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1.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(9-10): 304-314, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625697

RESUMO

Aims - Overview of the new data about the strong link of sleep and epilepsy and conjoining cognitive impairment. Methods - Search for relevant references and summary of our own research activity on the topic. Results - Strong interrealtionship exists between epilepsy and plastic brain functions (memory processing and synaptic homeostasis) and the working modes of NREM sleep. In the most frequent childhood and adult epilepsy networks responsible for plastic functions can be derailed to an epileptic level of excitability, and suffer a transitory or permanent epileptic transformation. Exampling on the three big epilepsies: absence epilepsy; medial temporal lobe epilepsy; and childhood idiopathic focal age dependent epilepsy spectrum we demonstrate the most important features of this epileptic transformation. The association of cognitive impairment to certain sleep dependent epilepsies gains explanation by the epilepsy caused interference with slow wave decline (ICFE) and memory consolidation (MTLE) during NREM sleep. This paper serves also to introduce the concept of sleep dependent system epilepsies. Conclusions - We provide evidences about shared mechanisms among sleep related epilepsies being the derailment of sleep plastic funcions toward exaggerated excitability determined by the inherent possibilities of the signal transduction properties.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Plásticos , Fases do Sono/fisiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17557, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. The major clinical features of both are progressive memory loss and progressive cognitive loss. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to provide the methods for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment on cognitive deficits in transgenic mouse. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search the electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, as well as the Chinese databases such as Chinese Biomedicine Literature (CBM), Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), WanFang Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from their inceptions to July 2019. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for the data synthesis and the quality of each study was assessed independently by use of the CAMARADES checklist. RESULTS: This review will provide a high-quality synthesis based on present evidence of acupuncture treatment for AD and MCI in transgenic mouse models. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will provide evidence for weather acupuncture is an effective intervention for AD and MCI in transgenic mouse models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary since this protocol is only for systematic review and does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019142985. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: This systematic review will be the first to provide new knowledge underlying the effectiveness to improve cognitive function of acupuncture treatment for AD and MCI in transgenic mouse models. The result of this systematic review may provide experimental and theoretical basis for the future clinical application of acupuncture in the treatment of AD.The limitation of this systematic review may come from language barriers, because only English and Chinese can be included. Also, this study includes various kinds of acupuncture treatments which may result in essential heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17626, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626144

RESUMO

To establish a nomogram model to predict early cognitive impairment after supratentorial spontaneous intracranial hematoma in adult patients.A retrospective cohort study was held between January 2016 and October 2018. One hundred twenty seven out of 170 consecutive patients with supratentorial spontaneous intracranial hematoma were enrolled in this study. They were divided into development (n = 92) and validation (n = 35) dataset according to their admission time. Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) was conducted between the third and the sixth month after the onset of stroke. MMSE ≤ 24 was considered as cognitive impairment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to screen for independent risk factors which correlate with cognitive impairment on the development dataset. A nomogram was built based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calibration curve on development and validation dataset was drawn with each area under the curves (AUC) calculated. The decision curve analysis was also conducted with the development dataset.The bleeding volume, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are the most significant risk factors which may cause cognitive impairment both in the univariate and multivariate analysis. The finial model performed good discrimination ability on both development and validation dataset with AUC 0.911 and 0.919. Most patients would benefit from the model according to the decision curve analysis.A nomogram, constructed based on bleeding volume, GCS, and IVH can provide a feasible tool to evaluate cognitive impairment after supratentorial spontaneous intracranial hematoma in adult patients.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Hematoma/complicações , Nomogramas , Adulto , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(10): 935-943, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the neural basis of executive function (EF) in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) according to beta-amyloid (Aß) positivity. Furthermore, we explored if the identified brain areas could serve as predictors for clinical progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included individuals with aMCI using data from [18F]-florbetapir-positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and EF scores, as well as follow-up clinical severity scores at 1 and 5 years from baseline from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The correlations between EF score and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) were analyzed separately for aMCI with low Aß burden (aMCI Aß-, n=230) and aMCI with high Aß burden (aMCI Aß+, n=268). Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations between rCMglc and clinical progression. RESULTS: Longitudinal courses differed between aMCI Aß- and aMCI Aß+ groups. On average, aMCI Aß- subjects maintained their level of clinical severity, whereas aMCI Aß+ subjects showed progression. EF impairment in aMCI Aß- was related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereas that in aMCI Aß+ was related to Alzheimer's Disease-vulnerable brain regions. ACC and the posterior cingulate cortex were associated with clinical progression in aMCI Aß- and aMCI Aß+, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that although MCI subjects showed similar behavioral phenotypes at the time of diagnosis, EF and further progression were associated with different brain regions according to Aß burden. Clarification of the etiologies and nature of EF impairment in aMCI are critical for disease prognosis and management.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
5.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 533-538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478419

