Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 928
Filtrar
1.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(2): 309-323, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011231

RESUMO

Introduction. Bacteriophage therapy can be developed to target emerging diarrhoeal pathogens, but doing so in the absence of microbiome disruption, which occurs with antibiotic treatment, has not been established.Aim. Identify a therapeutic bacteriophage that kills diarrhoeagenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) while leaving the human microbiome intact.Methodology. Phages from wastewater in Portland, OR, USA were screened for bacteriolytic activity by overlay assay. One isolated phage, PDX, was classified by electron microscopy and genome sequencing. A mouse model of infection determined whether the phage was therapeutic against EAEC. 16S metagenomic analysis of anaerobic cultures determined whether a normal human microbiome was altered by treatment.Results. Escherichia virus PDX, a member of the strictly lytic family Myoviridae, killed a case-associated EAEC isolate from a child in rural Tennessee in a dose-dependent manner, and killed EAEC isolates from Columbian children. A single dose of PDX (multiplicity of infection: 100) 1 day post-infection reduced EAEC recovered from mouse faeces. PDX also killed EAEC when cultured anaerobically in the presence of human faecal bacteria. While the addition of EAEC reduced the ß-diversity of the human microbiota, that of the cultures with either faeces alone, faeces with EAEC and PDX, or with just PDX phage was not different statistically.Conclusion. PDX killed EAEC isolate EN1E-0007 in vivo and in vitro, while not altering the diversity of normal human microbiota in anaerobic culture, and thus could be part of an effective therapy for children in developing countries and those suffering from EAEC-mediated traveller's diarrhoea without causing dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Escherichia coli/virologia , Myoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota , Myoviridae/classificação , Myoviridae/genética , Myoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 155-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002928

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are a complex set of illnesses in which genetic factors, particularly stress, play a role in the etiopathogenesis. In recent years, inflammation and intestinal microbiota have also been included in this complex network of relationships. The functions associated with tryptophan catabolism and serotonin biosynthesis have long been associated with anxiety disorders. Tryptophan catabolism progresses toward the path of the kynurenine in the presence of stress and inflammation. The catabolism of kynurenine is a pathway in which many enzymes play a role and a large number of catabolites with neuroactive properties occur. The body's serotonin biosynthesis is primarily performed by enterochromaffin cells located in the intestines. A change in the intestinal microbiota composition (dysbiosis) directly affects the serotonin biosynthesis. Stress, unhealthy nutrition, and the use of antibiotics cause dysbiosis. In the light of this new perspective, the role of dysbiosis-induced inflammation and kynurenine pathway catabolites activated sequentially come into prominence in the etiopathogenesis of anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Serotonina/biossíntese , Serotonina/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 779-787, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894986

RESUMO

The chain length of fructan determines its different physiological effects. This study is to explore the effects of low-performance inulin [LPI, degree of polymerization (DP) ≤ 9] and high-performance inulin (HPI, DP ≥ 23) on obesity-associated liver injury of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding mice and its underlying mechanism. Eight weeks of supplementation of C57BL/6J mice with HPI, relative to LPI (p < 0.05), caused the more efficient improvement against the HFD-induced liver insulin resistance through activating IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway and reduced protein expressions of inflammatory factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the liver. HPI exhibited the more positive effects on liver steatosis by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in comparison with LPI (p < 0.05). HPI also increased acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels in the colon of HFD-fed mice (p < 0.05). Compared to LPI, HPI feeding of HFD-fed mice led to the more effective decrease in the Firmicutes abundance from 72.1% to 34.5%, but a more significant increase in the Bacteroidetes population from 19.8 to 57.1% at the phyla level, and increased the abundance of Barnesiella, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides at the genus level (p < 0.05). Depending on DP, HPI exerts the more positive regulation on liver injury and gut microbiota dysfunction than LPI.


