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1.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(11): 749-754, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Caval syndrome due to infection with Dirofilaria (D.) immitis is a life-threatening situation, needing immediate therapeutic intervention. Severe pulmonary hypertension due to dirofilariosis was diagnosed echocardiographically in a 3.6 kg dog with heart failure and moderate hemolytic anemia. A ball of adult worms was visualized in the tricuspid valve area. Using a modified pigtail catheter, these worms were removed under fluoroscopic guidance by a transvenous approach. Already intraoperatively the hemodynamic condition improved. Subsequently, additional routine adulticide treatment was performed without complications. Over the following weeks the severe pulmonary hypertension normalized slowly but steadily. Manual extraction of adult D. immitis can be achieved with relatively simple tools and allows rapid stabilization of a critically sick patient.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 1-4, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442886

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarteritis caused by Dirofilaria immitis and pulmonary hypertension (PH) are closely linked and the determination of PH could be validated to assess the severity and chronicity of the vascular damage, i.e. by the use of the Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility (RPAD) Index. The aim was to evaluate the RPAD Index in dogs 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. The study included 23 client-owned dogs with heartworm brought for adulticide treatment. Echocardiographic exam was carried out to estimate worm burden, RPAD Index as well as other routine echocardiographic values on day 0 (diagnosis), day 120 (discharge), and 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. No significant differences were observed in the RPAD Index over time, neither when microfilaremic status and parasite burden were evaluated. An RPAD Index <29% was found in 52.2% of the dogs on day 0, day 120, and 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. Regarding other echocardiographic parameters, only significant differences were observed on tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) values between day 0:day 120 (p = 0.008), and day 0:end of the study (p = 0.037). There was not significant improvement in pulmonary damage 10 months after the elimination of the parasites (p = 0.296), suggesting that, once the endarteritis has developed, the vascular changes are chronic and may not be reversible. The modifications of the TAPSE value suggest an improvement in the systolic function of the right ventricle after the disappearance of the worms, independently of the presence of PH. The endarteritis causes a decrease in the elasticity in the pulmonary vasculature and an increase in the resistance that, chronically, and depending on the severity, will cause the development of PH and later right heart failure. This complication of the disease is one of the most damaging and frequent, so it is necessary to adequately monitor PH in dogs undergoing adulticide treatment. Furthermore, knowing the pulmonary status could provide valuable information to help provide an objective prognosis and help assess the need to add additional treatments, once the worms have been eliminated.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Endarterite/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Endarterite/complicações , Endarterite/diagnóstico , Endarterite/patologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 11-16, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442887

RESUMO

Heartworm infection (also known as dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs causes chronic pulmonary disease that, if left untreated, can lead to right-side congestive heart failure. Currently, the only registered drug for adulticide therapy in dogs with heartworm disease (HWD) is melarsomine dihydrochloride. The recent targeting of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, through antibiotic therapy of the infected host, has offered an interesting alternative for the treatment of HWD. Recent reports of the adulticide activity of an ivermectin/doxycycline combination protocol has lead the American Heartworm Society (AHS) to include in its guidelines that, in cases where arsenical therapy is not possible or is contraindicated, a monthly heartworm preventive along with doxycycline for a 4-week period might be considered. In the present study, 20 dogs with confirmed natural D. immitis infection were included following owner consent. Fourteen dogs were treated with a topical formulation containing 10% w/v imidacloprid and 2.5% w/v moxidectin (Advocate®, Advantage Multi®, Bayer), monthly for nine months, associated to doxycycline (10 mg/kg/BID) for the first 30 days. Six dogs were treated with melarsomine (Immiticide®, Merial) (2.5 mg/kg) at enrollment, followed one month later by two injections 24 h apart. The presence of circulating antigens and the number of microfilariae (mf) were evaluated at the moment of enrollment and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 18, 24 months post enrollment. Echocardiogram and radiographs were performed at month 0, 6, 12, 18, 24. Monthly moxidectin combined with 30 days of doxycycline eliminated circulating microfilariae within one month, thus breaking the transmission cycle very quickly. Furthermore, dogs treated with the combination protocol started to become negative for circulating antigens at 4 months from the beginning of treatment and all except one were antigen negative at 9 months. All dogs treated with melarsomine were antigen negative by 5 months from the beginning of the treatment. No dogs showed worsening of pulmonary patterns or criteria indicative of pulmonary hypertension 12 to 24 months after. For the criteria mf concentration, antigen concentration, radiography and echocardiography at 12, 18 and 24 months the non-inferiority for the moxidectin group could be proven for a non-inferiority margin of 15% for the rate difference. Dogs treated with moxidectin and doxycycline became negative for microfilariae and antigens sooner when compared to melarsomine in the present study and to dogs treated with doxycycline combined with ivermectin in studies previously published.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Neonicotinoides/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Dirofilaria immitis , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazinas/uso terapêutico
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 54-56, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303204

