heterogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model in unbalanced panel data approach was proposed, in which the seemingly unrelated model addressed the correlation of residuals, while the panel data model accommodated the heterogeneity due to unobserved factors. By comparing the pooled, fixed-effects and random-effects SUR models, the random-effects SUR model showed priority to the other two. Results revealed that (1) low visibility and the number of invalid traffic signs per km increased the accident rate of material damage, death or injured; (2) average speed limit exhibited a high accident rate of death or injured; (3) the number of mandatory signs was more likely to reduce the accident rate of material damage, while the number of warning signs was significant for accident rate of death or injured.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/estatística & dados numéricos , Croácia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 117: 298-303, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751139

RESUMO

Would an increase in the default interletter spacing improve the legibility of words in traffic signs? Previous evidence on traffic sign design and recent studies on the cognitive processes involved in visual word recognition have provided conflicting results. The present work examined whether an increase in the default interletter spacing would improve the search of a word in direction traffic signs. To achieve this objective, twenty-two drivers participated in a driving simulation experiment. They followed a highway route and indicated whether a target place name was present among a set of distractors shown on direction traffic signs along the route. We compared the default interletter spacing of the Spanish "CC Rige" font (which is based on the internationally-used Transport font) and a 2.5-times expanded interletter spacing. The results revealed that the drivers were able to give a correct response at a distance to the traffic sign that was on average longer in the expanded than in the default spacing condition. This advantage in the legibility distance was observed in the absence of significant differences in reading accuracy, gaze behavior, or driving performance measures. Therefore, the evidence provided supports that drivers can benefit from a slight increase in interletter spacing relative to the standard spacing. Some of the design factors influencing this effect are discussed.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 117: 288-297, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751138

RESUMO

The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an "Attentional" set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a "Perceptual" set designed to also affect drivers' perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings). The Explicit groups were instructed about the meaning of the road markings while those in the Implicit and Control groups did not receive any explanation. Participants drove five 10 km simulated roads containing three speed zones (60, 80 and 100 km/h) during the first session. The participants returned to the laboratory approximately 3 days later to drive five more trials including roads they had not seen before, a trial that included a secondary task, and a trial where speed signs were removed and only markings were present. The findings indicated that both types of road markings improved drivers' compliance with speed limits compared to the control group, but that explicit instruction as to the meaning of the markings was needed to realise their full benefit. Although previous research has indicated the benefit of road markings used as warnings to indicate speed reductions in advance of horizontal or vertical curves, the findings of the present experiment also suggest that systematically associating road markings with specific speed limits may be a useful way to improve speed limit compliance and increase speed homogeneity.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Sinais (Psicologia) , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Adulto , Atenção , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 117: 410-426, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703596

RESUMO

Technological advances allow supporting drivers in a multitude of occasions, ranging from comfort enhancement to collision avoidance, for example through driver warnings, which are especially crucial for traffic safety. This psychological driving simulator experiment investigated how to warn drivers visually in order to prevent accidents in various safety-critical situations. Collision frequencies, driving behavior and subjective evaluations of situation criticality, warning understandability and helpfulness of sixty drivers were measured in two trials of eight scenarios each (within-subjects factors). The warning type in the head-up display (HUD) varied (between-subjects) in its strategy (attention-/reaction-oriented) and specificity (generic/specific) over four warning groups and a control group without a warning. The results show that the scenarios differed in their situation criticality and drivers adapted their reactions accordingly, which underlines the importance of testing driver assistance systems in diverse scenarios. Besides some learning effects over the trials, all warned drivers showed faster and stronger brake reactions. Some warning concepts were understood better than others, but all were accepted. Generic warnings were effective, yet the warning strategy should adapt to situation requirements and/or driver behavior. A stop symbol as reaction generic warning is recommendable for diverse kinds of use cases, leading to fast and strong reactions. However, for rather moderate driver reactions an attention generic approach with a caution symbol might be more suitable. Further research should investigate multi-stage warnings with adaptive strategies for application to various situations including other modalities and false alarms.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neural Netw ; 99: 158-165, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427842