Assuntos
Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Inulina/química , Fígado/lesões , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Polimerização
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1237-1247, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722525

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver injury, known as the most general result of chronic alcohol intake, is induced by inflammatory responses, which is activated by intestine-derived endotoxins formed from intestinal dysbiosis. The hepatoprotective activity of rice bran phenolic extract (RBPE) on ethanol-fed mice was investigated for the first time in this study, and the underlying mechanism was explored from gut microbiota, barrier function, and hepatic inflammation. Mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet alone or in mixture with RBPE for 8 weeks. RBPE treatment mitigated ethanol-induced liver damage, evidenced by the declined lipid profile levels and hepatic function markers. Moreover, ethanol intake induced intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, which was attenuated by RBPE supplementation. RBPE treatment improved the alcohol-induced decrease in the expression of ZO-1, Claudin-1, Claudin-4, and Reg3g, revealing the ameliorative effect of RBPE on intestinal barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, RBPE treatment repressed the alcohol-induced trigger of the hepatic endotoxin-TLR4-NF-κB pathway, followed by the mitigated liver inflammation. The findings indicate that RBPE supplementation ameliorates intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction, inactivates the endotoxin-TLR4-NF-κB pathway, and represses inflammatory responses in liver, and therefore, intake of RBPE or brown rice may be an effective way to mitigate alcoholic liver injury.


Assuntos
Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Oryza/química , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/imunologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
5.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 72-83, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582175

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoïetic stem cell transplantation is one of the most efficient curative treatment for acute leukemia. But it is also a heavy process with an important risk of complications, particularly infection and graft versus host disease. Increasing data in literature show that an alteration of the intestinal microbiota of allogeneic stem cell recipients is associated with these complications. Indeed, treatments used during conditioning regimen lead to an impaired microbiota, which cannot fulfill its protective functions anymore. To limit this microbiota impairment, we could restore a healthy microbiota by a fecal microbiota transplantation, which has already shown its efficiency in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. The aim of this review is to describe the intestinal microbiota, the link between microbiota and complications of allogeneic stem cells transplantation, and the recent published data on fecal microbiota transplantation in this field.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Aloenxertos , Infecções por Clostridium/etiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Clostridium difficile , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos da radiação , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/microbiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Recidiva , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos
6.
Gut ; 69(1): 92-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were previously shown to display a bacterial gut dysbiosis but fungal microbiota has never been examined in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal gut microbiota in patients with PSC. DESIGN: We analysed the faecal microbiota of patients with PSC and concomitant IBD (n=27), patients with PSC and no IBD (n=22), patients with IBD and no PSC (n=33) and healthy subjects (n=30). Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. RESULTS: We found that patients with PSC harboured bacterial dysbiosis characterised by a decreased biodiversity, an altered composition and a decreased correlation network density. These alterations of the microbiota were associated with PSC, independently of IBD status. For the first time, we showed that patients with PSC displayed a fungal gut dysbiosis, characterised by a relative increase in biodiversity and an altered composition. Notably, we observed an increased proportion of Exophiala and a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared with patients with IBD and healthy subjects, the gut microbiota of patients with PSC exhibited a strong disruption in bacteria-fungi correlation network, suggesting an alteration in the interkingdom crosstalk. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that bacteria and fungi contribute to gut dysbiosis in PSC.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Gut ; 69(1): 42-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prenatal and early life bacterial colonisation is thought to play a major role in shaping the immune system. Furthermore, accumulating evidence links early life exposures to the risk of developing IBD later in life. We aimed to assess the effect of maternal IBD on the composition of the microbiome during pregnancy and on the offspring's microbiome. METHODS: We prospectively examined the diversity and taxonomy of the microbiome of pregnant women with and without IBD and their babies at multiple time points. We evaluated the role of maternal IBD diagnosis, the mode of delivery, antibiotic use and feeding behaviour on the microbiome composition during early life. To assess the effects of IBD-associated maternal and infant microbiota on the enteric immune system, we inoculated germ-free mice (GFM) with the respective stool and profiled adaptive and innate immune cell populations in the murine intestines. RESULTS: Pregnant women with IBD and their offspring presented with lower bacterial diversity and altered bacterial composition compared with control women and their babies. Maternal IBD was the main predictor of the microbiota diversity in the infant gut at 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days of life. Babies born to mothers with IBD demonstrated enrichment in Gammaproteobacteria and depletion in Bifidobacteria. Finally, GFM inoculated with third trimester IBD mother and 90-day infant stools showed significantly reduced microbial diversity and fewer class-switched memory B cells and regulatory T cells in the colon. CONCLUSION: Aberrant gut microbiota composition persists during pregnancy with IBD and alters the bacterial diversity and abundance in the infant stool. The dysbiotic microbiota triggered abnormal imprinting of the intestinal immune system in GFM.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/microbiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
BJOG ; 127(2): 287-299, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal probiotics claiming to cure and/or prevent bacterial and/or fungal vaginal dysbiosis are available on the market but, until recently, did not have to be approved as drugs for human use. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of vaginal probiotics on bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) cure and/or recurrence, as well as vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition and vaginal detection of probiotic strains. SEARCH STRATEGY: We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE and Embase up to 15 January 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: There were no restrictions in probiotic strains/formulations, study populations, and designs. BV had to be diagnosed by Nugent or Ison-Hay Gram stain scoring, VVC by culture, wet mount or PCR, and VMB composition/detection by molecular techniques. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors independently extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: All 22 vaginal probiotics evaluated in the 34 eligible studies contained Lactobacillus strains, and some contained additional active ingredients. The probiotics hold promise for BV cure and prevention, but much less so for VVC cure and prevention. No major safety concerns were reported in any of the studies. Vaginal detection of probiotic strains never lasted long beyond the dosing period, suggesting that they did not colonise the vagina. However, findings are not definitive because heterogeneity was high and the quality of most studies suboptimal. CONCLUSIONS: Availability of vaginal probiotics for vaginal health indications will likely decline in 2020 because of regulatory changes. We urge the field to invest in clinical evidence-based product development and to conduct future trials more rigorously. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Lactobacilli-containing vaginal probiotics hold promise for bacterial vaginosis cure and prevention, but not for vulvovaginal candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Disbiose/terapia , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/prevenção & controle , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/terapia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Vaginose Bacteriana/terapia
9.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1772-1782, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700190

