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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262108, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030192

RESUMO

Viruses are common components of the intestinal microbiome, modulating host bacterial metabolism and interacting with the immune system, with a possible role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases such as celiac disease (CeD). The objective of this study was to characterize the virome profile in children with new-onset CeD. We used metagenomic analysis of viral DNA in mucosal and fecal samples from children with CeD and controls and performed sequencing using the Nextera XT library preparation kit. Abundance log2 fold changes were calculated using differential expression and linear discriminant effect size. Shannon alpha and Bray-Curtis beta diversity were determined. A total of 40 children with CeD and 39 controls were included. We found viral dysbiosis in both fecal and mucosal samples. Examples of significantly more abundant species in fecal samples of children with CeD included Human polyomavirus 2, Enterobacteria phage mEpX1, and Enterobacteria phage mEpX2; whereas less abundant species included Lactococcus phages ul36 and Streptococcus phage Abc2. In mucosal samples however, no species were significantly associated with CeD. Shannon alpha diversity was not significantly different between CeD and non-CeD groups and Bray-Curtis beta diversity showed no significant separation between CeD and non-CeD samples in either mucosal or stool samples, whereas separation was clear in all samples. We identified significant viral dysbiosis in children with CeD, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of CeD indicating the need for further studies.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/virologia , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Metagenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Vírus/classificação , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , DNA Viral/genética , Disbiose/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Filogenia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1 Suppl): 101-107, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to show the importance of developing techniques that could exploit the potential of bacteriophages as therapeutics or food supplements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed database was searched using the following combination of keywords: (bacteriophage) AND (human therapy); (natural bacteriophage) AND (application). RESULTS: The increasing antibiotic resistance of many bacterial strains is making standard antibiotic treatments less effective. Phage therapy provides a non-antibiotic alternative with greater specificity and without harmful effects on the human microbiota. Phages target their specific bacteria, replicate, and then, destroy the host pathogen. Bacteriophages may be administered by several routes, including topical, oral and intravenous. They not only destroy the host pathogen but, in some cases, increase the sensitivity of host bacteria to antibiotics. Various studies have shown that combining phage therapy and antibiotic treatment can be effective against bacterial infections. Clinical trials of phage therapy have shown promising results for various human diseases and conditions. With advances in genetic engineering and molecular techniques, bacteriophages will be able to target a wide range of bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: In the future, phage therapy promises to become an effective therapeutic option for bacterial infections. Since many potentially beneficial bacteriophages can be found in food, supplements containing bacteriophages could be designed to remodel gut microbiota and eliminate pathogenic bacteria. Remodeling of gut microbiota could correct gut dysbiosis. The order of phages known to have these promising activities is Caudovirales, especially the families Siphoviridae and Myoviridae.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Bacteriófagos , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura/tendências , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Disbiose/terapia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Terapia por Fagos/tendências
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696531

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes transient acute infection, and little is known of viral shedding via the duodenum and into the intestinal environment, including the gut microbiome, from the period of infection until after the recovery of symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to comprehensively observe the amount of virus excreted into the intestinal tract, the changes in the intestinal microbiome, and the level of inflammation during the healing process. We used blood and stool specimens from patients with human immunodeficiency virus who were infected with HAV during the HAV outbreak in Japan in 2018. Moreover, we observed changes in fecal HAV RNA and quantified the plasma cytokine level and gut microbiome by 16S rRNA analysis from clinical onset to at least 6 months after healing. HAV was detected from clinical onset up to a period of more than 150 days. Immediately after infection, many pro-inflammatory cytokines were elicited, and some cytokines showed different behaviors. The intestinal microbiome changed significantly after infection (dysbiosis), and the dysbiosis continued for a long time after healing. These observations suggest that the immunocompromised state is associated with prolonged viral shedding into the intestinal tract and delayed recovery of the intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Disbiose/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Hepatite A/complicações , Adulto , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Hepatite A/fisiopatologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/patogenicidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546607