RESUMO

Introduction: Depression in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) is associated with worse prognosis. Indeed, depressed MCI patients have worse cognitive performance and greater loss of gray-matter volume in several brain areas. To date, knowledge of the factors that can mitigate this detrimental effect is still limited. The aim of the present study was to understand in what way cognitive reserve/brain reserve and depression interact and are linked to regional atrophy in early stage AD. Methods: Depression was evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in 90 patients with early AD, and a cutoff of ≥ 5 was used to separate depressed (n = 44) from non-depressed (n = 46) patients. Each group was further stratified into high/low cognitive reserve/brain reserve. Cognitive reserve was calculated using years of education as proxy, while normalized parenchymal volumes were used to estimate brain reserve. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to extract and analyze gray-matter maps. 2 × 2 ANCOVAs were run to test the effect of the reserve-by-depression interaction on gray matter. Age and hippocampal ratio were used as covariates. Composite indices of major cognitive domains were also analyzed with comparable models. Results: No reserve-by-depression interaction was found in the analytical models of gray matter. Depression was associated with less gray matter volume in the cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus. The brain reserve-by-depression interaction was a significant predictor of executive functioning. Among those with high brain reserve, depressed patients had poorer executive skills. No significant results were found in association with cognitive reserve. Conclusion: These findings suggest that brain reserve may modulate the association between neurodegeneration and depression in patients with MCI and dementia of the AD type, influencing in particular executive functioning.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Reserva Cognitiva , Depressão/psicologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro Para-Hipocampal/patologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente
6.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 501-508, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483196

RESUMO

Objectives: Aiginition Longitudinal Biomarker Investigation Of Neurodegeneration (ALBION) is a longitudinal ongoing study initiated in 2018 that takes place in the Cognitive Disorders Clinic of Aiginition Hospital of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Its aim is to address several research questions concerning the preclinical and prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and explore potential markers for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of dementia. Methods: We here present the design and the preliminary baseline characteristics of ALBION. The sample of our study consists of people aged over 50 who are concerned about their memory but are cognitively normal (CN) or have mild cognitive deficits. Each participant undergoes an extensive assessment including several demographic, medical, social, environmental, clinical, nutritional, neuropsychological determinants and lifestyle activities. Furthermore, we are collecting data from portable devices, neuroimaging techniques and biological samples (blood, stools, CSF). All participants are assessed annually for a period of 10 years. Results: In total, 47 participants have completed the initial evaluation up to date and are divided in two groups, CN individuals (N = 26) and MCI patients (N = 21), based on their cognitive status. The participants are, on average, 64 years old, 46.3% of the sample is male with an average of 12.73 years of education. MCI patients report more comorbidities and have a lower score in the MMSE test. Regarding APOE status, 2 participants are ε4 homozygotes and 10 ε4 heterozygotes. CSF analyses (Aß42, Τ-tau, P-tau) revealed no differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The ALBION study offers an opportunity to explore preclinical dementia and identify new and tailored markers, particularly relating to lifestyle. Further investigation of these populations may provide a wider profile of the changes taking place in the preclinical phase of dementia, leading to potentially effective therapeutic and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Prevenção Primária , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Grécia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Dados Preliminares , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
7.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 546-549, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483199

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify the cognitive and functional deficits in a well-characterized group of patients with vasculitis of the nervous system. Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with Central Nervous System (CNS) or Peripheral nervous System (PNS) vasculitis over a 14-year period were retrospectively identified. Data on clinical presentation, laboratory, radiographic and tissue biopsy investigations, and treatment were collated. Cognitive, functional and quality of life evaluation assessments were performed in 31 patients who agreed to participate and included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-revised (ACE-R), Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) and EQ-5D-3L quality of life questionnaires. Results: CNS vasculitis patients exhibited cognitive impairment, with a mean ACE-R score of 74/100 (standard deviation (SD) 16). NEADL and EQ-5D-3L scores were in the impaired range at 41/66 (SD 21) and 57/81 (SD 22), respectively. Patients with just PNS vasculitis exhibited fewer cognitive deficits with ACE-R and NEADL scores of 87 (SD 8) and 46 (SD 16) respectively. EQ-5D-3L score was in the impaired range of 65 (SD 22). Conclusions: Vasculitis of the nervous system and, in particular, CNS vasculitis causes cognitive impairment and deficits in functional ability. Such patients should be targeted for cognitive rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/psicologia , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/fisiopatologia , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/complicações , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/fisiopatologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/psicologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/fisiopatologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasculite/complicações , Vasculite/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite/fisiopatologia , Vasculite/psicologia , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 766-779, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393145

