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3.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 11(2)jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093314

RESUMO

En 2020 se cumplen 155 años de lo que Thomas Morgan llegó a llamar …en materia biológica, el más grande descubrimiento de los últimos quinientos años. Fue entonces cuando Gregor Mendel presentó, en la Sociedad de Brno para el Estudio de las Ciencias Naturales (el 8 de febrero y 8 de marzo de 1865) su afamado trabajo Experimentos sobre hibridación de plantas...(AU)


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história
4.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 707-710, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661472

RESUMO

This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the tenth anniversary of the Department of Immunology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University and describes some of the results of its work. Most of the materials were prepared by young graduates and post-graduate students of the department.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia/história , Alergia e Imunologia/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/organização & administração , História do Século XXI , Moscou , Universidades/história
6.
NTM ; 27(2): 109-144, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062033

RESUMO

The Greenough stereomicroscope, or "Stemi" as it is colloquially known among microscopists, is a stereoscopic binocular instrument yielding three-dimensional depth perception when working with larger microscopic specimens. It has become ubiquitous in laboratory practice since its introduction by the unknown scientist Horatio Saltonstall Greenough in 1892. However, because it enabled new experimental practices rather than new knowledge, it has largely eluded historical and epistemological investigation, even though its design, production, and reception in the scientific community was inextricably connected to the new epistemological ideals of the life sciences caught between natural history and modern science. The development of the microscope will be contextualized within the scientific and technological landscape, showing how Greenough navigated his way through this terrain, and what led him to sow the seeds for the stereoscopic microscope. The historical controversy over the optical mechanism, through which the instrument would generate the desired depth perception, and how this quality was embedded into laboratory practice, will be examined. Subsequently, it will become evident that the specific image of nature produced by the stereoscopic microscope corresponded to the new ideals of the life sciences and their representation.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Percepção de Profundidade , Microscopia/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Conhecimento , Microscopia/instrumentação
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(5): 371-372, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090262

RESUMO

The College of Life Sciences (CLS) remains one of the most prestigious-and the oldest-colleges in Zhejiang University. This special issue, which includes 16 reviews contributed by our alumni and faculties, is dedicated to mark the 90th Anniversary of CLS. The reviews provide a glimpse of current progresses in the areas of life sciences such as biochemical processes and their association with diseases (Ding et al., 2019; Hu et al., 2019; Jin et al., 2019; Nie and Yi, 2019), cancer biology (Feng, 2019; Huang et al., 2019; Leonard and Zhang, 2019; Zhu F et al., 2019), plant and environmental microbiology (Li et al., 2019; Yang et al., 2019; Zhu XR et al., 2019), cell cycle (Gao and Liu, 2019; Zhang et al., 2019), RNA biology (Gudenas et al., 2019; Luo et al., 2019), and protein structural biology (Yang and Tang, 2019).


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Universidades/história , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , China , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
9.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(2): 192-215, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888402

RESUMO

This paper takes as its subject Comparative Neuropathology (1962), arguing that the volume illustrates the interlocking cultures of veterinary medicine, human medicine, and laboratory-based biological sciences after the Second World War. The project amassed cases of domestic, experimental, and wild animals, identified species-specific conditions, and evaluated the vulnerabilities of the nervous system to disease and trauma. The collection of ill ruminants, poisoned cats, and injured dogs built on earlier traditions of comparative medicine, but also reflected the turn to biological principles to explain medical conditions, increased industry and military funding for the biomedical sciences, and changes in veterinary practice. Using Comparative Neuropathology as a lens, this paper probes the actors, affiliations, and frameworks that wrestled with new species of neurological patients, newly exposed vulnerabilities of the nervous system, and the emergence of new neurological sciences, casting new light on the heterogenous landscape of the emergent neurosciences and mid-twentieth-century efforts to entwine human and veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Neuropatologia/história , Obras Médicas de Referência , Animais , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Doenças do Gato , Gatos , Doenças do Cão , Cães , História do Século XX , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/história , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Ruminantes , Medicina Veterinária/história
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(52): 13228-13233, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523117

