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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 348-351, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184522

RESUMO

Introduction. Epididymal dirofilariasis is one of the unusual manifestations of this zoonosis. In Slovakia, this is the third case out of 20 Dirofilaria repens infected patients in whom the worm (the parasite) was identified in the epididymis. The patient felt a painless tumour about 2 cm in size on the left testicle. During ultrasound examination, the radiologist observed a cyst containing a live worm within the epididymis. After mechanical stimulation, the movement characteristic for filarial worms (´filarial dance sign´) appeared. An orchiectomy was performed at the Department of Urology in the University Hospital in Kosice. Histopathology confirmed a parasitic cyst with a worm, and based on characteristic morphological features, the parasite was identified as Dirofilaria repens. Objective. The aim of case report is to alert physicians to the possibility dirofilarial infection of the epididymis, where tumors and cystic structures often occur and to present clinical signs of the disease.


Assuntos
Cistos/parasitologia , Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Epididimo/parasitologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Cistos/patologia , Dirofilaria repens/classificação , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/patologia , Epididimo/patologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Eslováquia
2.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(3): 299-308, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523567

RESUMO

Aberrant Dirofilaria immitis migrans is a rare cause of neurologic signs in dogs, however, published studies describing the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of this problem are currently lacking. The objective of this retrospective case series study was to describe the clinical and imaging findings for four adult dogs with verminous myelopathy due to aberrant Dirofilaria immitis migrans within the cervical subarachnoid space. All dogs were toy breeds, were heartworm antigen positive, had neurologic signs (ranging from cervical hyperesthesia to tetraparesis), and similar MRI findings. In two patients additionally imaged with CT, findings were variable. On MRI, each dog had a single large, dorsal- to laterally located, intradural-extramedullary, fusiform mass with characteristic stippled, mixed T2-weighted and T1-weighted signal intensity, hypo-to-iso T1-weighted signal intensity, and spinal cord compression. Nematodes were identified as serpentine or circular subarachnoid structures with low T2-weighted and T1-weighted signal in the sagittal and transverse image planes, respectively. CT (n = 2 dogs) demonstrated focal regions of mildly enhancing intradural-extramedullary spinal cord compression in 1 dog. Dorsal laminectomy and durotomy were performed in two dogs at C3-C4. A C4-5 hemilaminectomy with durotomy and dural biopsy was performed in one dog. Extraction of live, immature adult, female D. immitis worms was performed in three dogs. Operated dogs had complete post-surgical resolution of clinical signs. One dog was euthanized without surgery; necropsy revealed an adult heartworm in the spinal subarachnoid space at C2. Findings indicated that cervical spinal subarachnoid D. immitis aberrant migration should be considered as a differential diagnosis for dogs with this combination of clinical and CT/MRI imaging findings, and that the prognosis may be good with early detection and surgical removal.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Compressão da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Dirofilariose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Compressão da Medula Espinal/parasitologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 739-742, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415394

RESUMO

Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis are the most common filarial species affecting humans in Europe. Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous or ocular infection, whereas D. immitis is responsible mainly for the pulmonary form. In this report, we present the first human case of periorbital dirofilariasis in the Czech Republic. A 58-year-old woman suffered from an eyelid oedema, redness and pain in the left eye. After excising the parasite from her eyelid, all clinical symptoms disappeared. Based on the morphology and cytochrome oxidase I sequencing, the parasite was identified as D. repens. Histology revealed that the excised worm was female with absent microfilariae in uteri. With respect to the length of the incubation period and the sequence identity with a known Czech isolate, we concluded that D. repens was most likely of autochthonous origin.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , República Tcheca , Dirofilaria repens/citologia , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/patologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/patologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1703-1705, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206885

RESUMO

We present a case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis, a vector-borne zoonotic disease, in a young woman from Austria. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and histology of the excised subcutaneous nodule. The parasite species was identified as Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction. We expect to see more cases of human dirofilariasis also due to climate change and associated increase of the spectrum of suitable mosquito vectors.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/patologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Áustria , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
8.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(3): 295-301, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on the spontaneous resolution of caval syndrome in 5 dogs selected for their response to medical stabilization prior to scheduled heartworm extraction. SERIES SUMMARY: Five dogs with heartworm caval syndrome were treated with sildenafil, fluid, and supplemental oxygen therapy. Moreover, 4 of 5 dogs were also administered pimobendan to achieve hemodynamic stabilization in preparation for percutaneous heartworm extraction. Spontaneous heartworm migration back into the pulmonary arteries was detected from 2 h to 5 days after treatment initiation. UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Unanticipated spontaneous resolution of caval syndrome was documented in a low number of dogs after initiation of a patient stabilization protocol aiming at improving right ventricular hemodynamics and reducing pulmonary artery pressure prior to scheduled heartworm extraction. At this time, it is unknown if intervention to improve the hemodynamic status of the animal prior to heartworm extraction improves procedure outcome, and which factors contributed to the migration of the heartworms back into the pulmonary arteries in these selected cases. Therefore, this approach cannot be recommended in place of current recommendations for treatment of caval syndrome.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatias/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Hemodinâmica , Masculino
10.
J Vet Sci ; 20(6): e65, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775192