RESUMO

The treatment of canine heartworm has been modified over the years, adding improvements for greater efficacy, safeness and better prognosis. Currently, the recommended adulticidal protocol consists of the administration of three doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride, preceded by the administration of macrocyclic lactones over two to three months. The objective of this study was to evaluate a variation of the adulticide protocol of heartworm in 76 dogs infected by Dirofilaria immitis, which consists of the pre-administration of macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin) during a single month. On the day of diagnosis, presence of circulating microfilariae was determined and an echocardiography was performed to assess the parasite burden. Treatment began on day 0, with doxycycline for 30 days (10 mg/kg BID) and monthly ivermectin (6mcg/kg). On day 30, the first dose of melarsomine dihydrochloride was administered, followed by a second and third dose on days 60 and 61, respectively. On day 90, the dogs were examined and discharged. Six months after the last dose, all dogs were negative to the presence of antigens and amicrofilaremic. Also, 38.1% of animals were evaluated by echocardiography, showing absence of adult parasites. It is considered that the ineffectiveness of melarsomine against worms <4 months should be avoided by the previous administration of macrocyclic lactones for two to three months, killing larvae <2 months while older filariae are allowed to mature to be susceptible to melarsomine dihydrochloride. With this protocol, this gap would be covered for the 2nd and 3rd injections, when worms would be four months and older. In addition, there is evidence that melarsomine is effective against worms under four months and macrocyclic lactones have some efficacy against heartworms older than two months. This modification allows a faster elimination of heartworms and a better compliance from the owners of the infected dogs.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis , Cães , Microfilárias
5.
J Vet Cardiol ; 23: 96-103, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174734

RESUMO

Four dogs, referred for management of heartworm (HW) disease, were found to have HWs entangled in their tricuspid valve apparatus. None of the dogs were actively hemolyzing or showed signs of acute cardiovascular collapse that would have necessitated emergency transvenous HW extraction, and surgery was not performed at time of presentation. The dogs received pimobendan and sildenafil within 24 h of identifying HW in the tricuspid valve apparatus, and the HW moved to the pulmonary arteries within 2 days in most cases (median 2 days, range 1-14 days). All dogs survived to discharge from the original hospital admission and were subsequently treated with adulticide (melarsomine) without complication. All dogs were HW antigen negative 6 months after their last melarsomine injection. Four dogs appeared to respond positively to medical management aimed at decreasing pulmonary arterial pressure and improving the right ventricular function, but movement of HW out of the heart for other reasons cannot be excluded. This therapeutic option is not advised when dogs with HW disease are presented for acute collapse, ongoing hemolysis, and hypotension as surgical extraction is still considered the best option in these cases. It remains unknown if medical management is a safe option for all dogs with intracardiac HW without clinical signs of caval syndrome. Controlled prospective studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen in comparison with surgical extraction.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Dirofilaria/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Valva Tricúspide/parasitologia , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 62(1): 159-162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706886

RESUMO

A 17-year-old male patient presented with cellulitis and mass in the eye noticed approximately 3 months back. The mass was about 1 cm in size and situated at the limbus. All preoperative routine investigations were normal. Surgical exploration revealed a sub-conjunctival cystic mass near the lateral rectus muscle about 1 cm in diameter; the mass was excised. Gross pathological examination revealed a thin-walled cystic mass. There was a hard nodule in the center. Microscopy revealed a wall of cysticercosis. Scolex was also seen. Surrounding tissue revealed sparse acute and chronic inflammatory cells. The case was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta, and was also included in their departmental presentation as an interesting case. A 60-year-old lady presented with complaints of itching over the forehead and right eye for 5 days. She was prescribed steroid eyedrops and antihistaminics. The itching aggravated with eyedrops along with watering and foreign body sensation. On revisit, the ophthalmologist noticed a worm in the right upper subconjunctival space. The worm was carefully removed in toto and sent to the laboratory for identification. The worm was thin, cylindrical, 8-10 cm long and white in color. After microscopic and gross examination of the worm, it was identified as Dirofilaria spp. CDC (Atlanta) confirmed the diagnosis of Dirofilaria. The patient was treated with antihistaminics and was relieved of symptoms without recurrence. A 45-year-old male patient had a painless mass in the eye for the last 3 months. He had no systemic illness. He gave a history of swimming pool use during that time. The mass was excised and submitted for histopathology. Numerous globular cysts representing thick-walled sporangia containing numerous spores diagnostic of Rhinosporidiosis were seen.


Assuntos
Cistos/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Olho/parasitologia , Rinosporidiose/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Cistos/patologia , Cistos/cirurgia , Dirofilaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/parasitologia , Músculos Oculomotores/patologia , Rinosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Rhinosporidium/efeitos dos fármacos , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 671, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heartworm Society currently recommends the use of a monthly macrocyclic lactone, a 28-day course of 10 mg/kg doxycycline BID, and the 3-dose protocol of melarsomine dihydrochloride for the treatment of canine heartworm disease. Doxycycline is necessary for the reduction of the bacterium Wolbachia, found in all heartworm life-stages. Previous price increases and decreasing availability prompted us to evaluate alternative tetracycline antibiotics, i.e. minocycline, for the reduction of Wolbachia during canine heartworm treatment. METHODS: Thirty-two heartworm-positive dogs were randomized to receive 10 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of either doxycycline or minocycline for 28 days BID, for a total of 8 dogs per experimental group. All dogs received 6 months of Heartgard Plus® (ivermectin/pyrantel) and the 3-dose protocol of 2.5 mg/kg melarsomine dihydrochloride. Blood samples were collected prior to the initiation of treatment, every 7 days throughout tetracycline treatment, and then monthly thereafter until the dog tested negative for the presence of heartworm antigen. DNA was isolated from circulating microfilarial samples and qPCR was performed on each sample. RESULTS: A greater number of dogs in the 10 mg/kg doxycycline and minocycline treated groups experienced gastrointestinal side effects as compared to the 5 mg/kg doxycycline and minocycline treated groups. All eight dogs in the 10 mg/kg doxycycline-treated group tested negative for the presence of Wolbachia DNA by 28 days post-tetracycline treatment. A total of two dogs in both the 5 mg/kg doxycycline- and 10 mg/kg minocycline-treated groups and three dogs in the 5 mg/kg minocycline-treated group remained positive for the presence of Wolbachia DNA by the end of tetracycline treatment. CONCLUSIONS: No lung pathology was assessed in this clinical trial, therefore the clinical effect of the remaining Wolbachia DNA in the 10 mg/kg minocycline-, 5 mg/kg doxycycline- and 5 mg/kg minocycline-treated groups cannot be determined. Owner compliance in the proper administration of these tetracyclines may be impacted by the increased severe gastrointestinal side effects reported for the 10 mg/kg doxycycline- and minocycline-treated groups. We recommend that veterinarians prescribe the recommended 10 mg/kg doxycycline for canine heartworm treatment and reduce the dosage to 5 mg/kg in cases of severe gastrointestinal side effects in order to improve owner compliance in administration of medications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Arsenicais/administração & dosagem , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Wolbachia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/microbiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/fisiologia , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Masculino , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/fisiologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 597, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluralaner provides efficacy against feline ectoparasites following topical administration. Moxidectin is routinely used to treat gastrointestinal nematode infections and prevent heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Praziquantel is routinely used to treat feline tapeworm infections. The safety of a fluralaner plus moxidectin combination topical solution (Bravecto™ Plus, MSD Animal Health) was assessed when administered concurrently with a commercially available praziquantel topical solution (Droncit™ Spot-on, Bayer Animal Health GmbH). The highest dose rates in clinical use were tested. RESULTS: Concurrent topical administration of a fluralaner plus moxidectin and a praziquantel product did not result in adverse findings. One out of ten cats receiving praziquantel only (control group), and two out of ten cats receiving fluralaner plus moxidectin and praziquantel (treatment group) had dandruff-like flakes in their coat at the application site. Two out of the ten control cats and three cats out of the ten treatment group cats had very small amounts of unidentified material (minute crusts or crumbs) at the application site which was only visible during close inspection. CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent treatment of cats with fluralaner plus moxidectin and praziquantel at the maximum dose in clinical use was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Feminino , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3679-3681, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280219