RESUMO

We develop a model describing how false paradigms may persist, hindering scientific progress. The model features two paradigms, one describing reality better than the other. Tenured scientists display homophily: They favor tenure candidates who adhere to their paradigm. As in statistics, power is the probability (absent any bias) of denying tenure to scientists adhering to the false paradigm. The model shows that because of homophily, when power is low, the false paradigm may prevail. Then, only an increase in power can ignite convergence to the true paradigm. Historical case studies suggest that low power comes either from lack of empirical evidence or from reluctance to base tenure decisions on available evidence.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/métodos , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 70, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467819

RESUMO

Over the course of the last three decades, computer simulations have become a major tool of doing science and engaging with the world, not least in an effort to predict and intervene in a future to come. Born in the context of the Second World War and the discipline of physics, simulations have long spread into most diverse fields of enquiry and technological application. This paper introduces a topical collection focussing on simulations in the life sciences. Echoing the current state of tinkering, fast developments, segmentation of knowledge and interdisciplinary collaboration, and in an effort to bridge the science-humanities divide, the contributors to this collection come from multiple disciplinary backgrounds, including information studies, cognitive sciences, philosophy and biology. The ambiguous character of simulations, their cutting across scientific disciplines, analysis and prediction, understanding and doing, gave rise to their success in contemporary life sciences and has been the object of much scientific debate. One of the main aims of this topical collection, by contrast, is to call into question the assumption of an obvious use and easy transfer of methods between fields of knowledge as diverse as, e.g. physics and biology. The collection presents historical case studies from various biological sub-fields. The articles study how simulations are used and the ways they contribute specifically to our understanding of life. Taking up Sergio Sismondo's description of simulations as "compromises" and "glue", they also critically engage with the question of what exactly the life sciences have been gluing together over the last two decades.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Simulação por Computador/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Filosofia
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(1): 19, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349516

RESUMO

The history of twentieth-century life sciences is not exactly a new topic. However, in view of the increasingly rapid development of the life sciences themselves over the past decades, some of the well-established narratives are worth revisiting. Taking stock of where we stand on these issues was the aim of a conference in 2015, entitled "Perspectives for the History of Life Sciences" (Munich, Oct 30-Nov 1, 2015). The papers in this topical collection are based on work presented and discussed at and around this meeting. Just as the conference, the collection aims at exploring fields in the history of life sciences that appear understudied, sources that have been overlooked, and novel ways of engaging with this material. The papers convened in this collection may not be representative of the field as a whole; but we feel that they do indicate some elements that have received emphasis in recent years, and may become more central in the years to come, such as the history of previously neglected contexts and domains of the life sciences, the question of continuity and change on the level of practices, the history of complexity and diversity in twentieth-century life sciences and the reconsideration of the relationship between history and philosophy of life sciences.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Historiografia , Conhecimento , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Filosofia/história
13.
Postepy Biochem ; 64(1): 55-66, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652837

RESUMO

Different scientific disciplines such as physics, genetics or biochemistry crossed over into molecular biology in the last century. The Polish state didn't existed at the beginning of XX century, but the territory for a large number of scientists was not a limitation in delineating new routes, making fundamental discoveries or training the new generation of distinguished people of sciences. We want to tell the story of roots of molecular biology from the Polish perspective and outline its importance, by bringing closer the most essential discoveries of elite scientists in different fields of life science, associated with Poland and its territory.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Biologia Molecular/história , História do Século XX , Polônia
15.
FEBS J ; 284(24): 4172-4173, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251435

RESUMO

The FEBS Journal is pleased to announce the three winners of its 50th Anniversary Science Communication Competition. Read on to see their prize-winning entries!