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is now pandemic. While most Covid-19 patients will experience mild symptoms, a small proportion will develop severe disease, which could be fatal. Clinically, Covid-19 patients manifest fever with dry cough, fatigue and dyspnoea, and in severe cases develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis and multi-organ failure. These severe patients are characterized by hyperinflammation with highly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-alpha as well as C-reactive protein, which are accompanied by decreased lymphocyte counts. Clinical evidence supports that gut microbiota dysregulation is common in Covid-19 and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. In this narrative review, we summarize the roles of intestinal dysbiosis in Covid-19 pathogenesis and posit that the associated mechanisms are being mediated by gut bacterial metabolites. Based on this premise, we propose possible clinical implications. Various risk factors could be causal for severe Covid-19, and these include advanced age, concomitant chronic disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection of enterocytes, use of antibiotics and psychological distress. Gut dysbiosis is associated with risk factors and severe Covid-19 due to decreased commensal microbial metabolites, which cause reduced anti-inflammatory mechanisms and chronic low-grade inflammation. The preconditioned immune dysregulation enables SARS-CoV-2 infection to progress to an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response. Thus, a pre-existing gut microbiota that is diverse and abundant could be beneficial for the prevention of severe Covid-19, and supplementation with commensal microbial metabolites may facilitate and augment the treatment of severe Covid-19.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(16): 5953-5976, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223911

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing the major pandemic facing the world today. Although, SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection, a variety of symptoms have proven a systemic impact on the body. SARS-CoV-2 has spread in the community quickly infecting humans from all age, ethnicities and gender. However, fatal outcomes have been linked to specific host factors and co-morbidities such as age, hypertension, immuno-deficiencies, chronic lung diseases or metabolic disorders. A major shift in the microbiome of patients suffering of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have also been observed and is linked to a worst outcome of the disease. As many co-morbidities are already known to be associated with a dysbiosis of the microbiome such as hypertension, diabetes and metabolic disorders. Host factors and microbiome changes are believed to be involved as a network in the acquisition of the infection and the development of the diseases. We will review in detail in this manuscript, the immune response toward SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the host factors involved in the facilitation and worsening of the infection. We will also address the impact of COVID-19 on the host's microbiome and secondary infection which also worsen the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Animais , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Pandemias
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
7.
Life Sci ; 280: 119717, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139232

RESUMO

AIMS: Since our troops had returned from the first Persian Gulf War in 1990-91, the veterans have reported chronic multisymptomatic illness widely referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI). We aim to review the current directions of GWI pathology research in the context of chronic multisymptomatic illness and its possible gut microbiome targeted therapies. The veterans of Gulf War show symptoms of chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and a subsection report of gastrointestinal complications. METHOD: Efforts of finding a suitable treatment regimen and clinical management remain a challenge. More recently, we have shown that the pathology is connected to alterations in the gut microbiome, and efforts of finding a suitable regimen for gut-directed therapeutics are underway. We discuss the various clinical interventions and summarize the possible effectiveness of gut-directed therapies such as the use of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), phenolic compounds, and their metabolites, use of probiotics, and fecal microbiota transfer. SIGNIFICANCE: The short review will be helpful to GWI researchers to expand their studies to the gut and find an effective treatment strategy for chronic multisymptomatic illness.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/terapia , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Disbiose/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Humanos , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/microbiologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/virologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253293, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human microbiotas are communities of microorganisms living in symbiosis with humans. They play an important role in the host immune response to respiratory viral infection. However, evidence on the human microbiome and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) relationship is insufficient. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate existing evidence on the association between the microbiome and COVID-19 in humans and summarize these data in the pandemic era. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review on the association between the microbiome and COVID-19 in humans by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases for articles in English published up to October 31, 2020. The results were analyzed qualitatively. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020195982). RESULTS: Of the 543 articles identified by searching databases, 16 in line with the research objectives were eligible for qualitative review: eight sampled the microbiome using stool, four using nasopharyngeal or throat swab, three using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and one using lung tissue. Fecal microbiome dysbiosis and increased opportunistic pathogens were reported in COVID-19 patients. Several studies suggested the dysbiosis in the lung microbiome of COVID-19 patients with an abundance of opportunistic pathogens using lower respiratory tract samples. The association between COVID-19 severity and the human microbiome remains uncertain. CONCLUSION: The human fecal and respiratory tract microbiome changed in COVID-19 patients with opportunistic pathogen abundance. Further research to elucidate the effect of alternation of the human microbiome in disease pathogenesis is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Disbiose/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6670798, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681368