RESUMO

Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is thought to result from systemic spread of commensal microbes from the intestines of premature infants. Clinical use of probiotics for LOS prophylaxis has varied owing to limited efficacy, reflecting an incomplete understanding of relationships between development of the intestinal microbiome, neonatal dysbiosis and LOS. Using a model of LOS, we found that components of the developing microbiome were both necessary and sufficient to prevent LOS. Maternal antibiotic exposure that eradicated or enriched transmission of Lactobacillus murinus exacerbated and prevented disease, respectively. Prophylactic administration of some, but not all Lactobacillus spp. was protective, as was administration of Escherichia coli. Intestinal oxygen level was a major driver of colonization dynamics, albeit via mechanisms distinct from those in adults. These results establish a link between neonatal dysbiosis and LOS, and provide a basis for rational selection of probiotics that modulate primary succession of the microbiome to prevent disease.


Assuntos
Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Idade de Início , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Camundongos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 79-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732936

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen with the ability to induce oral dysbiosis and periodontal disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which P. gingivalis could abrogate the host-microbe symbiotic relationship leading to oral dysbiosis remain unclear. We have recently demonstrated that P. gingivalis specifically increased the antimicrobial properties of oral epithelial cells, through a strong induction of the expression of PLA2-IIA in a mechanism that involves activation of the Notch-1 receptor. Moreover, gingival expression of PLA2-IIA was significantly increased during initiation and progression of periodontal disease in non-human primates and interestingly, those PLA2-IIA expression changes were concurrent with oral dysbiosis. In this chapter, we present an innovative hypothesis of a potential mechanism involved in P. gingivalis-induced oral dysbiosis and inflammation based on our previous observations and a robust body of literature that supports the antimicrobial and proinflammatory properties of PLA2-IIA as well as its role in other chronic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Doenças Periodontais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/enzimologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fosfolipases/genética , Poliésteres , Porphyromonas gingivalis/enzimologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética
11.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a modern refractory disease, and its etiology has been difficult to discern. Studies have shown that UC is closely associated with the gut microbiota. Garidisan is composed of wild poppy and Artemisia frigida Willd and is commonly used for the treatment of UC in Inner Mongolia, China. In clinical settings, Garidisan has been found to treat UC effectively, with low recurrence. Previous studies have shown that Garidisan has a good therapeutic effect on mice with UC, but the therapeutic mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effect of Garidisan on dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in a UC mouse model and explored the possible mechanism of the therapeutic effect of Garidisan on UC. METHODS: The UC mouse model was established by the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) circulating free water drinking method, and the luminal contents were sampled under sterile conditions. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 + V4 region of the luminal contents of the control group, model group, and Garidisan group was conducted, and clustering of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and species annotation were performed. The differences in species composition and microbial community structure between individual groups of samples were analyzed using MetaStat, LefSe, rank sum test, and Bayesian causal network analysis. RESULTS: The UC mouse model was successfully established and the sequencing results were of adequate quality. There were significant differences in the diversity of luminal contents between the control group, model group, and Garidisan group, and the differences between groups were greater than those within any group. The therapeutic effect of Garidisan on UC is attributed to the direct effect on the Lachnospiraceae family of bacteria. CONCLUSION: Garidisan has a good regulatory effect on the gut microbiota, and Lachnospiraceae could be an important direct target of Garidisan for the treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(40): 6129-6144, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and its etiology is multifactorial. Growing evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis is associated with the development of constipation. Prebiotics are subjected to bacterial fermentation in the gut to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can help relieve constipation symptoms. The prebiotic UG1601 consists of inulin, lactitol, and aloe vera gel, which are known laxatives, but randomized, controlled clinical trials that examine the effects of this supplement on gut microbiota composition are lacking. AIM: To assess the efficacy of the prebiotic UG1601 in suppressing constipation-related adverse events in subjects with mild constipation. METHODS: Adults with a stool frequency of less than thrice a week were randomized to receive either prebiotics or a placebo supplement for 4 wk. All participants provided their fecal and blood samples at baseline and at the end of intervention. Gastrointestinal symptoms and stool frequency were evaluated. The concentrations of serum endotoxemia markers and fecal SCFAs were determined. The relative abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria and the gut microbial community in the responders and non-responders in the prebiotics supplementation group were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms between groups, although the prebiotic group showed greater symptom improvement. However, after prebiotic usage, serum cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were significantly decreased (CD14, P = 0.012; LPS, P < 0.001). The change in LPS concentration was significantly larger in the prebiotic group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Fecal SCFAs concentrations did not differ between groups, while the relative abundance of Roseburia hominis, a major butyrate producer, was significantly increased in the prebiotic group (P = 0.045). The abundances of the phylum Firmicutes and the family Lachnospiraceae (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia) (P = 0.009) were decreased in the responders within the prebiotic group. In addition, the proportions of the phylum Firmicutes, the class Clostridia, and the order Clostridiales were inversely correlated with several fecal SCFAs (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Alterations in gut microbiota composition, including a decrease in the phylum Firmicutes and an increase in butyrate-producing bacteria, following prebiotic UG1601 supplementation might help alleviate symptom scores and endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Endotoxemia/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Endotoxemia/diagnóstico , Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Álcoois Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(39): 5897-5917, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660028