RESUMO

A 10-year-old male spotted seal presented with loss of appetite and decreased activity. Grossly, the internal organs revealed several filarial nematodes in the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary vessels. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed moderate nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with glial nodules and neuronophagia. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) of genotype I was isolated from the brain. All nematodes were identified as Dirofilaria immitis. This is the first clinical case of co-infection with D. immitis and JEV in a seal, suggesting that the seal, may be a dead-end host, like the human and horse, for JEV.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Phoca , Animais , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/patologia , Encefalite Japonesa/diagnóstico , Encefalite Japonesa/patologia , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Masculino , República da Coreia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 1-4, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442886

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarteritis caused by Dirofilaria immitis and pulmonary hypertension (PH) are closely linked and the determination of PH could be validated to assess the severity and chronicity of the vascular damage, i.e. by the use of the Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility (RPAD) Index. The aim was to evaluate the RPAD Index in dogs 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. The study included 23 client-owned dogs with heartworm brought for adulticide treatment. Echocardiographic exam was carried out to estimate worm burden, RPAD Index as well as other routine echocardiographic values on day 0 (diagnosis), day 120 (discharge), and 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. No significant differences were observed in the RPAD Index over time, neither when microfilaremic status and parasite burden were evaluated. An RPAD Index <29% was found in 52.2% of the dogs on day 0, day 120, and 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. Regarding other echocardiographic parameters, only significant differences were observed on tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) values between day 0:day 120 (p = 0.008), and day 0:end of the study (p = 0.037). There was not significant improvement in pulmonary damage 10 months after the elimination of the parasites (p = 0.296), suggesting that, once the endarteritis has developed, the vascular changes are chronic and may not be reversible. The modifications of the TAPSE value suggest an improvement in the systolic function of the right ventricle after the disappearance of the worms, independently of the presence of PH. The endarteritis causes a decrease in the elasticity in the pulmonary vasculature and an increase in the resistance that, chronically, and depending on the severity, will cause the development of PH and later right heart failure. This complication of the disease is one of the most damaging and frequent, so it is necessary to adequately monitor PH in dogs undergoing adulticide treatment. Furthermore, knowing the pulmonary status could provide valuable information to help provide an objective prognosis and help assess the need to add additional treatments, once the worms have been eliminated.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Endarterite/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Endarterite/complicações , Endarterite/diagnóstico , Endarterite/patologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Feline Med Surg ; 21(9): 825-834, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446863

RESUMO

PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: For feline practitioners, the cat with a cough or respiratory distress and thoracic radiographs with a bronchial or bronchointerstitial pattern suggests lower airway disease. Two important differentials, allergic asthma and heartworm disease (HWD), have many overlapping clinicopathologic features, but also clear and important differences in terms of cause and disease progression, treatment and prognosis. Notably, asthma is readily treatable and HWD is preventable. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Feline HWD comprises two clinical syndromes: the comparatively recently described heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) and adult HWD. The former is much more common; very few cats with HARD develop adult HWD. In HARD, following death of immature worms, pulmonary lesions may improve over time ('self-cure'). Lesions of adult HWD also improve over time as long as reinfection does not occur; however, with death of adult heartworms, mortality is high, and the prognosis is guarded. In asthma, morbidity is relatively high, but mortality is low, with an overall good to excellent prognosis. DISEASE RECOGNITION: Feline asthma is encountered worldwide. In the authors' impression, feline HWD is often under-recognized. AIMS: The aim of this review is to assist clinicians in differentiating feline asthma from feline HWD; as such, the emphasis is on distinguishing clinical features, as well as on diagnostics, therapy and prognosis. In differentiating these conditions, clinicians can attempt the goal of properly managing these diseases and can best educate owners on prognosis. EVIDENCE BASE: For both feline asthma and feline HWD, the authors have drawn on the available peer-reviewed literature studies involving experimental models as well as spontaneous disease.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Doenças do Gato , Dirofilariose , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patologia , Asma/terapia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/patologia , Dirofilariose/terapia , Prognóstico
14.
Virchows Arch ; 475(3): 335-340, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254069

