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3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013

RESUMO

AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estereotipagem
4.
Rev. psicanal ; 26(3): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/470/490, dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050026

RESUMO

O grupo formado a partir da parceria SMED ­ SPPA, que há mais de doze anos trabalha com o estudo e com a aplicação de técnicas que disponibilizem o conhecimento psicanalítico na formação continuada de profissionais voltados à educação infantil, expandiu-se para um grupo de pesquisa interinstitucional e interdisciplinar com a finalidade de estudar as Rodas de conversa SMED ­ SPPA através de metodologia desenvolvida ao longo desses anos. O presente artigo descreve sucintamente a história da parceria entre as duas instituições, apresentando também a Fase 1 do Projeto de Pesquisa Diálogo entre educação e psicanálise: rodas de conversa entre SMED e SPPA. Trata-se de pesquisa naturalística com abordagem qualitativa exploratória. Trabalha-se com uma amostra de dois grupos, compostos, cada um, por vinte educadores, um assessor pedagógico da SMED e dois psicanalistas da SPPA. Para a coleta de dados, são utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: gravação de vídeos das reuniões; cadernos de campo escritos pelos psicanalistas e assessores e, por fim, questionários sobre expectativas a serem preenchidos pelos educadores. As narrativas que emergem da transcrição dos vídeos são analisadas pelo método de Bardin. Aproveitar-se-á a primeira experiência de campo (Fase 1) para a definição das categorias temáticas significativas, de tal forma que a sua relevância seja testada em uma segunda rodada do trabalho de campo (AU)


The group formed from the SMED ­ SPPA partnership, which for over twelve years has been working with the study and application of techniques that provide psychoanalytic knowledge in the continuing education of professionals focused on early childhood education, formed an interinstitutional and interdisciplinary research group. The purpose of this research is to study the SMED ­ SPPA Conversation circles, a methodology developed over the years and which is a product of this partnership. This article briefly describes the history of the partnership between the two institutions, and also presents Phase 1 of the Research Project Dialogue between education and psychoanalysis: conversation circles between SMED and SPPA. It is a naturalistic research with exploratory qualitative approach. We work with a sample with two groups, each consisting of twenty educators, one SMED pedagogical advisor and two SPPA psychoanalysts. For data collection, the following instruments are used: video recording of meetings; field notebooks written by psychoanalysts and advisors; questionnaires about expectations to be fulfilled by educators. The narratives that emerge from the transcription of the videos will be analyzed by Bardin's method. The first field experiment (Phase 1) will be used to define meaningful thematic categories, so that their relevance is tested in a second round of fieldwork


El grupo formado a partir de la asociación SMED ­ SPPA, que durante más de doce años ha estado trabajando con el estudio y la aplicación de técnicas que proporcionan conocimiento psicoanalítico en la educación continua de profesionales centrados en la educación infantil, formó un grupo de investigación interinstitucional e interdisciplinario. El propósito de esta investigación es estudiar las ruedas de conversación SMED ­ SPPA, una metodología desarrollada a lo largo de los años y que es un producto de esta asociación. Este artículo describe brevemente la historia de la asociación entre las dos instituciones y también presenta la Fase 1 del Proyecto de Investigación Diálogo entre educación y psicoanálisis: ruedas de conversación entre SMED y SPPA. Es una investigación naturalista con enfoque cualitativo exploratorio. Trabajamos con una muestra con dos grupos, cada uno compuesto por veinte educadores, un asesor pedagógico de SMED y dos psicoanalistas de SPPA. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizan los siguientes instrumentos: grabación de video de reuniones; cuadernos de campo escritos por psicoanalistas y asesores; cuestionarios sobre expectativas que deben cumplir los educadores. Las narraciones que emergen de la transcripción de los videos son analizadas por el método de Bardin. El primer experimento de campo (Fase 1) se utilizará para definir categorías temáticas significativas, de modo que su relevancia se evalúe en una segunda ronda de trabajo de campo


Assuntos
Marginalização Social , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Aconselhamento , Discriminação Social , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2019-12-10. (OPAS/EGC/19-002).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51753

RESUMO

[Introdução]. No marco da saúde universal, os Estados Membros da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) têm priorizado ações para assegurar que todas as pessoas e comunidades tenham acesso, sem distinção de espécie alguma, a serviços de saúde integrais, adequados, oportunos e de qualidade. Todavia, devido a relações assimétricas de poder e de dominação, membros de certos grupos étnicos—inclusive as populações indígenas, afrodescendentes e romani—sistematicamente sofrem diferentes formas de discriminação e exclusão, que resultam em desigualdades e injustiça social. A marginalização e a discriminação por razões de etnia,1 inclusive o racismo institucional, interagem negativamente com outros determinantes estruturais, como o gênero, e produzem iniquidades em saúde em uma região que caracteriza-se precisamente por sua rica diversidade étnica e cultural... Visando cooperar com os Estados Membros na implementação das diretrizes contidas na Política de Etnia e Saúde, este documento apresenta a Estratégia e Plano de Ação sobre Etnia e Saúde 2019–2025.