RESUMO

Portal hypertension (PHT) in advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) results from increased intrahepatic resistance caused by pathologic changes of liver tissue composition (structural component) and intrahepatic vasoconstriction (functional component). PHT is an important driver of hepatic decompensation such as development of ascites or variceal bleeding. Dysbiosis and an impaired intestinal barrier in ACLD facilitate translocation of bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that promote disease progression via immune system activation with subsequent induction of proinflammatory and profibrogenic pathways. Congestive portal venous blood flow represents a critical pathophysiological mechanism linking PHT to increased intestinal permeability: The intestinal barrier function is affected by impaired microcirculation, neoangiogenesis, and abnormal vascular and mucosal permeability. The close bidirectional relationship between the gut and the liver has been termed "gut-liver axis". Treatment strategies targeting the gut-liver axis by modulation of microbiota composition and function, intestinal barrier integrity, as well as amelioration of liver fibrosis and PHT are supposed to exert beneficial effects. The activation of the farnesoid X receptor in the liver and the gut was associated with beneficial effects in animal experiments, however, further studies regarding efficacy and safety of pharmacological FXR modulation in patients with ACLD are needed. In this review, we summarize the clinical impact of PHT on the course of liver disease, discuss the underlying pathophysiological link of PHT to gut-liver axis signaling, and provide insight into molecular mechanisms that may represent novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Disbiose/imunologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Translocação Bacteriana/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/metabolismo , Hipertensão Portal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/imunologia , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11665-11674, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588753