RESUMO

In recent years, the number of reported cases of human dirofilariasis in Europe has increased and the circulation of Dirofilaria spp. in mosquitoes in several European countries has been proven. We report here two likely autochthonous cases of subcutaneous human dirofilariasis from Barcelona, Spain, caused by Dirofilaria repens. The potential for an increase in human infection is high given the number of cases published recently and the ability of vectors to spread through the Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose , Adulto , Aedes/parasitologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Culex/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Espanha
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 493, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heartworm medications and many oral or topical flea and tick products are provided as monthly doses while a newer oral flea/tick product, fluralaner (BRAVECTO® Chew), is re-dosed at a 12-week interval. This study focused on whether there was a difference in the number of heartworm medication doses that were purchased in the 12-months follow-up period for dogs that receive either fluralaner or other flea/tick medications that are dosed monthly. METHODS: Clinic transaction records of heartworm medication purchases for over 200,000 dogs were examined to compare the purchase of heartworm preventative protection by dog owners that also receive flea and tick medications of differing efficacy durations. RESULTS: Annual purchases of heartworm medication for dogs by owners that receive a flea and tick medication dosed at 12-week intervals was incrementally higher than the number of doses purchased for dogs receiving monthly flea and tick medications. The average number of monthly doses per year was slightly over 7 months for both categories of product. The distribution of purchases of monthly doses was also similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dog owners who purchase a longer-acting flea and tick medication purchase as much heartworm medication annually for their dogs as dog owners who purchase monthly flea and tick medication. On average, dog owners who gave their dog fluralaner obtained significantly more months of heartworm preventative protection compared with dog owners who gave their dog a monthly flea and tick medication, although the biological significance of this increase in doses is very small.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Cães , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(9): 1761-1763, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124407

RESUMO

We report human infection with a Dirofilaria repens nematode likely acquired in Senegal. An adult worm was extracted from the right conjunctiva of the case-patient, and blood microfilariae were detected, which led to an initial misdiagnosis of loiasis. We also observed the complete life cycle of a D. repens nematode in this patient.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Viagem , Idoso , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Bélgica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Senegal
13.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist ; 8(3): 596-606, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031685

RESUMO

Prophylaxis with macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides is the primary strategy for heartworm control. Recent evidence has confirmed that ML-resistant Dirofilaria immitis isolates have evolved. Comparison of genomes of ML-resistant isolates show they are genetically distinct from wild-type populations. Previously, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are correlated with phenotypic ML resistance. Since reliable in vitro assays are not available to detect ML resistance in L3 or microfilarial stages, the failure to reduce microfilaraemia in infected dogs treated with an ML has been proposed as a surrogate clinical assay for this purpose. The goal of our study was to validate the genotype-phenotype correlation between SNPs associated with ML resistance and failure to reduce microfilaraemia following ML treatment and to identify a minimal number of SNPs that could be used to confirm ML resistance. In this study, 29 participating veterinary clinics received a total of 148 kits containing supplies for blood collection, dosing and prepaid shipping. Patients recruited after a diagnosis of heartworm infection were treated with a single standard dose of Advantage Multi® and a blood sample taken pre- and approximately 2-4 weeks post-treatment. Each sample was processed by performing a modified Knott's Test followed by isolation of microfilariae, genomic DNA extraction and MiSeq sequencing of regions encompassing 10 SNP sites highly correlated with ML resistance. We observed significant correlation of SNP loci frequencies with the ML microfilaricidal response phenotype. Although all predictive SNP combination models performed well, a 2-SNP model was superior to other models tested. The predictive ability of these markers for ML-resistant heartworms should be further evaluated in clinical and epidemiological contexts.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Microfilárias/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/sangue , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Filaricidas , Genoma Helmíntico/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Helmíntico/genética , Genótipo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Masculino , Microfilárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Vet Res Commun ; 42(3): 227-232, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938353