Assuntos
Origem Étnica e Saúde , Conselho Diretor da OPAS , Estratégias Regionais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Discriminação Social , Iniquidade Social , Grupos Étnicos , Afro-Americanos , Grupos Populacionais
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-12-10. (OPS/EGC/19-002).
Não convencional em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51746

RESUMO

[Introduction]: Dans le cadre de la santé universelle, les États Membres de l’Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé (OPS) ont priorisé des mesures visant à s’assurer que toutes les personnes et les communautés aient accès, sans discrimination aucune, à des services de santé complets, adéquats, en temps opportun et de qualité. Toutefois, en raison de relations de pouvoir asymétriques et de domination, les membres de certains groupes ethniques ‒ notamment les populations autochtones, les personnes d’ascendance africaine et les Roms – subissent systématiquement différentes formes de discrimination et d’exclusion qui entraînent des inégalités et des injustices sociales. La marginalization et la discrimination fondées sur l’ethnicité, y compris le racisme institutionnel, interagissent négativement avec d’autres determinants structurels, comme le genre, et produisent des iniquités en matière de santé dans une région qui est précisément caractérisée par sa riche diversité ethnique et culturelle… Afin de coopérer avec les États Membres à la mise en oeuvre des orientations contenues dans la Politique en matière d’ethnicité et de santé, la Stratégie et plan d’action sur l’ethnicité et la santé 2019-2025 sont présentés dans ce document.


Assuntos
Origem Étnica e Saúde , Estratégias Regionais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Discriminação Social , População Indígena , Afro-Americanos
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-12-10. (OPS/EGC/19-002).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51745

RESUMO

[Introducción]. En el marco de la salud universal, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) han priorizado acciones para asegurar que todas las personas y comunidades tengan acceso, sin ningún tipo de discriminación, a servicios de salud que sean integrales, adecuados, oportunos y de calidad. Sin embargo, las relaciones de poder asimétricas y de dominación han dado lugar a que los miembros de ciertos grupos étnicos —entre ellos, la población indígena, afrodescendiente y romaní— experimenten istemáticamente distintas formas de discriminación y exclusión que dan lugar a inequidades e injusticia social. La marginalización y la discriminación por razones de etnicidad, incluido el racismo institucional, interactúan negativamente con otros determinantes estructurales, como el género, y producen inequidades en el ámbito de la salud en una región que, precisamente, se caracteriza por su rica diversidad étnica y cultural... Con el propósito de cooperar con los Estados Miembros en la implementación de las orientaciones contenidas en la Política sobre etnicidad y salud, se presenta en este documento la Estrategia y plan de acción sobre etnicidad y salud 2019-2025.


Assuntos
Origem Étnica e Saúde , Conselho Diretor da OPAS , Estratégias Regionais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Discriminação Social , Iniquidade Social , Grupos Étnicos , Afro-Americanos , Grupos Populacionais
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2019-12-10. (PAHO/EGC/19-002).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51744

RESUMO

[Introduction]: In the framework of universal health, the Member States of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have prioritized actions to ensure that all people and communities have access, without any kind of discrimination, to comprehensive, appropriate, timely, and quality health services. However, asymmetrical power relationships and domination have led to conditions in which members of certain ethnic groups— including indigenous, Afro-descendant, and Roma populations— systematically experience different forms of discrimination and exclusion that give rise to inequities and social injustice. Marginalization and discrimination based on ethnicity, including institutional racism, interact negatively with other structural determinants such as gender, creating health inequities in a region characterized by its rich ethnic and cultural diversity... With a view to cooperating with the Member States in the implementation of the guidance contained in the Policy on Ethnicity and Health, this document presents the Strategy and Plan of Action on Ethnicity and Health 2019-2025.