RESUMO

A long-term high-fat diet (HFD) can cause a range of health problems. Gut microbiota plays a decisive role in the development of HFD-associated inflammation, involved in function of T cells. This study was designed to probe the regulative effects of dietary stachyose, a functional oligosaccharide, on HFD-induced weight gain, inflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and T cell abnormality in C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were divided into three groups which received normal chow, HFD and HFD plus stachyose (400 mg/kg), respectively. Results showed that administration of stachyose diminished the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TNF-α level and elevation of peripheral blood leukocyte populations to alleviate the HFD-caused colonic and hepatic inflammation in mice. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed that stachyose improved the intestinal homeostasis of HFD-fed mice by improving the bacterial diversity with the increases in the relative abundances of the Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Parasutterella, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Anaerovorax, as well as the fecal level of butanoic acid, while decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes and the abundances of the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Desulfovibrio, Anaerotruncus, Mucispirillum, Roseburia, and Odoribacter. Flow cytometric analysis showed that stachyose antagonized the HFD-induced decrease of peripheral CD4+ T cell population in mice. Conclusively, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of stachyose can ameliorate the HFD-associated colonic and hepatic inflammation and its complications by modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(36): 5543-5558, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An altered (dysbiosis) and unhealthy status of the gut microbiota is usually responsible for a reduction of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration. SCFAs obtained from the carbohydrate fermentation processes are crucial in maintaining gut homeostasis and their determination in stool samples could provide a faster, reliable and cheaper method to highlight the presence of an intestinal dysbiosis and a biomarker for various gut diseases. We hypothesize that different intestinal diseases, such as celiac disease (CD), adenomatous polyposis (AP) and colorectal cancer (CRC) could display a particular fecal SCFAs' signature. AIM: To compare the fecal SCFAs' profiles of CD, AP, CRC patients and healthy controls, using the same analytical method. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we defined and compared the SCFAs' concentration in fecal samples of 9 AP, 16 CD, 19 CRC patients and 16 healthy controls (HC). The SCFAs' analysis were performed using a gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon rank-sum test to assess pairwise differences of SCFAs' profiles, partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) to determine the status membership based on distinct SCFAs' profiles, and Dirichlet regression to determine factors influencing concentration levels of SCFAs. RESULTS: We have not observed any difference in the SCFAs' amount and composition between CD and healthy control. On the contrary, the total amount of SCFAs was significantly lower in CRC patients compared to HC (P = 0.044) and CD (P = 0.005). Moreover, the SCFAs' percentage composition was different in CRC and AP compared to HC. In detail, HC displayed higher percentage of acetic acid (P value = 1.3 × 10-6) and a lower amount of butyric (P value = 0.02192), isobutyric (P value = 7.4 × 10-5), isovaleric (P value = 0.00012) and valeric (P value = 0.00014) acids compared to CRC patients. AP showed a lower abundance of acetic acid (P value = 0.00062) and higher percentages of propionic (P value = 0.00433) and isovaleric (P value = 0.00433) acids compared to HC. Moreover, AP showed higher levels of propionic acid (P value = 0.03251) and a lower level of isobutyric acid (P value = 0.00427) in comparison to CRC. The PLS-DA model demonstrated a significant separation of CRC and AP groups from HC, although some degree of overlap was observed between CRC and AP. CONCLUSION: Analysis of fecal SCFAs shows the potential to provide a non-invasive means of diagnosis to detect patients with CRC and AP, while CD patients cannot be discriminated from healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Disbiose/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 488, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious skin disease caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Although it afflicts over 100 mammal species worldwide, sarcoptic mange remains a disease obscured by variability at the individual, population and species levels. Amid this variability, it is critical to identify consistent drivers of morbidity, particularly at the skin barrier. METHODS: Using culture-independent next generation sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiome of three species of North American canids: coyotes (Canis latrans), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). We compared alpha and beta diversity between mange-infected and uninfected canids using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate analysis of variance with permutation. We used analysis of composition of microbes and gneiss balances to perform differential abundance testing between infection groups. RESULTS: We found remarkably consistent signatures of microbial dysbiosis associated with mange infection. Across genera, mange-infected canids exhibited reduced microbial diversity, altered community composition and increased abundance of opportunistic pathogens. The primary bacteria comprising secondary infections were Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, previously associated with canid ear and skin infections, and Corynebacterium spp., previously found among the gut flora of S. scabiei mites and hematophagous arthropods. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence suggests that sarcoptic mange infection consistently alters the canid skin microbiome and facilitates secondary bacterial infection, as seen in humans and other mammals infected with S. scabiei mites. These results provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of mange at the skin barrier of North American canids and can inspire novel treatment strategies. By adopting a "One Health" framework that considers mites, microbes and the potential for interspecies transmission, we can better elucidate the patterns and processes underlying this ubiquitous and enigmatic disease.


