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2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730264

RESUMO

Structured doctoral education is increasingly preferred compared to the individual model. Several science policy organisations give recommendations on how to structure doctoral education. However, there is little research on to what extent these recommendations find their way into practice. In our study, we first compared European and German recommendations on doctoral education with, second, the institutional regulations of structured doctoral programmes (N = 98) in the life sciences at twelve different German universities. Additionally, we third asked doctoral graduates (N = 1796) of these structured doctoral programmes and graduates of individual doctoral studies about their experience in doctoral education. Fourth, we contrasted the regulations of structured doctoral programmes with the reported experiences of their graduates. We found significant deviations of the reported practices of graduates from the regulations of their organisations, regarding the student admission, supervision and curricular activities of doctoral candidates. The efficacy of structured versus traditional doctoral education should be examined based on reported practice rather than on the respective written regulations.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Social Formal , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1241-1248, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597074

RESUMO

The opening and sharing of large-scale life science equipment in universities is expanding. We must find ways to improve the role of large-scale equipment in cultivating students' practical and innovative abilities, to tap the potential of equipment, then to support scientific research and speed up scientific research output. We established a set of large-scale equipment training and practice teaching system including 15 topics and covering a wide range of technologies. In practice, we constantly innovated personalized courses. According to the differences of students' major and scientific research needs, we classified teaching content and set up parallel classes. Each class had the individualized teaching content and students could select from a menu of courses. In addition, we built up a cloud classroom teaching platform, online and offline teaching method supplemented each other. The teaching system have produced certain effect.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Currículo , Universidades , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/instrumentação , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Humanos , Estudantes
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1235: 165-178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488642

RESUMO

In higher education (HE), distance learning (DL) has increased worldwide. Many educational establishments have embraced online distance learning (ODL), with online courses being delivered by a great number of institutions, ranging from community colleges to major universities world-wide. Distance learning (DL) is not a new concept (Keegan D. Theoretical principles of distance education, London, Routledge, 1993), it dates as far back as the eighteenth century as a means of providing access to those who would otherwise not be able to participate in face-to-face educational courses. Traditional DL courses lacked interactivity and the emergence of computers and the internet provided the opportunity for learners to undertake online distance learning (ODL). Many ODL students are biomedical professionals juggling work and family commitments, and therefore the ability to study at a time and place that suits them allows them to engage in learning that they otherwise would not be able to do without relocating. However, whilst ODL offers greater learning opportunities, the lack of campus time and face-to-face learning contact can result in learners feeling isolated.Knowledge is constructed in the midst of interactions with others and is shaped by the skills and abilities valued in a particular culture. Thus, the teacher plays a key role in this learning process in shaping the leaning activities and supporting the development of knowledge and understanding. Therefore, it can be said that the role of the ODL instructor differs from that associated with traditional on-campus education. The instructor becomes the facilitator to support student learning, whilst the student actively participates in what and how knowledge is imparted. Consequently, students studying online are often required to take on a greater responsibility for their own learning. They learn more independently than the on-campus students, as they cannot just simply follow what the other students are doing, they must log into the VLE as a solitary initiative and interact with fellow students and their tutor of their own accords, this chapter looks at how presence and belonging can be supported in ODL as well as supporting staff and students to transition to ODL.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Educação a Distância , Docentes , Internet , Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Docentes/psicologia , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/organização & administração
5.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566135

RESUMO

Structural bioinformatics provides the scientific methods and tools to analyse, archive, validate, and present the biomolecular structure data generated by the structural biology community. It also provides an important link with the genomics community, as structural bioinformaticians also use the extensive sequence data to predict protein structures and their functional sites. A very broad and active community of structural bioinformaticians exists across Europe, and 3D-Bioinfo will establish formal platforms to address their needs and better integrate their activities and initiatives. Our mission will be to strengthen the ties with the structural biology research communities in Europe covering life sciences, as well as chemistry and physics and to bridge the gap between these researchers in order to fully realize the potential of structural bioinformatics. Our Community will also undertake dedicated educational, training and outreach efforts to facilitate this, bringing new insights and thus facilitating the development of much needed innovative applications e.g. for human health, drug and protein design. Our combined efforts will be of critical importance to keep the European research efforts competitive in this respect. Here we highlight the major European contributions to the field of structural bioinformatics, the most pressing challenges remaining and how Europe-wide interactions, enabled by ELIXIR and its platforms, will help in addressing these challenges and in coordinating structural bioinformatics resources across Europe. In particular, we present recent activities and future plans to consolidate an ELIXIR 3D-Bioinfo Community in structural bioinformatics and propose means to develop better links across the community. These include building new consortia, organising workshops to establish data standards and seeking community agreement on benchmark data sets and strategies. We also highlight existing and planned collaborations with other ELIXIR Communities and other European infrastructures, such as the structural biology community supported by Instruct-ERIC, with whom we have synergies and overlapping common interests.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Biologia Computacional/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Genômica , Humanos , Proteínas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584838