RESUMO

Hearing impairment is associated with poorer cognitive function in later life. We tested for the potential contribution of childhood cognitive ability to this relationship. Childhood cognitive ability is strongly related to cognitive function in older age, and may be related to auditory function through its association with hearing impairment risk factors. Using data from the Lothian Birth Cohort, 1936, we tested whether childhood cognitive ability predicted later-life hearing ability then whether this association was mediated by demographic or health differences. We found that childhood cognitive ability was negatively associated with hearing impairment risk at age 76 (odds ratio = .834, p = .042). However, this association was nonsignificant after subsequent adjustment for potentially mediating demographic and health factors. Next, we tested whether associations observed in older age between hearing impairment and general cognitive ability level or change were accounted for by childhood cognitive ability. At age 76, in the minimally adjusted model, hearing impairment was associated with poorer general cognitive ability level (ß = -.119, p = .030) but was not related to decline in general cognitive ability. The former association became nonsignificant after additional adjustment for childhood cognitive ability (ß = -.068, p = .426) suggesting that childhood cognitive ability contributes (potentially via demographic and health differences) to the association between levels of hearing and cognitive function in older age. Further work is needed to test whether early life cognitive ability also contributes to the association (documented in previous studies) between older-age hearing impairment and cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 662-667, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461817

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the correlation of functional connectivity (FC) and the integrity of connective fibres between hippocampus and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease(AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: Both resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of 40 AD patients, 37 aMCI patients and 41 normal control subjects matching with age and educational level were collected. These subjects were all recruited from outpatient Department of Neurology in the Second Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, as well as poster, from May 2016 to January 2018. The FC strength between bilateral hippocampus and thalamus, as well as the parameters representing integrity of connective fibres, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity(MD),were analyzed. Also, the correlations between FC strength and FA or MD strength were analyzed in the study. Results: Compared to that of normal control subjects, the FC strength between billateral hippocampus and thalamus in patients with AD, aMCI were not significantly different(P>0.05). The integrity of bilateral connective fibres between hippocampus and thalamus were damaged in AD patients when compared to normal control subjects(P<0.01). A positive correlation of connective fibres integrity with FC strength between hippocampus and thalamus was found in the left side(r=0.25,P<0.05) but rather in the right side. Conclusion: In AD and aMCI patients, structural connectivity between left hippocampus and thalamus affects the functional connectivity between them.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Amnésia/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
10.
Life Sci ; 234: 116775, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425697

RESUMO

AIMS: The activation of the angiotensin (Ang) II after acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade which involved not only the kidneys but also the brain. Ang II through the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) may have deleterious effects on hippocampal synaptic transmission and cognitive functions under uremic encephalopathy. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of AT1R antagonist on AKI-induced cognitive and synaptic plasticity impairment. MAIN METHODS: Here, we investigated the effect of AKI and possible pathophysiological roles of AT1R with the selective AT1R antagonist losartan (10 mg/kg/day for consecutive 9 days) on cognitive performance using passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. In order to understand the synaptic transmission, in vivo short and long-term plasticity were evaluated at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. Biochemical analysis was also performed to detect possible hippocampal nitric oxide and oxidative stress mechanisms. KEY FINDINGS: Our data provide evidence of hippocampal complication following AKI with increased level of nitrite (P < 0.01 vs. sham) as well as oxidative stress (P < 0.01 vs. sham) that may be responsible for behavioral dysfunction under uremia (spatial memory, P < 0.001; passive avoidance P < 0.01 vs. sham). Losartan treatment effectively protects against cognitive (spatial memory, P < 0.01; passive avoidance P < 0.05 vs. AKI-veh) and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by AKI possibly via modulation of oxidative stress in the hippocampus (P < 0.01 vs. AKI-veh). SIGNIFICANCE: The present study conclusively demonstrated a protective role of AT1R antagonist losartan in hippocampal complication and neurocognitive dysfunction after AKI via modulating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci ; 232: 116621, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269415

RESUMO

Kainate (KA) mouse model induced by intraperitoneal injection has been widely used for epilepsy and neurodegeneration studies. KA elicits sustained epileptic activity in mouse brain revealed by recurrent behavioral seizures, deteriorative neurodegeneration and various neurological deficits. However, to date, the vast majority of the studies used male mice only, and few studies on the comparison of brain injury between male and female mice in this model were reported. Epidemiological studies indicate that sex may affect the susceptibility to seizure response and neurodegeneration process. Therefore, this study focused on the effect of sex difference on KA-induced recurrent seizures and mortality, locomotor activity and cognitive impairment, and hippocampal neurodegeneration and reactive gliosis in mice. Our results showed that, compared to females, adult male mice exhibited worse performance in mortality rate, severity of epileptic seizures, and cognitive impairment indicated by novel object recognition task. Unexpectedly, post-KA male and female mice underwent similar decline and recovery of locomotor activity. KA-induced neurodegeneration in the whole hippocampus, particularly in CA1 and CA3 subregions, along with the deteriorative reactive gliosis in astrocytes and microglia, was more severe in males than that in females. These data provided the direct in vivo evidence that indicates the key role of sex difference in studies with KA mouse model, and this could be beneficial for optimizing the design of future studies.