Assuntos
Coiotes/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Microbiota , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Pele/microbiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Biodiversidade , Análise por Conglomerados , Corynebacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA/análise , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Morbidade , Análise Multivariada , América do Norte/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/parasitologia , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4715, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624266

RESUMO

Infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Gut dysbiosis characteristic of end-stage liver disease may predispose patients to intestinal MDRB colonization and infection, in turn exacerbating dysbiosis. However, relationships between MDRB colonization and dysbiosis after LT remain unclear. We prospectively recruited 177 adult patients undergoing LT at a single tertiary care center. 16 S V3-V4 rRNA sequencing was performed on 723 fecal samples collected pre-LT and periodically until one-year post-LT to test whether MDRB colonization was associated with decreased microbiome diversity. In multivariate linear mixed-effect models, MDRB colonization predicts reduced Shannon α-diversity, after controlling for underlying liver disease, antibiotic exposures, and clinical complications. Importantly, pre-LT microbial markers predict subsequent colonization by MDRB. Our results suggest MDRB colonization as a major, previously unrecognized, marker of persistent dysbiosis. Therapeutic approaches accounting for microbial and clinical factors are needed to address post-transplant microbiome health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Terminal/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1369-1374, 2019 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564078

RESUMO

We isolated Lactobacillus mucosae NK41 and Bifidobacterium longum NK46 from human feces, which induced BDNF expression in corticosterone-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells, and examined their anti-depressive effects in mice. NK41, NK46, and their (1:1) mixture significantly mitigated immobilization stress (IS)-induced anxiety-like/depressive behaviors, hippocampal NF-κB activation, BDNF expression, Iba1+ cell population, and blood corticosterone, TNF-α, IL- 6, and lipopolysaccharide levels. Furthermore, they inhibited colitis marker NF-κB activation, and TNF-α expression in mice with IS-induced anxiety/depression. They additionally suppressed gut Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations and bacterial lipopolysaccharide production. These findings suggest that NK41 and NK46 may alleviate anxiety/depression and colitis by suppressing gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/dietoterapia , Bifidobacterium longum , Depressão/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
19.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6385-6398, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513213

RESUMO

This aim of this study is to assess the possible effects of dietary okra seed oil (OSO) consumption on attenuation of alcohol-induced liver damage and gut microbiota dysbiosis, and associated mechanisms in mice. Mice were orally administered alcohol alone or in combination with OSO at 400 and 800 mg per kg bw for 8 weeks. OSO caused a strong inhibition of abnormal weight loss and liver fat accumulation in alcohol-administered mice. Malonaldehyde production was also effectively antagonized, and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were elevated by OSO treatment in ethanol-based mice (p < 0.05). Concentrations of hepatic TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were decreased after OSO treatment when compared with alcohol-treated mice, respectively (p < 0.05). As revealed by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, OSO notably reduced the Proteobacteria proportion and enhanced the Bacteroidetes population of alcohol-treated mice, and a significant reduction in Clostridium XlVa and Staphylococcus was observed, revealing that OSO attenuated the alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis. OSO also attenuated lipid metabolic disorder by modulating metabolism of serum free fatty acids in ethanol-based mice, but had no significant difference in cecum total short-chain fatty acids among the tested mice. Amelioration of these parameters and liver injury via H&E staining examination demonstrated that OSO consumption could effectively protect against liver damage and maintain intestinal eubiosis in mice.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Sementes/química
20.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527125

RESUMO

Gardnerella vaginalis is a hallmark of vaginal dysbiosis, but it is found in the microbiomes of women with and without vaginal symptoms and those who do not have microbiologically defined dysbiosis. G. vaginalis encompasses diverse taxa differing in attributes that are potentially important for virulence, and there is evidence that clades or subgroups within the species are differentially associated with clinical outcomes. The G. vaginalis species description was recently emended, and three new species within the genus were defined (G. leopoldii, G. swidsinskii, and G. piotii). 16S rRNA sequences for the four Gardnerella species are all >98.5% identical, and no signature sequences differentiate them. We demonstrated that Gardnerella species can be resolved using partial chaperonin 60 (cpn60) sequences, with pairwise percent identities of 87.1 to 97.8% among the type strains. Pairwise cooccurrence patterns of Gardnerella spp. in the vaginal microbiomes of 413 reproductive aged Canadian women were investigated, and several significant cooccurrences of species were identified. Abundance of G. vaginalis and G. swidsinskii was associated with vaginal symptoms of abnormal odor and discharge. cpn60 barcode sequencing can provide a rapid assessment of the relative abundance of Gardnerella spp. in microbiome samples, providing a powerful method of elucidating associations between these diverse organisms and clinical outcomes. Researchers should consider using cpn60 instead of 16S RNA for better resolution of these important organisms.


Assuntos
Chaperonina 60/genética , Gardnerella vaginalis/classificação , Gardnerella vaginalis/genética , Vaginose Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Canadá , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA