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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113203, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559671

RESUMO

Mental-health problems are common among older adults, especially those who are members of disadvantaged ethnic minorities. We explored ethnic and gender differences in emotional distress, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem among elderly Bedouin Arab and Jewish individuals in Israel, as well as the moderating role of discrimination in the association between self-esteem and emotional distress among Bedouin Arabs. The sample included 256 older adults (60 years old and above): 147 native-born Israeli Jews and 109 Bedouin Arabs. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that assessed emotional distress, perceived discrimination, self-esteem, and sociodemographic factors. Israeli Jews reported lower levels of emotional distress than Bedouin Arabs. Bedouin Arab women reported more emotional distress than Bedouin Arab men. Among the Bedouin Arabs, gender differences were found in the associations of perceived discrimination and self-esteem with emotional distress. Among the Bedouin men, discrimination and self-esteem were found to be significant predictors of emotional distress. Among the Bedouin women, we found a similar association between self-esteem and emotional distress. However, the protective role of self-esteem disappeared in the context of higher levels of daily discrimination. This study underscores how gender can affect the moderating role of discrimination in the association between self-esteem and emotional distress among the elderly.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Judeus/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Autoimagem , Sexismo/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Papel (figurativo) , Sexismo/etnologia , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 32-39, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to quantify the association between perceived everyday discrimination and binge eating among Latinas in the United States. METHODS: Participants included 1014 Latinas from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study. Modified Poisson models with robust standard errors were used to estimate sociodemographic-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of binge eating associated with overall and attribution-specific discrimination. RESULTS: Approximately 7% of Latinas reported binge eating. Increased frequency of discrimination was associated with a higher prevalence of binge eating (aPR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.23-2.06), and Latinas reporting frequencies of discrimination in the top tertile had the greatest prevalence elevation (aPR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-10.00). There were important differences by discrimination attribution: Latinas experiencing primarily height/weight-based or skin color-based discrimination had the greatest prevalence elevation relative to those reporting no discrimination (aPR, 10.24; 95% CI, 2.95-35.51; and aPR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.08-37.54, respectively), whereas Latinas reporting primarily race-based discrimination had the lowest prevalence elevation (aPR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.47-5.69). CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination may be an important social determinant of Latinas' binge eating. Future research should incorporate expanded conceptual models that account for Latinas' complex social environment, focusing on intersecting dimensions of identity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bulimia/etnologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Meio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(4): 477-486, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the national trends and mental health correlates of discrimination among Latin American and Asian immigrants in the United States. METHODS: We examine data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected between 2004 and 2013. Recurrent discrimination was measured by respondent reports of adverse experiences such as receiving poor treatment in restaurants or being called a racist name. RESULTS: Rates of perceived discrimination increased by more than 80 percent among immigrants from Latin America (from 14% in 2004 to 25% in 2013), but remained unchanged among Asian immigrants (20-22%). Large percentage point (pp) increases were observed among Latin American immigrants with less than a high school education (pp increase = 13.5) and residing in households earning $20-35,000 annually (pp increase = 14.0). CONCLUSIONS: Findings raise concern both because of the inherent iniquitousness of discrimination and because identity-based mistreatment is linked with mental health problems.