RESUMO

In spite of efforts to increase gender diversity across many science fields, women continue to encounter beliefs that they lack ability and talent. Undergraduate education is a critical time when peer influence may alter choice of majors and careers for women interested in science. Even in life science courses, in which women outnumber men, gender biases that emerge in peer-to-peer interactions during coursework may detract from women's interest and progress. This is the first study of which we are aware to document that women are outperforming men in both physical and life science undergraduate courses at the same institution, while simultaneously continuing to be perceived as less-able students. This is problematic because undergraduate women may not be able to escape gender-ability stereotypes even when they are outperforming men, which has important implications for 1) the recognition of women's achievements among their peers in undergraduate education and 2) retention of women in STEM disciplines and careers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Logro , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007754, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379823

RESUMO

The current academic culture facing women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields in the United States has sparked the formation of grassroots advocacy groups to empower female scientists in training. However, the impact of these initiatives often goes unmeasured and underappreciated. Our Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) organization serves postdoctoral researchers, graduate students, and research technicians (trainees) at a private research institute for biological sciences. Here we propose the following guidelines for cultivating a successful women-in-STEM-focused group based upon survey results from our own scientific community as well as the experience of our WiSE group leaders. We hope these recommendations can provide guidance to advocacy groups at other research and academic organizations that wish to strengthen their efforts. Whereas our own group specifically focuses on the underrepresented state of women in science, we hope these guidelines may be adapted and applied to groups that advocate for any minority group within the greater scientific community (i.e., those of gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, etc.).


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Mulheres/educação , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Engenharia/educação , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008565, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310942

RESUMO

Preprints are gaining visibility in many fields. Thanks to the exponential growth in submissions to bioRxiv, an online server for preprints in biology, versions of manuscripts prior to the completion of journal-organized peer review are poised to become a standard component of the publishing experience in the life sciences. Here, we provide an overview of current challenges facing preprints, both technical and social, and a vision for their future development.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Pré-Publicações como Assunto/tendências , Pesquisa , Animais , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Humanos , Licenciamento , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/economia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Pré-Publicações como Assunto/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078664

RESUMO

Life-sciences are pointing towards an alarming worldwide pollinator decline. This decline proceeds along with overall biodiversity losses, even in the context of urban landscapes and human welfare. At the same time, social-sciences are arguing an increased distance from nature, experienced by citizens. The strong connection between the public good and pollinator sustainability, even in urban areas, is well-documented. However, usually basic and applied life-sciences tend to underestimate public perception of nature, which is better tackled by the fields of social-sciences. Therefore, more efforts are needed to link scientific questions and public 'perception' of nature. We designed a transversal project where research questions directly confront public concerns: i.e., even while addressing scientific knowledge gaps, our questions directly arise from public concerns. Social studies highlighted that appreciation of (exotic) plants is related to the impact they may have on the surrounding natural environment: therefore, we investigated links of native and exotic flowers to local pollinators. Other studies highlighted that scientific results need to link to everyday individual experience: therefore, we investigated pollination modes of the renown Salvia, native and exotic, largely used in cuisine and gardening. The botanic garden was the promoter of scientific questions addressed by the public, and also collated the results in a travelling exhibition. The exhibition, together with a dedicated catalogue, were especially designed to enlighten the wide public on the relationships that plants, native and exotic alike, establish with the surrounding world.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Jardinagem/educação , Jardinagem/métodos , Agricultura/educação , Biodiversidade , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Compreensão , Ecossistema , Flores , Jardins/tendências , Humanos , Plantas , Polinização/fisiologia
15.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 257: 1-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768749

RESUMO

There has been increasing evidence in recent years that research in life sciences is lacking in reproducibility and data quality. This raises the need for effective systems to improve data integrity in the evolving non-GxP research environment. This chapter describes the critical elements that need to be considered to ensure a successful implementation of research quality standards in both industry and academia. The quality standard proposed is founded on data integrity principles and good research practices and contains basic quality system elements, which are common to most laboratories. Here, we propose a pragmatic and risk-based quality system and associated assessment process to ensure reproducibility and data quality of experimental results while making best use of the resources.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D17-D23, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701143

RESUMO

Data resources at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI, https://www.ebi.ac.uk/) archive, organize and provide added-value analysis of research data produced around the world. This year's update for EMBL-EBI focuses on data exchanges among resources, both within the institute and with a wider global infrastructure. Within EMBL-EBI, data resources exchange data through a rich network of data flows mediated by automated systems. This network ensures that users are served with as much information as possible from any search and any starting point within EMBL-EBI's websites. EMBL-EBI data resources also exchange data with hundreds of other data resources worldwide and collectively are a key component of a global infrastructure of interconnected life sciences data resources. We also describe the BioImage Archive, a deposition database for raw images derived from primary research that will supply data for future knowledgebases that will add value through curation of primary image data. We also report a new release of the PRIDE database with an improved technical infrastructure, a new API, a new webpage, and improved data exchange with UniProt and Expression Atlas. Training is a core mission of EMBL-EBI and in 2018 our training team served more users, both in-person and through web-based programmes, than ever before.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/organização & administração , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biologia Computacional/organização & administração , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Gerenciamento de Dados , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
17.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 48(1): 74-79, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532881