RESUMO

Doxycycline is an antibiotic that, in addition to the classic antibacterial use, is also prescribed to fight parasitic diseases, like heartworm disease in dogs. Despite the concern that the overuse of this antibiotic may decrease susceptibility of clinically important bacteria, the consequences of the prolonged doxycycline therapy in heartworm-infected dogs have never been studied before. We have analyzed the impact of this therapy on Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus antimicrobial resistance. In this study, 17 heartworm-infected dogs (10 that had completed the doxycycline treatment and 7 dogs that had not yet begun) were included. Twenty-four isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from two locations of each dog. After treatment, 73.3% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic but only 22.2% of isolates before treatment. Most of doxycycline resistant isolates were obtained from dogs that have received treatment. Erythromycin resistance or intermediate susceptibility was detected in 45.6% of isolates, most of them from dogs after treatment. For Enterococci, 48 isolates were obtained from fecal samples (25 before treatment and 23 after treatment). Before treatment, 32% of isolates were resistant at least to one antibiotic while after, this data increase up to 65%. Comparing isolates before and after treatment, a clear increase in resistance to doxycycline (12% against 21.74%) and erythromycin (20% against 39.13%) was observed. Although the present work is a preliminary research, the results encourages the development of further studies to determinate the effect of prolonged doxycycline therapy on antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 254: 95-97, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657018

RESUMO

Melarsomine dihydrochloride (Immiticide®, Merial) is the only approved adulticidal drug for the treatment of canine heartworm disease (HWD). However, in cases where arsenical therapy is not possible or is contraindicated, a monthly heartworm preventive along with doxycycline for a 4-week period, which targets the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, might be considered. There are published reports on the efficacy of ivermectin and doxycycline in both experimentally and naturally infected dogs, but no data on the use of other macrocyclic lactones (MLs) with a similar treatment regime. Preliminary results of studies in dogs show that a topical formulation of moxidectin, the only ML currently registered as a microfilaricide, is also adulticidal when combined with doxycycline. It is not yet known if the efficacy of these combination therapies is due to pharmacokinetic synergism. A recent study showed that serum levels of doxycycline in dogs treated with the combination protocol were not statistically different compared to dogs treated with doxycycline alone. However, lungs from dogs treated with the combination therapy showed a marked reduction in T regulatory cells, indicating that treatment efficacy may be due to a heightened immune response against the parasite. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome of combination protocols and to establish the most efficient treatment for HWD in dogs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Wolbachia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico
16.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 252(9): 1084-1089, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety of PO administration of a milbemycin oxime (MBO) and spinosad product to heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis)-positive microfilaremic dogs. DESIGN Randomized, blinded, complete block trial. ANIMALS 32 purebred Beagles with a patent heartworm infection. PROCEDURES Dogs ranked by sex and microfilaria counts (range, 398 to 1,980 microfilaria/mL) were assigned to 4 groups of 8 to receive 3 treatments PO at 28-day intervals beginning on day 0: placebo (control group) or spinosad-MBO tablets containing MBO at the upper end of the label dose range (0.75 to 1 mg/kg [0.34 to 0.45 mg/lb]; 1× group) or 3 (3× group) or 5 (5× group) times that dose. Blood samples were collected at various points for adult heartworm antigen and Knott tests. Necropsies were performed on day 65, and recovered adult heartworms were counted. RESULTS 1 control dog died from heartworm-associated complications. Other adverse events included mild, transient emesis (1 dog in each of the 1× and 5× groups and 3 dogs in the 3× group). Similar adult heartworm counts (range, 13 to 41) were obtained for all 4 groups. Results of blood antigen and microfilaria tests were positive throughout the study, with 1 exception in each of the 3× and 5× groups. Mean microfilaria counts increased with time in the control group, whereas reductions from baseline in treated groups ranged from 61.5% to 96.4%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The evaluated MBO-spinosad formulation caused no severe adverse events when administered PO to microfilaremic dogs. Although microfilaria counts decreased following treatment, repeated monthly MBO treatments were incompletely microfilaricidal, suggesting MBO should not be used as a microfilaricide.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/patogenicidade , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 98, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of heat-treatment in canine and feline serum has been hypothesized to break the formation of antigen-antibody complexes, thereby freeing the heartworm antigen allowing for detection by commercially available heartworm antigen kits. While studies have analyzed the effect of heat-treating serum and plasma samples in the detection of heartworm antigen, these studies have not utilized necropsy verified results for validation. This study evaluated the use of heat-treating serum samples in experimentally infected dogs during adulticidal treatment in comparison with necropsy adult heartworm recovery. METHODS: As part of a primary study, a total of 16 dogs were experimentally infected with 16 sexually mature adult heartworms using surgical transplantation, allocating 8 dogs in both the control and treated group. Treated dogs received 10 months of topical administration of Advantage Multi® for Dogs (10% Imidacloprid + 2.5% Moxidectin) every 4 weeks and 30 days of 10 mg/kg doxycycline BID. Blood samples were collected from all study animals prior to surgical transplantation of adult heartworms, on study days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and every 4 weeks thereafter for the duration of this study. Concentration of heartworm antigen was tested using the DiroCHEK® heartworm antigen test kit using serum samples both pre- and post-heat-treatment. Serum samples were heat-treated at 103 °C in a dry heat block for 10 min and centrifuging at 1818× g for 20 min. RESULTS: There were a total of 4 instances (days 56, 140, 224 and 252) in 3 treated dogs in which a serum sample converted from negative for the detection of heartworm antigen prior to heat-treatment to positive for the detection of heartworm antigen post-heat-treatment. At necropsy, these dogs had no adult heartworms recovered and were all negative on antigen testing prior to and after heat treatment. There was 100% accuracy in the detection of either no infection, or 1-2 adult heartworm infections using the DiroCHEK in serum samples with and without heat-treatment at the time of necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: The DiroCHEK accurately diagnosed all dogs with live adults recovered at necropsy as heartworm antigen positive and all those dogs with no live adults recovered at necropsy as heartworm antigen negative without the use of heat-treatment for samples taken on the day of necropsy. Therefore, these results indicate that the use of heat-treating serum samples did not provide data of any additional value in the diagnosis of heartworm-positive dogs receiving treatment in this study. Additionally, these results may indicate that the conversion of serum samples from negative to positive for the presence of heartworm antigen with heat-treatment may not always accurately diagnose live adult heartworm infections since no adult heartworms were recovered at necropsy for those dogs in which a conversion event occurred. These conversion events may be detecting residual antigen leftover after all adult worms have died or may even be detecting off- target antigens, which have been denatured during heat-treatment. While a necropsy was not performed at the time of the conversion events, no live adult worms were recovered from any of the dogs in which a conversion event occurred earlier in treatment.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/sangue , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Masculino
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 152, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of canine heartworm infection, is worldwide the most important filarid to affect domestic dogs. Prevention of this infection is done by macrocyclic lactones, but some reports on the lack of efficacy have been published. Although the actual cause of resistance is unknown, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a P-glycoprotein ABC transporter and ß-tubulin genes have been pointed out as candidates for genetic markers of resistance. We conducted a survey to verify the presence of these suggested genetic markers in microfilariae from 30 naturally infected dogs under macrocyclic lactones treatment living in an endemic area in the state of Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The analysis of these specific SNPs demonstrated no sign of polymorphism on the P-glycoprotein loci, while 72 and 48% of the samples were polymorphic to the first and second SNPs on ß-tubulin loci, respectively. This work demonstrates that the P-glycoprotein position 11 and 618 were not polymorphic and, therefore, not suitable as a genetic marker of resistance in Rio de Janeiro whereas both ß-tubulin loci were polimorphic. This work points out the difficulty of finding a universal genetic marker for resistance.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose , Doenças do Cão , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , Brasil , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Lactonas/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Small Anim Pract ; 59(1): 50-52, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205353

RESUMO

Dirofilaria repens infection was diagnosed in a 5-year-old female German shepherd crossbreed, originally from Romania but brought into the UK in February 2014. The dog presented with conjunctivitis in March 2014 and then again 2 months later with additional ocular and nasal mucopurulent discharge. Bacterial cultures from the nasolacrimal duct were negative for bacterial growth. The case was referred in August 2014 for ophthalmic examination, which revealed abnormalities in both eyes, especially the left. They included mild palpebral conjunctival hyperaemia and marked follicular conjunctivitis, as well as a dorsonasal bulbar conjunctival mass. Serum biochemistry was unremarkable and a conjunctival biopsy taken from the dorsonasal bulbar conjunctival mass revealed eosinophilic/lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis. At re-examination, nematodes were found in the area of the previous biopsy site and in the ventral palpebral conjunctival fornix. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed these to be D. repens. Treatment with 10% imidacloprid and 2·5% moxidectin (Advocate Spot-On) was successful, and clinical signs resolved over a 6-week period. This case report indicates that D. repens infection should be considered as a possible aetiological cause of ocular lesions in dogs in the UK, especially those with a history of foreign travel. Implications for establishment and spread of D. repens in the UK are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/veterinária , Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia/veterinária , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/parasitologia , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Cães , Feminino , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Neonicotinoides/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Romênia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reino Unido
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