Assuntos
Origem Étnica e Saúde , Conselho Diretor da OPAS , Estratégias Regionais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Discriminação Social , Iniquidade Social , Grupos Étnicos , Afro-Americanos , População Indígena
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1458, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overweight/obesity epidemic is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affect certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Perceived discrimination has been implicated as a health risk factor. However, research on race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, and obesity has been mixed. Researchers suggest that perceptions of discrimination may be dependent upon nativity status. This study evaluated the role that nativity status and race/ethnicity play in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. METHODS: We used Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) [N = 33,319]). Multinomial logistic regression assessed a three-way interaction (perceived discrimination × race/ethnicity × nativity) on overweight and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The three-way interaction was significant for overweight [F (17, 49) = 3.35; p < 0.001] and obesity [F (17, 49) = 5.05; p < 0.001]. Among US-born individuals, US-born non-Hispanic Blacks had a decreased risk of being obese compared to US-born non-Hispanic Whites at mean levels of perceived discrimination [aRRR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.51-0.98); p = 0.04). Among foreign-born individuals, foreign-born South Americans had an increased risk of being overweight at mean levels of perceived discrimination compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 8.07; 95% CI (1.68-38.77); p = 0.01], whereas foreign-born Dominicans had a decreased risk of being obese compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 0.05; 95% CI (0.01-0.20); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for overweight/obesity for certain groups. Race/ethnicity and nativity may play important roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to identify the behavioral and psychological pathways that link perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1513, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination is a major driver of health disparities among minority groups and can impede the reach of public health programs. In the Dominican Republic, residents of bateyes, or agricultural 'company towns,' often face barriers to health care. This study examined the extent of perceived discrimination among batey populations and places the findings within the context of disease elimination efforts. METHODS: In March-April 2016, a stratified, multi-stage cluster survey that included the 9-item Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) was conducted among residents (n = 768) of bateyes across the Dominican Republic. Exploratory factor analysis, differential item functioning, and linear and logistic regression were used to assess associations between EDS scores, ethnic group status, reasons for discrimination, and healthcare-seeking behavior. RESULTS: Three ethnic groups were identified in the population: Haitian-born persons (42.5%), Dominican-born persons with Haitian descent (25.5%), and Dominican-born persons without Haitian descent (32.0%). Mean EDS scores (range 0-45) were highest among persons born in Haiti (18.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.4-20.1), followed by persons with Haitian descent (16.5, 95% CI = 14.9-18.0), and those without Haitian descent (13.3, 95% CI = 12.1-14.5). Higher EDS scores were significantly associated with Haitian birth (ß = 6.8, 95% CI = 4.2-9.4; p < 0.001) and Haitian descent (ß = 6.1, 95% CI = 3.2-9.0; p < 0.001). Most respondents (71.5%) had scores high enough to elicit reasons for their discrimination. Regardless of ethnic group, poverty was a common reason for discrimination, but Haitian-born and Haitian-descended people also attributed discrimination to their origin, documentation status, or skin color. EDS scores were not significantly associated with differences in reported care-seeking for recent fever (ß = 1.7, 95% CI = - 1.4-4.9; p = 0.278). CONCLUSION: Perceived discrimination is common among batey residents of all backgrounds but highest among Haitian-born people. Discrimination did not appear to be a primary barrier to care-seeking, suggesting other explanations for reduced care-seeking among Haitian populations. Public health community engagement strategies should avoid exacerbating stigma, build active participation in programs, and work towards community ownership of disease control and elimination goals.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Grupos Étnicos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Discriminação Social , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Erradicação de Doenças , República Dominicana , Feminino , Haiti , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Saúde Pública , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 93-107, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184868

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene como propósito reflexionar sobre la situación de estigma y discriminación que afecta a personas con VIH/SIDA. Esto constituye una vulneración a los derechos fundamentales de estas personas y una barrera en el avance hacia la eliminación de la enfermedad. Ya que estudios realizados en diferentes países dan cuenta que las personas en esta condición se sienten discriminadas por la sociedad, y por los profesionales de la salud. Este es uno de los aspectos que ha dificultado el acceso al tratamiento, su adhesión, y educación para el cambio de conducta en los grupos de riesgo


Aquest article té com a propòsit reflexionar sobre la situació d'estigma i discriminació que afecta a persones amb VIH/SIDA. Això constitueix una vulneració dels drets fonamentals d'aquestes persones i una barrera en l'avanç cap a l'eliminació de la malaltia. Estudis realitzats en diferents països exposen que les persones en aquesta condició se senten discriminades per la societat i pels professionals de la salut. Aquest és un dels aspectes que ha dificultat l'accés al tractament, l'adhesió al mateix, i educació per al canvi de conducta en el grups de risc


This article aims to reflect on the situation of stigma and discrimination affecting people with HIV/AIDS. This constitutes a violation of the fundamental rights of these people and a barrier to progress towards the elimination of the disease. Studies carried out in different countries show that people in this condition feel discriminated against by society and by health professionals. This is one of the aspects that has hindered access to treatment, adherence, and behaviour change education in at-risk groups


Assuntos
Humanos , Ageismo/ética , Sexismo , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Risco , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Soroprevalência de HIV , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos
13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1741-1752, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians, particularly trainees and those in surgical subspecialties, are at risk for burnout. Mistreatment (i.e., discrimination, verbal or physical abuse, and sexual harassment) may contribute to burnout and suicidal thoughts. METHODS: A cross-sectional national survey of general surgery residents administered with the 2018 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination assessed mistreatment, burnout (evaluated with the use of the modified Maslach Burnout Inventory), and suicidal thoughts during the past year. We used multivariable logistic-regression models to assess the association of mistreatment with burnout and suicidal thoughts. The survey asked residents to report their gender. RESULTS: Among 7409 residents (99.3% of the eligible residents) from all 262 surgical residency programs, 31.9% reported discrimination based on their self-identified gender, 16.6% reported racial discrimination, 30.3% reported verbal or physical abuse (or both), and 10.3% reported sexual harassment. Rates of all mistreatment measures were higher among women; 65.1% of the women reported gender discrimination and 19.9% reported sexual harassment. Patients and patients' families were the most frequent sources of gender discrimination (as reported by 43.6% of residents) and racial discrimination (47.4%), whereas attending surgeons were the most frequent sources of sexual harassment (27.2%) and abuse (51.9%). Proportion of residents reporting mistreatment varied considerably among residency programs (e.g., ranging from 0 to 66.7% for verbal abuse). Weekly burnout symptoms were reported by 38.5% of residents, and 4.5% reported having had suicidal thoughts during the past year. Residents who reported exposure to discrimination, abuse, or harassment at least a few times per month were more likely than residents with no reported mistreatment exposures to have symptoms of burnout (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58 to 3.36) and suicidal thoughts (odds ratio, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.25 to 4.19). Although models that were not adjusted for mistreatment showed that women were more likely than men to report burnout symptoms (42.4% vs. 35.9%; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.48), the difference was no longer evident after the models were adjusted for mistreatment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Mistreatment occurs frequently among general surgery residents, especially women, and is associated with burnout and suicidal thoughts.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Fatores Sexuais , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 532-538, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524552

RESUMO

Aims: Patients may experience unfair reception when in contact with psychiatric services. The aims are to illuminate these perceptions, and the extent of inpatients' involvement in their care, and if degree of involvement depends on compulsory or voluntary care. Furthermore, we sought to determine if an educational intervention for staff members, including systematic listening and offering the inpatients involvement using microdecisions, affects the inpatients' experiences and the use of coercion. Materials and methods: We used a naturalistic setting case control design in two psychiatric wards for one year, including all inpatients (n = 685) of which 458 took part of the microdecision intervention. Structured direct interviews were carried out with inpatients based on the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC), Dyadic OPTION, and CollaboRATE instruments before (n = 19) and after (n = 46) the intervention. Frequencies of coercive measures before and after the intervention were compared (n = 685). Results: Respondents subjected to the intervention experienced less discrimination related to psychiatric care compared to responders not subjected. Tendencies of improvements post intervention were found for some aspects of involvement, as attention to concerns and possibilities to ask questions. A decrease in the use of coercive measures at three and six months after the start of the intervention was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that the intervention could decrease the inpatients' experiences of discrimination during psychiatric care as well as the use of coercion in the service. The Dyadic OPTION instrument showed a mixed picture with results implying improvements in some areas and impairments in others.


Assuntos
Coerção , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria , Autoimagem , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/tendências , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Discriminação Social/tendências , Adulto Jovem
16.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 616-627, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490016

RESUMO

This study analyzed the relationship between terrorist threat and discrimination, operationalized by support for retributive justice against Islamic groups suspect of terrorist crimes. Two experimental studies were performed. Study 1 (N = 215) showed that the terrorist threat against the ingroup raises the support for the retributive procedures through the dehumanization of the outgroup. Study 2 (N = 304) analyzed how the mediating role of dehumanization in the relationship between terrorist threat and support for retributive justice is moderated by right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In addition, the study aimed to verify if the dehumanization of outgroup and RWA could explain the relationship between terrorist threat and discrimination of Muslim immigrants. The results indicated that adherence to RWA favors dehumanization of the outgroup and, consecutively, the discrimination, operationalized as support for the use of retributive justice. The adherence to RWA has been identified as the mechanism that explains the discrimination against Muslim immigrants.