RESUMO

Pulmonary dirofilariasis is an infection caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which is an endemic parasite in Japan. We experienced 13 surgical cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis in our hospital. Of the 13 patients, 61.5% were men. The responsible lesions were located in the right lung in all cases, and 76.9% of them were in the lower lobe. Histologically, 12 cases showed necrotic nodules with peripheral granuloma with worms inside the pulmonary artery. One case did not show a necrotic nodule but showed only thickening and hyalinization of the pulmonary artery wall with a degenerated worm inside. Eosinophils were found histologically in all cases. Thirteen cases of dirofilariasis in one institution seem to be the largest number in Japan, based on previous reports. One reason for this increased prevalence may be the hot and humid climate of our prefecture considering the ecology of the mosquito as a vector. Elastic staining and eosinophils in peripheral granulomatous areas can contribute to the diagnosis when the worms are degenerated.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/patologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dirofilaria immitis/patogenicidade , Dirofilariose/etiologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Med Princ Pract ; 28(1): 96-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present case of a child with epididymal dirofil-ariasis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: An 11-year-old boy was admitted to the Clinic of Pediatric Urology for elective surgery treatment of epididymal cyst on the left side. After removal, the cyst was sent for histological examination. Microscopic examination of the histological slides revealed cross-sections of a nematode belonging to Dirofilaria spp., differentiated morphologically as D. repens. After surgery, the patient recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: In most parts around the world, dirofilariasis is a rare and neglected infection. Nevertheless, the clinicians and pathologists must be informed about it.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/patologia , Espermatocele/parasitologia , Animais , Bulgária , Criança , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatocele/cirurgia
16.
Orv Hetil ; 159(45): 1844-1847, 2018 11.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415568

RESUMO

Dirofilariasis refers to an infection caused by a specific parasitic roundworm. Dirofilaria repens - transmitted by mosquito bites - accounts for most human cases. The parasite forms a subcutaneous mass called cutaneous dirofilariasis near the original site of intrusion. The incidence of human infections shows an increasing tendency. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman presenting with three-week history of a painful swelling in the temporal region. The initial diagnostic work-up revealed a roundworm embedded in the subcutaneous fat tissue and temporal muscle. Differential diagnosis included erysipelas, herpes zoster, temporal arteritis. The final diagnosis of helminthiasis was established by ultrasound examination. A multidisciplinary consultation including infectious diseases specialist suggested surgical removal of the lesion. The microbiological examination of the specimen confirmed the presence of a female Dirofilaria repens. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(45): 1844-1847.


Assuntos
Dermatite/patologia , Dirofilariose/patologia , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/parasitologia , Adulto , Dermatite/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/patologia
17.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 60(2): 323-327, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355824

RESUMO

We report a case of subconjunctival invasion of Dirofilaria repens in a woman from Southern Bulgaria. Dirofilariasis is an extremely rare parasitic disease for Bulgaria. It occurs as an endemic parasitosis in the Mediterranean countries. It is caused by helminths of the genus Dirofilaria, which are parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, wolves - the final hosts of the parasite. It may very rarely occur in humans, the infection triggered by a bite of bloodsucking mosquitoes, which are the intermediate hosts of Dirofilaria. The clinical forms of dirofilariasis in humans are subcutaneous, pulmonary and ocular, the brain, testes and mammary glands being rarely affected. A 51-year-old patient presented with migrating edema in the area of the left temple and upper eyelid, with redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, as well as a subjective sense of movement under the eyelid of the left eye, lasting for about ten days. The subconjunctival localization of a moving 9.5-cm nematode was established, it was surgically removed and histologically studied. This case of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis is of clinical interest due to the rarely observed pathology.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Bulgária , Conjuntivite/patologia , Conjuntivite/cirurgia , Dirofilariose/patologia , Dirofilariose/cirurgia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/patologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(3): 657-663, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975647

RESUMO

Dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease of dogs and other carnivores transmitted mainly by the mosquitoes of the genera Culex, Aedes, Anopheles. Full life cycle of the Dirofilaria nematodes in humans is extremely rarely observed, usually lacking species determination at the molecular level. We report fully documented unusual clinical manifestation of subcutaneous dirofilariasis with intensive microfilariemia in peripheral blood revealed by the Knott's concentration technique. The identification of the Dirofilaria repens nematode was based on typical morphological findings for adult gravid female nematode found in the histopathological preparations. The morphology of microfilariae obtained from patient's peripheral blood was also typical for D. repens. The final identification was confirmed by the molecular analysis of microfilariae collected from the blood.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Adulto , Aedes/parasitologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/patologia , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Eosinofilia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microfilárias , Parasitemia , Polônia
19.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 47(2): 307-311, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902339

RESUMO

Dirofilaria repens is an endemic, zoonotic parasite of carnivores, causing subcutaneous dirofilariasis, which is mostly asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to describe 22 cases of canine subcutaneous dirofilariasis. The cytologic and histopathologic samples were collected from dogs, which presented with various clinical signs such as cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, hydropericardium, ascites, and lymphadenomegaly. The cytologic or histopathologic examination revealed purulent, pyogranulomatous, granulomatous or eosinophilic dermatitis/panniculitis, and the presence of D repens microfilariae or adults. The microfilariae or adults were also found incidentally in neoplastic cutaneous or subcutaneous tumors and in a sialocele. For the first time, microfilariae were also detected and described in pericardial and abdominal effusions and in enlarged reactive lymph nodes. Although it is well known that D repens can cause dermatitis and panniculitis in dogs, no previous reports of D repens microfilariae in body cavity fluids were found. The role of this parasite in the accumulation of body cavity fluid or in reactive lymphadenomegaly requires further investigation. Due to its zoonotic potential, and apparently underestimated pathogenicity, each case of canine subcutaneous dirofilariasis should be treated.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Dirofilariose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Achados Incidentais , Masculino
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