RESUMO

Recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a worldwide pandemic with millions of infected patients. Alteration in humans' microbiota was also reported in COVID-19 patients. The alteration in human microbiota may contribute to bacterial or viral infections and affect the immune system. Moreover, human's microbiota can be altered due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and these microbiota changes can indicate the progression of COVID-19. While current studies focus on the gut microbiota, it seems necessary to pay attention to the lung microbiota in COVID-19. This study is aimed at reviewing respiratory microbiota dysbiosis among COVID-19 patients to encourage further studies on the field for assessment of SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory microbiota interaction.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disbiose , Pulmão , Micobioma/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia
10.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 24-32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756475

RESUMO

Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant clinical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Infecting intestinal epithelial cells, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may impact on host's microbiota and gut inflammation. It is well established that an imbalanced intestinal microbiome can affect pulmonary function, modulating the host immune response ("gut-lung axis"). While effective vaccines and targeted drugs are being tested, alternative pathophysiology-based options to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection must be considered on top of the limited evidence-based therapy currently available. Addressing intestinal dysbiosis with a probiotic supplement may, therefore, be a sensible option to be evaluated, in addition to current best available medical treatments. Herein, we summed up pathophysiologic assumptions and current evidence regarding bacteriotherapy administration in preventing and treating COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disbiose/terapia , Disbiose/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Neurovirol ; 27(2): 228-238, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651324

RESUMO

The biological mechanisms underlying emotional distress in HIV infection are likely to be complex but remain understudied. We investigated whether dysbiotic signatures in the gut microbiome of persons living with HIV (PLWH) are associated with their emotional status. We retrospectively examined the gut microbiome and clinical evaluation of 129 adults (94 PLWH and 35 HIV-) enrolled at UC San Diego's HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program. A subset of participants (32 PLWH vs. 13 HIV-) underwent an emotional assessment using the NIH Toolbox Emotion Battery summarized by three composite scores (negative affect, social satisfaction, and psychological well-being). We then sequenced the 16S rDNA V3-V4 regions from stool and performed taxonomic assignment using CLC Microbial Genomics Module. The gut microbiota profiles were evaluated in relation to participants' emotional assessment. All analyses were done in R statistical software. We found that the relative abundance of aerotolerant bacteria was significantly higher in PLWH (p < 0.01) and was associated with a lifetime major depression diagnosis independently of HIV status (p = 0.05). Moreover, PLWH experienced significantly worse psychological well-being (p = 0.02), less social satisfaction (p = 0.03), and more negative affect (p = 0.02). Higher levels of aerotolerant bacteria were associated with worse psychological well-being (rho = -0.35, p = 0.02), less social satisfaction (r = - 0.42, p < 0.01), and more negative affect (rho = 0.46, p < 0.01). The association of aerotolerant bacteria with social satisfaction and negative affect was independent of HIV status (p < 0.05, for both). The over-representation of aerotolerant bacteria in the gut may reflect worse oxidative stress and barrier defects and may contribute to emotional distress during HIV infection.


Assuntos
Disbiose/virologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 632490, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777844

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (causing the disease COVID-19) has caused a highly transmissible and ongoing pandemic worldwide. Due to its rapid development, next-generation sequencing plays vital roles in many aspects. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the origin and human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 based on NGS analysis. The ACE2 expression levels in various human tissues and relevant cells were compared to provide insights into the mechanism of SAS-CoV-2 infection. Gut microbiota dysbiosis observed by metagenome sequencing and the immunogenetics of COVID-19 patients according to single-cell sequencing analysis were also highlighted. Overall, the application of these sequencing techniques could be meaningful for finding novel intermediate SARS-CoV-2 hosts to block interspecies transmission. This information will further benefit SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic development and new therapeutic target discovery. The extensive application of NGS will provide powerful support for our fight against future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Metagenoma , Pandemias
13.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 33(3): e14104, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestation in up to one fifth of patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors triggering a cascade of events leading to mucosal and systemic inflammation. Symptomatic patients display changes in gut microbiota composition and function which may contribute to intestinal barrier dysfunction and immune activation. Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mucosal inflammation impact on the function of the enteric nervous system and the activation of sensory fibers conveying information to the central nervous system, which, may at least in part, contribute symptom generation such as vomiting and diarrhea described in COVID-19. Liver and pancreas dysfunctions have also been described as non-respiratory complications of COVID-19 and add further emphasis to the common view of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement. PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to highlight the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the crosstalk with the gut microbiota, the fecal-oral route of virus transmission, and the potential interaction of the virus with the enteric nervous system. We also review the current available data on gastrointestinal and liver manifestations, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/virologia , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Disbiose/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/virologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Pancreatopatias/etiologia , Pancreatopatias/fisiopatologia , Pancreatopatias/virologia
14.
Gut ; 70(4): 698-706, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, there is mounting evidence suggesting that the GI tract is involved in this disease. We investigated whether the gut microbiome is linked to disease severity in patients with COVID-19, and whether perturbations in microbiome composition, if any, resolve with clearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: In this two-hospital cohort study, we obtained blood, stool and patient records from 100 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serial stool samples were collected from 27 of the 100 patients up to 30 days after clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Gut microbiome compositions were characterised by shotgun sequencing total DNA extracted from stools. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and blood markers were measured from plasma. RESULTS: Gut microbiome composition was significantly altered in patients with COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19 individuals irrespective of whether patients had received medication (p<0.01). Several gut commensals with known immunomodulatory potential such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium rectale and bifidobacteria were underrepresented in patients and remained low in samples collected up to 30 days after disease resolution. Moreover, this perturbed composition exhibited stratification with disease severity concordant with elevated concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and blood markers such as C reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. CONCLUSION: Associations between gut microbiota composition, levels of cytokines and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 suggest that the gut microbiome is involved in the magnitude of COVID-19 severity possibly via modulating host immune responses. Furthermore, the gut microbiota dysbiosis after disease resolution could contribute to persistent symptoms, highlighting a need to understand how gut microorganisms are involved in inflammation and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bactérias , COVID-19 , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal , Imunidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/epidemiologia , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/virologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transferases/análise
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 960, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441754

RESUMO

In HIV-1-infected patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key factor that may impact commensal microbiota and cause the emergence of side effects. However, it is not fully understood how long-term ART regimens have diverse impacts on the microbial compositions over time. Here, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of the fecal and salivary microbiomes in patients under different long-term ART. We found that ART, especially conventional nucleotide/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based ART, has remarkable impacts on fecal microbial diversity: decreased α-diversity and increased ß-diversity over time. In contrast, dynamic diversity changes in the salivary microbiome were not observed. Comparative analysis of bacterial genus compositions showed a propensity for Prevotella-enriched and Bacteroides-poor gut microbiotas in patients with ART over time. In addition, we observed a gradual reduction in Bacteroides but drastic increases in Succinivibrio and/or Megasphaera under conventional ART. These results suggest that ART, especially NRTI-based ART, has more suppressive impacts on microbiota composition and diversity in the gut than in the mouth, which potentially causes intestinal dysbiosis in patients. Therefore, NRTI-sparing ART, especially integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)- and/or non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimens, might alleviate the burden of intestinal dysbiosis in HIV-1-infected patients under long-term ART.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico
17.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 72(3): 293-299, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787470

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become pandemic very rapidly at the beginning of 2020. In the rush to possible therapeutic options, probiotics administration has been proposed mainly based on indirect observation. Some evidence of COVID-19 effects on intestinal microbiota dysbiosis has been shown and probiotics have been considered for their efficacy in the management of respiratory tract viral infections. These observations could be reinforced by the more and more evident existence of a lung-gut axis, suggesting the modulation of gut microbiota among the approaches to the COVID-19 prevention and treatment. As different possible roles of probiotics in this extremely severe illness have been contemplated, the aim of this work is to collect all the currently available information related to this topic, providing a starting point for future studies focussing on it.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Disbiose/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , Disbiose/virologia , Humanos
18.
Virus Res ; 291: 198203, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132161

RESUMO

Infectious diseases related to viruses, as well as bacterial pathogens, abound in all parts of the world, burdening health and economy. Thus, there is a dire need to find new prevention and treatment strategies to improve clinical practices related to viral infections. Human gut contains trillions of bacteria which have regulatory roles in immune development, homeostasis, and body metabolism. Today, it is difficult to find any prominent viral infection that hasn't had any link with the human gut microbiota. In this opinion-based review article, I argued the significance of manipulating human gut microbiota as novel therapeutics through probiotics or FMT in alleviating complexities related to viral infections, and pinpointed bottlenecks involved in this research.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/terapia , Animais , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos , Microbiota/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 576551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324572

RESUMO

Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes cardiopulmonary and vascular complications, ranging in severity. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the novel SARS-CoV2 infection and progression can provide potential novel targets for its prevention and/or treatment. Virus microbiota reciprocal interactions have been studied in a variety of viral infections. For example, the integrity of Coronavirus particles can be disrupted by surfactin, a bacterial surface molecule that targets other viruses, including that of influenza A. In this light, intestinal microbiota likely influences COVID-19 virulence, while from its side SARS-CoV-2 may affect the intestinal microbiome promoting dysbiosis and other deleterious consequences. Hence, the microbiota pre-existing health status and its alterations in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are likely to play an important, still underscored role in determining individual susceptibility and resilience to COVID-19. Indeed, the vast majority of COVID-19 worst clinical conditions and fatalities develop in subjects with specific risk factors such as aging and the presence of one or more comorbidities, which are intriguingly characterized also by unhealthy microbiome status. Moreover, these comorbidities require complex pharmacological regimens known as "polypharmacy" that may further affect microbiota integrity and worsen the resilience to viral infections. This complex situation may represent a further and underestimated risk with regard to COVID-19 clinical burden for the elderly and comorbid people. Here, we discuss the possible biological, physiopathological, and clinical implications of gut microbiota in COVID-19 and the strategies to improve/maintain its healthy status as a simple and adjunctive strategy to reduce COVID-19 virulence and socio-sanitary burden.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Interações Microbianas , Fatores de Risco , Virulência
20.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(24): 4012-4016, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244974

RESUMO

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gained increased attention in the neuroscience community, especially taking into account the neuroinvasive potential of its causative agent, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the impact of its infection on the structure and function of the brain. Apart from the neurotropic properties of SARS-CoV-2, it is likewise important the observation that virus infection may perturb specific cellular processes that are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders, particularly in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this scenario, viral infection-induced colon inflammation, gut microbial imbalance, and α-synuclein upregulation are of particular interest with regard to the interplay between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (microbiome-gut-brain axis). In this Perspective, we present a critical view on the different hypotheses that are recently being raised by neuroscientists about the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and long-lasting neurodegenerative disorders, opening the question of whether COVID-19 might represent a risk factor for the development of PD.


Assuntos
Disbiose/virologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Viroses/virologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/patologia
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