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Midwifery ; 80: 102572, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and sub-optimal maternity care are more common in humanitarian migrants in comparison to country-born population in the Nordic countries. Statistical reviews on the issue are plenty, whereas little synthesis on humanitarian migrants' lived experiences exists. AIM: This systematic integrative literature review investigated humanitarian migrant women's experiences on maternity care in Nordic countries, aiming to address possible hindrances for optimal care. METHODS: Electronic search in PubMed, CINAHL, SocIndex, Scopus, PsycINFO and Web of Science yielded 474 papers. PICoS inclusion and exclusion criteria were used. Critical appraisal was conducted utilising 32-item COREQ tool. The findings of the review articles were synthesised through thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Ten qualitative studies were included in the review. Altogether 198 women in Sweden, Norway and Finland had participated interviews or focus group discussions. Analysis of the women's reported experiences of care emerged three themes: Diminished negotiation power on care, Sense of insecurity, and Experienced care-related discrimination. KEY CONCLUSION: Humanitarian migrant women's maternal morbidity and sub-optimal care has multiple potential explanations, and their experiences of care reflect those earlier reported. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Recommendations for tackling the addressed hindrances are: (1) enabling humanitarian migrant women's negotiation power by acknowledging their vulnerability but also competency, (2) increasing the sense of security, and (3) improving care providers' cultural competence.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Gestantes/etnologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Padrão de Cuidado , Migrantes/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Noruega , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Suécia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1458, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overweight/obesity epidemic is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affect certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Perceived discrimination has been implicated as a health risk factor. However, research on race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, and obesity has been mixed. Researchers suggest that perceptions of discrimination may be dependent upon nativity status. This study evaluated the role that nativity status and race/ethnicity play in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. METHODS: We used Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) [N = 33,319]). Multinomial logistic regression assessed a three-way interaction (perceived discrimination × race/ethnicity × nativity) on overweight and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The three-way interaction was significant for overweight [F (17, 49) = 3.35; p < 0.001] and obesity [F (17, 49) = 5.05; p < 0.001]. Among US-born individuals, US-born non-Hispanic Blacks had a decreased risk of being obese compared to US-born non-Hispanic Whites at mean levels of perceived discrimination [aRRR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.51-0.98); p = 0.04). Among foreign-born individuals, foreign-born South Americans had an increased risk of being overweight at mean levels of perceived discrimination compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 8.07; 95% CI (1.68-38.77); p = 0.01], whereas foreign-born Dominicans had a decreased risk of being obese compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 0.05; 95% CI (0.01-0.20); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for overweight/obesity for certain groups. Race/ethnicity and nativity may play important roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to identify the behavioral and psychological pathways that link perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Child Dev ; 90(3): 894-910, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940221

RESUMO

Peer discrimination and parent-adolescent conflict in early adolescence were examined as predictors of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors from early to late adolescence using four waves of data over an 8-year period from a sample of 246 Mexican-origin adolescents (MTime 1 age  = 12.55, SD = 0.58; 51% female). The buffering effect of friendship intimacy and moderating role of adolescent gender were tested. Higher levels of discrimination and conflict in early adolescence were associated with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors in early adolescence and stability through late adolescence. For females who reported higher than average discrimination, friendship intimacy had a protective effect on their depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Amigos/etnologia , Relações Interpessoais , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Assunção de Riscos , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Pediatr ; 172(10): 924-933, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128537

RESUMO

Importance: Public expressions of discrimination may generate stress and behavioral health problems, particularly in racial/ethnic minority or socioeconomically disadvantaged youths. Objectives: To determine whether concern about increasing discrimination in society reported among adolescents during 2016 and the magnitude of increase in concern from 2016 to 2017 were associated with behavioral health outcomes by 2017 and to examine racial/ethnic or socioeconomic differences in associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort survey collected data at baseline from January 2 through September 28, 2016 (11th grade), and at follow-up from January 1 through August 10, 2017 (12th grade), at 10 high schools in Los Angeles, California, recruited through convenience sampling. A total of 2572 students completed both surveys. Exposures: Reported concern, worry, or stress regarding "increasing hostility and discrimination of people because of their race, ethnicity, sexual orientation/identity, immigrant status, religion, or disability status in society" were scored as "not at all" (0) to "extremely" (4). Mean ratings were calculated in a 3-item composite (range, 0-4). Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported days of cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use in the past month (range, 0-30 days), number of substances used in the past 6 months (range, 0-27), mild to moderate depression (yes or no), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (yes or no) at follow-up. Results: The sample of 2572 students (54.4% female; mean [SD] baseline age, 17.1 [0.4] years; 1969 [87.7%] had at least 1 parent with high school diploma) included 2530 with race/ethnicity data (1198 [47.4%] Hispanic; 482 [19.0%] Asian; 104 [4.1%] African American; 155 [6.1%] multiracial; 419 [16.6%] white; 172 [6.8%] other). Appreciable numbers of students reported feeling very or extremely concerned (baseline, 1047 [41.5%]; follow-up, 1028 [44.6%]), worried (baseline, 743 [29.7%]; follow-up, 795 [34.7%]), or stressed (baseline, 345 [13.9%]; follow-up, 353 [15.5%]) about increasing societal discrimination. Each 1-SD increase on the societal discrimination concern composite in 2016 was associated with more days of past-month cigarette (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.77; 95% CI, 1.42-2.20; P < .001), marijuana (IRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P = .03), and alcohol (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21; P = .01) use, more substances used (IRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; P = .04), and greater odds of depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23; P = .04) and ADHD (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P = .04) symptoms in 2017. The magnitude of increase in societal discrimination concern from 2016 to 2017 was also associated with several behavioral health problems in 2017; some associations were amplified among teenagers who were African American (IRR for cigarette smoking, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.45-6.09) or Hispanic (IRR for cigarette smoking, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54) or had parents with less educational attainment (IRR for alcohol use, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.14-1.74]; OR for ADHD, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.13-2.89]). Conclusions and Relevance: Concern over societal discrimination was common among youths in Los Angeles in 2016 and was associated with behavioral health problems 1 year later. Adolescents' behavioral responses to recent societal expressions of discrimination may warrant public health attention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198413, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927968

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to analyze the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in South American immigrants in Chile. An analytical, cross sectional, non-experimental design was used. We evaluated 853 Peruvians and Colombians living in the northern cities of Arica, Antofagasta, and Santiago de Chile, the capital located in the center of the country. The instruments used were the Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Perceived Discrimination Scale by Basabe, Paez, Aierdi and Jiménez-Aristizabal. We used the estimation method (RWLS) and polychoric correlation matrices, to estimate the effect size and overall fit of the direct effect models of discrimination and self-esteem on psychological well-being, and indirect and total effects of discrimination mediated by self-esteem. While both populations reported similar levels of perceived discrimination, it was found that the means in psychological well-being and self-esteem of the Colombian population were significantly higher than that of the Peruvian population. Regarding self-esteem, the results provided evidence for the possible mediating effect on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being. This research aims to contribute to the development of interventions seeking to strengthen self-esteem in order to circumvent possible negative consequences of perceived discrimination, as a consequent, improving immigrants´ personal resources to successfully cope with the diverse demands of their new context.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Chile/etnologia , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Autoimagem , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Soc Work Public Health ; 33(4): 226-236, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617204

RESUMO

This study aimed to give voice to 13 men of African descent from Salvador, Brazil, and East Texas, United States, living with HIV/AIDS regarding their perceptions on accessibility of services, and the stigma and discrimination they experience. Phenomenological research using in-depth interviews was used as methodology. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: perception of positive health, services and accessibility, not disclosing HIV status is a way to be protected, health professionals untrained in treating people living with HIV/AIDS, being of African descent increases discrimination in both countries, education would decrease stigma and discrimination. This study addresses how stigma and discrimination experienced by these men violate their human rights, and the need of policies to mitigate these practices.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
12.
J Adolesc ; 65: 189-195, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605755