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Sociedades Científicas , Recursos Audiovisuais , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XXI , México , Biologia Molecular/história , Filmes Cinematográficos , Neurociências/história , Pôsteres como Assunto , Singapura
16.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(1): 53-74, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28195025

RESUMO

The 'psy' sciences emerged from the tangled roots of philosophy, physiology, biology and medicine, and these origins have produced heterogeneous fields. Scientists in these areas work in a complex, overlapping ecology of fields that results in the constant co-presence of dissonant theories, methods and research objects. This raises questions regarding how conceptual clarity is maintained. Using the optical metaphor 'depth of field', I show how researchers in all fields marginalize potential threats to routine scientific work by framing them as either too broad and imprecise or too narrow and technical. The appearance of this defocusing and devaluing across sites suggests a general aspect of scientific cognition, rather than a by-product of any specific scientific dispute.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Psicologia/história , Ciência/história , História do Século XX , Conhecimento , Neurociências/história , Filosofia/história
17.
Rev Hist Pharm (Paris) ; 65(393): 137-52, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611675

RESUMO

Dispensing pharmacist (settled down at n° 27 of Roubaix street in Lille, in the ancient pharmacy of his father Henri Lucien Joseph Lotar), Henri-Aimé L otar was also assistant professor since 1865, then first pharmacy titular professor at the University of Lille (from the creation of the chair of pharmacy in 1881 to his death in 1898), hospital chief pharmacist, pharmacy inspector, member of Hygiene Council and representative of pharmacy at the Academic Council. He gave his name to the Museum Lotar, which is situated on the ground floor of the Faculty of pharmaceutical and biological sciences at the University of Lille and where his portrait ­ in official costume of professor ­ takes place within a rebuild pharmacy in «19th century¼ style. This museum besides includes ancient pharmacopoeias, numerous books (among which the monumental Herbarium of Charles Fourcade) and old registers of prescription ­ we made an inventory of those ­ as well as pharmacy pots, specimens of herbal drugs, patent medicines, medical devices, several objects for pharmaceutical use, laboratory instruments and a professor dress which belonged to Professor Morvillez, third successor of Lotar at the chair of Pharmacy.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Docentes de Farmácia/história , História da Farmácia , Museus , França , História do Século XIX , Universidades
18.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(2): 195-215, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025902

RESUMO

In this paper we reflect on a project called 'Synthetic Aesthetics', which brought together synthetic biologists with artists and designers in paired exchanges. We - the STS researchers on the project - were quickly struck by the similarities between our objectives and those of the artists and designers. We shared interests in forging new collaborations with synthetic biologists, 'opening up' the science by exploring implicit assumptions, and interrogating dominant research agendas. But there were also differences between us, the most important being that the artists and designers made tangible artefacts, which had an immediacy and an ability to travel, and which seemed to allow different types of discussions from those initiated by our academic texts. The artists and designers also appeared to have the freedom to be more playful, challenging and perhaps subversive in their interactions with synthetic biology. In this paper we reflect on what we learned from working with the artists and designers on the project, and we argue that engaging more closely with art and design can enrich STS work by enabling an emergent form of critique.


Assuntos
Arte/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Estética/história , História do Século XXI , Ciência , Ciências Sociais/história , Tecnologia
20.
J Hist Ideas ; 77(3): 489-507, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477347

RESUMO

The case of William Morton Wheeler and Alfred North Whitehead represents a striking example of how biologists and philosophers engaged in a common enterprise in the early twentieth century. Both challenge the notion that the living world is composed of distinct organisms. Based on his studies of the behavior of social insects, Wheeler developed a concept of superorganisms that paved the way for a theory of emergent evolution. This paper argues that Whitehead, whose relation to academic biology has been largely ignored, drew on Wheeler's findings and integrated them into a universal philosophical cosmology.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Filosofia/história , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Entomologia/história , História do Século XX , Insetos , Inteligência , Estados Unidos , Zoologia/história
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