RESUMO

Enzyme kinetics is the study of enzymatic catalytic rates in biochemical reactions. This topic is commonly taught to life science students in introductory biochemistry courses during their undergraduate education. Unlike most other biochemistry topics, which focus on visual structures of biomolecules and their processes, enzyme kinetics is explained primarily through abstract mathematical and two-dimensional graphical plots. However, these abstract/symbolic representations often make it difficult for students to relate the kinetic parameters to the underlying molecular system that is being described. In this article, we present the design and development of a web-based multimedia interactive learning tool, biomolecular interactive tutorials (BIOMINT) to help students better bridge the relationships between these abstract mathematical models and the molecular behaviors, interactions, and dynamics that produce kinetic phenomena. This learning tool can be accessed at https://bit.ly/biomint. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 48(1):74-79, 2020.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/educação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Aprendizagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudantes , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Humanos , Cinética , Universidades
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D1153-D1163, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665479

RESUMO

ProteomicsDB (https://www.ProteomicsDB.org) started as a protein-centric in-memory database for the exploration of large collections of quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics data. The data types and contents grew over time to include RNA-Seq expression data, drug-target interactions and cell line viability data. In this manuscript, we summarize new developments since the previous update that was published in Nucleic Acids Research in 2017. Over the past two years, we have enriched the data content by additional datasets and extended the platform to support protein turnover data. Another important new addition is that ProteomicsDB now supports the storage and visualization of data collected from other organisms, exemplified by Arabidopsis thaliana. Due to the generic design of ProteomicsDB, all analytical features available for the original human resource seamlessly transfer to other organisms. Furthermore, we introduce a new service in ProteomicsDB which allows users to upload their own expression datasets and analyze them alongside with data stored in ProteomicsDB. Initially, users will be able to make use of this feature in the interactive heat map functionality as well as the drug sensitivity prediction, but ultimately will be able to use all analytical features of ProteomicsDB in this way.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Proteômica/métodos , Pesquisa , Descoberta de Drogas , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , Navegador
20.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25019, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047919

RESUMO

Desde os anos 2000 ocorreram ampliações e intensificações da comunidade de pesquisadores(as) e dos aparatos científicos comprometidos com a Educação Física (EF). Esse processo aconteceu/acontece em meio a diversos tensionamentos que passaram a ser problematizados em estudos e debates. Instigados por esses fatos e problematizações, o objetivo desta pesquisa é compreender de que modo se faz ciência na EF brasileira. Para isso realizamos um estudo etnográfico em dois grupos de pesquisa da EF, em que seguimos humanos e não humanos, associações e controvérsias. Ao acompanhar o dia a dia desses grupos chegamos à conclusão de que há múltiplas ciências da EF. Diante dessa constatação, o principal encaminhamento e provocação desta pesquisa é que ao indagar sobre a ciência da EF (note-se, no singular) passa a ser indispensável indagar sobre os tipos de relações que foram e estão sendo estabelecidas entre as ciências da EF (note-se, múltiplas), e quais são as suas consequências


Since the 2000s, the research community and scientific apparatuses engaged with Physical Education (PE) have widened and intensified. Such process has happened and still happens amid several tensions that began to be discussed in studies and debates. Driven by these facts and questionings, this research looks into how science is done in Brazilian PE. An ethnographic study has been conducted within two PE research groups, where we followed humans and non-humans, associations and controversies. After following the everyday work of these groups, we found that there are multiple PE sciences. In view of these findings, the main conclusion and provocation of this study is that, to question PE science ­ in singular form ­ it is crucial to ask about the types of relations that have been established and still remain among PE sciences ­ in plural ­ and their consequences


Desde los años 2000 ocurrieron ampliaciones e intensificaciones de la comunidad de investigadores/as y de los aparatos científicos involucrados con la Educación Física (EF). Este proceso ocurrió y ocurre en medio a distintas tensiones que pasaron a ser problematizadas en estudios y debates. Motivados por estos hechos y problematizaciones, el objetivo de esta investigación es comprender de qué modo se hace ciencia en la EF brasileña. Con este fin, realizamos un estudio etnográfico en dos grupos de investigación de la EF, donde seguimos humanos y no humanos, asociaciones y controversias. Al acompañar la jornada de estos grupos, llegamos a la conclusión de que hay múltiples ciencias de la EF. Frente a esta constatación, el principal encaminamiento, y la provocación de esta investigación, es que, al indagar sobre la ciencia de la EF (destaque para el singular) se vuelve indispensable indagar sobre los tipos de relaciones que han sido establecidas y se establecen entre las ciencias de la EF (múltiples) y cuáles son sus consecuencias


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Ciência , Antropologia Cultural , Ciências Sociais , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Conhecimento , Ciências Humanas
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