RESUMO

As the U.S. Latino youth population grows, understanding how family and individual resources may promote Latino adolescents' academic outcomes is important. The current investigation examined whether family ethnic socialization predicted adolescents' use of proactive strategies for coping with ethnic-racial discrimination and examined a potential pathway through which these contextual and individual resources may relate to educational outcomes. Drawing on data from a sample of Latino adolescents (n = 321; Mage = 15.31 years, SD = .76; 49.5% female), results of a cross-sectional structural equation model showed a double mediation of the relation between family ethnic socialization and GPA by proactive coping strategies and self-efficacy. Alternate models, limitations of the current investigation, and implications for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adaptação Psicológica , Autoeficácia , Socialização , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia
13.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 24(3): 389-399, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated ethnic differences in discrimination and depressive symptoms, and the link between them among foreign-born Asian Americans. This study identifies if depressive symptoms and perceived discrimination differ by Asian ethnicity, and if perceived discrimination is associated with depressive symptoms among foreign-born Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. METHODS: This study uses data from the Asian American Liver Cancer Prevention Program (N = 600). Using nonprobability sampling, foreign-born Asian American adults (58% female, Mage = 47.3 years, SD = 11.82) were recruited from the community in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. Perceived discrimination was defined using everyday and major discrimination scales; the Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale defined the outcome of depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to determine if this association exists. RESULTS: A high prevalence of depressive symptoms (one third to one fifth per ethnicity) and ethnic differences between foreign-born Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans were found; increased perceived discrimination was associated with worse depressive symptomology. Those with "high" and "mild discrimination" had greater odds of being depressed than those who had never experienced discrimination; those with "unfair treatment" had greater odds of being depressed than those who had none. Major experiences of discrimination were less common and less likely associated with depressive symptoms than everyday experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign-born Asian Americans experience substantial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Future studies should stratify by Asian ethnicity and examine the differences between minor and major experiences of discrimination to provide appropriate mental health prevention and treatment for this population. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Identificação Social , Percepção Social , Adulto , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
14.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 14: 343-370, 2018 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401046

RESUMO

Children of immigrants represent one in four children in the United States and will represent one in three children by 2050. Children of Asian and Latino immigrants together represent the majority of children of immigrants in the United States. Children of immigrants may be immigrants themselves, or they may have been born in the United States to foreign-born parents; their status may be legal or undocumented. We review transcultural and culture-specific factors that influence the various ways in which stressors are experienced; we also discuss the ways in which parental socialization and developmental processes function as risk factors or protective factors in their influence on the mental health of children of immigrants. Children of immigrants with elevated risk for mental health problems are more likely to be undocumented immigrants, refugees, or unaccompanied minors. We describe interventions and policies that show promise for reducing mental health problems among children of immigrants in the United States.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Americanos Asiáticos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hispano-Americanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Multilinguismo , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Socialização , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
15.
J Clin Psychol ; 74(7): 1219-1233, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): We investigated (1) the moderating role of religiosity in the link between religious affiliation and ethnic discrimination and (2) the moderating roles of religiosity, ethnic identity, and family connectedness in the relations between ethnic discrimination and psychological distress. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 122 (60% women, 40% men) Middle Eastern/Arab Americans (MEAAs), ranging in age from 18 to 82 years old, who completed an online survey. RESULTS: Muslim identification predicted discrimination for MEAAs with high but not low religiosity. Higher levels of discrimination, more family connectedness, the interaction of discrimination and religiosity, and the interaction of discrimination and family connectedness were unique predictors of psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Religiosity is a risk factor for experiencing ethnic discrimination among Muslim identified MEAAs. MEAAs who have high religiosity and low to moderate levels of family connectedness are vulnerable to psychological distress associated with ethnic discrimination.


Assuntos
Cultura , Islamismo , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Árabes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 17(4): 501-518, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375715