RESUMO

This paper presents a Deep Learning approach for traffic sign recognition systems. Several classification experiments are conducted over publicly available traffic sign datasets from Germany and Belgium using a Deep Neural Network which comprises Convolutional layers and Spatial Transformer Networks. Such trials are built to measure the impact of diverse factors with the end goal of designing a Convolutional Neural Network that can improve the state-of-the-art of traffic sign classification task. First, different adaptive and non-adaptive stochastic gradient descent optimisation algorithms such as SGD, SGD-Nesterov, RMSprop and Adam are evaluated. Subsequently, multiple combinations of Spatial Transformer Networks placed at distinct positions within the main neural network are analysed. The recognition rate of the proposed Convolutional Neural Network reports an accuracy of 99.71% in the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, outperforming previous state-of-the-art methods and also being more efficient in terms of memory requirements.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/classificação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Algoritmos , Benchmarking , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Processos Estocásticos
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 113: 202-212, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428639

RESUMO

Highway workers frequently work in close proximity of live traffic in highway work zones, traffic accidents therefore have devastating effects on worker safety. In order to reduce the potential for such accidents, methods involving use of advisory signs and police presence have been used to mitigate accident risks and improve safety for highway workers. This research evaluates the magnitude of the speeding problem in highway work zones and the effects of four levels of police presence on improving work zone safety. Speed data were collected in six different work zone locations in northern and southern California and used to determine the magnitude and nature of speeding problem in highway work zones. In addition data were collected over 11 test-days in four work zones with four levels of police presence: radar speed display with police decal and lighting, passive use of a police vehicle with radar speed display, passive use of a police vehicle without radar speed display, and active police speed enforcement near work zones. This paper analyzes this data using statistical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these different methods of speed control on the safety of the work zone. Four Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) were used in this evaluation consisting of average speed reduction, speed variance, 85th percentile speed, and proportion of high speed vehicles. The results indicate that all levels of police presence provided statistically significant improvements in one or more of the MOEs.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Polícia/organização & administração , Segurança , California , Humanos , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Local de Trabalho
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e012459, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The proliferation of studies using motivational signs to promote stair use continues unabated, with their oft-cited potential for increasing population-level physical activity participation. This study examined all stair use promotional signage studies since 1980, calculating pre-estimates and post-estimates of stair use. The aim of this project was to conduct a sequential meta-analysis to pool intervention effects, in order to determine when the evidence base was sufficient for population-wide dissemination. DESIGN: Using comparable data from 50 stair-promoting studies (57 unique estimates) we pooled data to assess the effect sizes of such interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, median stair usage across interventions was 8.1%, with an absolute median increase of 2.2% in stair use following signage-based interventions. The overall pooled OR indicated that participants were 52% more likely to use stairs after exposure to promotional signs (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.70). Incremental (sequential) meta-analyses using z-score methods identified that sufficient evidence for stair use interventions has existed since 2006, with recent studies providing no further evidence on the effect sizes of such interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has important policy and practice implications. Researchers continue to publish stair use interventions without connection to policymakers' needs, and few stair use interventions are implemented at a population level. Researchers should move away from repeating short-term, small-scale, stair sign interventions, to investigating their scalability, adoption and fidelity. Only such research translation efforts will provide sufficient evidence of external validity to inform their scaling up to influence population physical activity.


Assuntos
Exercício , Promoção da Saúde , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Subida de Escada , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação
20.
N Z Med J ; 130(1464): 80-86, 2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073662

RESUMO

Smokefree signage is crucial to the implementation of smokefree policies for outdoor venues and for facilitating smoking denormalisation. Such signage helps to communicate the expected norms for not smoking at venues. Therefore, we aimed to identify such signage at racecourses and sports facilities that had outdoor stands. We surveyed the entrances of 25 racecourse and 25 sport facilities with outdoor stands, across New Zealand. There were smokefree signs at the main entrances of 40% of the sports facilities with outdoor stands, and at 16% of the 25 other entrances. None of the horse/greyhound racecourses had smokefree signage at any of their entrances.


Assuntos
Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização , Política Antifumo , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais/organização & administração , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Formulação de Políticas
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