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Desumanização , Processos Grupais , Política , Discriminação Social , Terrorismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 450-456, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016422

RESUMO

Esta nota busca contribuir para uma melhor compreensão do atual cenário político brasileiro que, em relação à diversidade sexual e de gênero, aparece marcado pelo paroxismo, pela polarização e por visíveis contradições. Nele, os diferentes poderes da República mostram tomar direções opostas. Simultaneamente, percebe-se uma sensível dessintonia entre o mundo social, no qual o respeito a tal diversidade parece cada vez mais incorporado à vida cotidiana, e os discursos conservadores que se articulam nos púlpitos e nos palanques. Como em outros importantes temas, o mundo contemporâneo parece dilacerado.


This conjunctural note searches to contribute to a better knowledge of the current Brazilian political scene, characterized by a paroxysm, a polarization and perceptible contradictions when the subject is sexual and gender diversity. In this context, the different Republic forces show that their ways are in opposite directions. At the same time, we can observe a sensible lack of harmony between the social world, in which the respect for such diversity seems more and more incorporated into the population daily life, and the conservative discourses expressed in pulpits and joined up with those pronounced by politicians on their platforms. Like what happen to many other important themes, the contemporary world seems shattered.


Esta nota de coyuntura intenta contribuir a una mejor comprensión del escenario político brasileño actual que, al respecto a la diversidad sexual y de género, aparece marcado por el paroxismo, por la polarización y por visibles contradicciones. En este contexto, los diferentes poderes de la República muestran seguir direcciones opuestas. Al mismo tiempo, es posible percibir una sensible desarmonía entre el mundo social en el que el respecto a tal diversidad parece cada vez más incorporado a la vida diaria, y los discursos conservadores se articulan en los púlpitos y en las tribunas. De la misma forma que ocurre en otros temas importantes, el mundo contemporáneo parece lacerado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ativismo Político , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento Social , Sexismo , Discriminação Social
18.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(7-8): 570-579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379239

RESUMO

AIM: To explore family member and staff perceptions of clients' experiences of stigma and discrimination, in those living with severe and persistent mental illness in an Assertive Community Treatment Team. METHOD: This qualitative study used the Discrimination and Stigma Scale to conduct structured face-to-face and telephone interviews of family members and healthcare professionals, working with the Assertive Outreach Team (AOT) (an Assertive Community Treatment Team) of a northern inner suburban catchment of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. RESULTS: Forty-one people participated in the study (23 AOT clinical staff members and 18 family members). Family and clinical staff commonly reported stigma and discrimination amongst their relatives and clients, respectively. Four overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) appearance and behaviour, (2) avoidance and being shunned, (3) key areas of life affected by discrimination and (4) impacts of discrimination and skills to cope with discrimination. CONCLUSION: Reports of stigma and discrimination were common, yet varied between groups with clinical staff commonly witnessing experiences and impacts of discrimination in everyday life, with families' reports being substantially less. Due to the strong advocacy and support provided by the AOT model, clinical staff often buffered experiences of stigma and discrimination. Further research is needed to explore effective interventions to reduce experiences of discrimination in this population group.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , New South Wales , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(11)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many questionnaires for measuring the quality of life for patients with obesity require comprehensive calculation before they are used. There is a need for questionnaires that permit simple assessment of the responses during a patient consultation. We have developed the questionnaire Patient-Reported Outcomes in Obesity (PROS). The objective of the study was to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The questionnaire was used to ask patients about the extent to which they perceived their weight or body shape as bothersome. A group of patients with an average body mass index (BMI) of 42 (n = 109) completed the PROS questionnaire and The Impact of Weight Quality of Life questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite) before undergoing obesity surgery. Another group with an average body mass index of 29 (n = 95) completed the PROS questionnaire 1-5 years after having undergone obesity surgery. 67,7 % of the patients were > 40 years and 79 % were women. For the statistical analysis we used Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, Spearman's rank test and independent t-test. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for the total PROS score was 0.90, and the factor analysis showed a significant factor (eigenvalue = 4.7) that explained 58.4 % of the variance. The test-retest correlation was 0.93 (p < 0.001). The correlation coefficients between the PROS score, the total IWQOL-Lite score (rs = -0.91) and body mass index (rs = 0.60) were all significant (p < 0.001). The t-test showed an effect size (difference in standard deviation) between the non-surgery and the surgery groups of 1.9 (95 % CI 1.6-2.5) for the PROS questionnaire and 2.1 (95 % CI 1.7-2.5 for the total IWQOL-Lite score. INTERPRETATION: The PROS questionnaire is a reliable and valid questionnaire for measurement of obesity-specific quality of life.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sono , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia
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