RESUMO

Perceived discrimination has been found to be a predictor of immigrant adolescent involvement in alcohol use, yet the psychological mechanism behind this relationship has not been well explored. Drawing on strain theory and the motivational model of alcohol use, the current study aimed to develop and test a concept of emotional alienation. In the proposed model, it is when experiences of discrimination are internalized into painful feelings of detachment, anger, rejection, and failure that the immigrant adolescent may turn to alcohol use. The study involved 365 at-risk immigrant adolescents, aged 15-19 (62% male, mean age 17.1) from the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia in Israel, from low SES neighborhoods and community centers for youth at risk. The young people self-reported on experiences of discrimination, daily alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and drunkenness, together with a new questionnaire examining emotional alienation developed for the study. Findings showed that experiences of alienation fully mediated the relationship between discrimination and problematic alcohol use (drunkenness and HED). In particular, feelings of self-detachment, failure, and rejection were strongly related to alcohol use. Results suggest an importance of understanding the way in which negative reactions from the host society may be internalized into destructive feelings of failure, shame, and rejection, which may lead a young person to involvement in alcohol use.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Alienação Social/psicologia , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Masculino , U.R.S.S./etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 17(3): 375-387, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277943

RESUMO

This study examines the association between exposure to microaggressions and marijuana use, using original survey data from a sample of racial/ethnic minority college students (n = 332) from a large Division I university in the United States. Nearly all of our sample (96%) reported at least one experience with microaggressions in the past 6 months, while 33% reported using marijuana regularly. We modeled regular use of marijuana using multiple logistic regression, with consideration of sex, age, race/ethnicity, and microaggression scale scores as covariates. Age, sex, the microinvalidations subscale score, and the full microaggression scale score were significantly associated with marijuana use in our full models (p < .01; p = .01; p = .02; p = .03, respectively). With each additional experience of microaggression, the odds of regular marijuana use increase. Academic communities may consider the primary prevention of discriminatory behavior when addressing student substance use.


Assuntos
Agressão , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychosom Med ; 80(1): 114-121, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Everyday discrimination may contribute to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the United States and related racial/ethnic differences in MetS. The study investigated whether everyday discrimination predicted MetS in a diverse sample. METHODS: A longitudinal, cohort study of 2132 women (mean [standard deviation] = 45.8 [2.7] years) who self-reported as black (n = 523), white (n = 1065), Chinese (n = 194), Japanese (n = 227), or Hispanic (n = 123) at baseline drawn from seven cities across the United States was conducted. MetS was defined in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Everyday Discrimination scale was used to assess exposure to and level of everyday discrimination. RESULTS: Everyday discrimination exposure at baseline predicted a 33% greater incidence of MetS during the 13.89-year (standard deviation = 3.83, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.64, p = .001) follow-up in the full sample and was most pronounced in black, Hispanic, and Japanese women. Each 1-point increase in the continuous everyday discrimination score (HR = 1.03, 95% CI =1.01-1.05, p = .001) predicted a 3% greater incidence of MetS and, specifically, blood pressure (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.03, p = .04), waist circumference (HR = 1.05, 95% CI =1.03-1.06, p < .001), and triglyceride level (HR = 1.02, 95% CI =1.00-1.04, p = .01). These associations were independent of risk factors including physical activity, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Everyday discrimination contributes to poorer metabolic health in midlife women in the United States. These findings have clinical implications for the development of MetS and, ultimately, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and intervention strategies to reduce these outcomes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(5): 924-932, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036550

RESUMO

Experiencing discrimination is associated with poor mental health, but how cumulative experiences of perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributes, domains, and time are associated with mental disorders is still unknown. Using data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (1996-2008), we applied latent class analysis and generalized linear models to estimate the association between cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination and older women's mental health. We found 4 classes of perceived interpersonal discrimination, ranging from cumulative exposure to discrimination over attributes, domains, and time to none or minimal reports of discrimination. Women who experienced cumulative perceived interpersonal discrimination over time and across attributes and domains had the highest risk of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16) compared with women in all other classes. This was true for all women regardless of race/ethnicity, although the type and severity of perceived discrimination differed across racial/ethnic groups. Cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributes, domains, and time has an incremental negative long-term association with mental health. Studies that examine exposure to perceived discrimination due to a single attribute in 1 domain or at 1 point in time underestimate the magnitude and complexity of discrimination and its association with health.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , China/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da Mulher
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