Assuntos
Ácido Caínico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Gliose/induzido quimicamente , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Caínico/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Life Sci ; 233: 116684, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351083

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition that often triggers a sequel of neurological disorders that can last throughout lifespan. From a metabolic viewpoint, the compromising of the energy metabolism of the brain has produced evidence linking the severity of brain injury to the extent of disturbances in the cerebral metabolism. The cerebral metabolic crisis, however, displays that regional heterogeneity varies temporally post-injury. It is important to note that energy generation and mitochondrial function are closely related and interconnected with delayed secondary manifestations of brain injury, including early neuromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Given the extent of post-traumatic changes in neuronal function and the possibility of amplifying secondary cascades, different therapies designed to minimize damage and retain/restore cellular function after TBI are currently being studied. One of the possible strategies may be the inclusion of ergogenic compounds, which is a class of supplements that typically includes ingredients used by athletes to enhance their performance. The combination of these compounds offers specific physiological advantages, which include enhanced energy availability/metabolism and improved buffering capacity. However, the literature on their effects in certain biological systems and neurological diseases, such as TBI, has yet to be determined. Thus, the present review aims to discuss the role of ergogenic compounds popularly used in secondary damage induced by this neurological injury. In this narrative review, we also discuss how the results from animal studies can be applied to TBI clinical settings.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Neuromusculares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Carnitina/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/etiologia , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/fisiopatologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Taurina/farmacologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment subjects exhibit high cortisol levels that are associated with low brain activity, but negative emotions with high cortisol are associated with high brain activity and reduced cognition. Emotion regulation, glucocorticoid hormones, and brain activity all interact with cognitive impairment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cognitive impairment differences related to sex, morning salivary cortisol, emotion regulation, and brain activity in elderly people. METHODS: A total of 64 participants (19 males and 45 females) were tested by the Montreal cognitive assessment. Next, morning saliva was collected from each participant and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the brain activity of the participants was subsequently recorded. Finally, emotion regulation was assessed via the Brunel mood scale questionnaire. RESULTS: The results revealed that attention was significantly lower in elderly females than in elderly males. Depression and vigor were significantly higher in elderly females than in elderly males. Brain activity of the slow (delta and theta) and fast (beta and high beta) waves was significantly higher in elderly females than in elderly males. Moreover, attention was negatively correlated with the theta wave, whereas delayed recall was positively correlated with the theta wave and salivary cortisol. Depression was positively correlated with the high beta wave and language skill, whereas the high beta wave was negatively correlated with visuoconstructional skill. CONCLUSION: The brain activity, emotion, and cortisol were influenced by cognitive impairments, although the relation of brain activity with glucocorticoid hormones remains inconclusive. This finding may be useful to the brain aging process, promote healthy brain aging, and prevent neurodegenerative conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Emoções , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Idoso , Atenção , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Saliva/metabolismo , Autocontrole , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(12): 517-523, 16 jun., 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180479

RESUMO

Introducción. La epilepsia en la edad pediátrica se asocia frecuentemente a trastornos cognitivos. Distintos estudios correlacionaron la presencia de trastornos cognitivos transitorios con la presencia de descargas epilépticas interictales (DEI). Caso clínico. Mujer de 23 años, con epilepsia focal farmacorresistente evaluada con videoelectroencefalograma (video-EEG) invasivo en el contexto de cirugía de la epilepsia. Del video-EEG invasivo se seleccionaron 300 épocas de 10 s de duración, que se clasificaron en dos grupos. El grupo 1 evidenció DEI restringidas a la corteza del giro frontal medio, el giro temporal inferior y los giros occipitotemporales lateral y medial izquierdos (hemisferio dominante). En el grupo 2 se observaron DEI en el giro frontal superior y medio, el giro precentral y los giros temporales medio e inferior izquierdos. La paciente leyó el mismo texto durante las épocas seleccionadas. Se contabilizó el número de palabras leídas en cada época. Se evaluó la memoria de trabajo mediante la prueba de dígitos inversos. En el grupo 1, la media de palabras leídas fue de 10,2 (IC 95%: 10,04-10,35); en el grupo 2, de 2,3 (IC 95%: 2,12-2,27; t(146) = 94,55; p < 0,0001). En el grupo 1, la media de dígitos inversos fue de 4,05 (IC 95%: 3,81-4,30); en el grupo 2, de 2,67 (IC 95%: 2,48-2,86; t(33) = 10,34; p < 0,0001). Conclusión. El hallazgo permite inferir que la interferencia de las DEI en la corteza del giro frontal superior y medio, el giro precentral, y los giros temporales medio e inferior del hemisferio dominante provoca una disfunción de las redes neuronales implicadas en los mecanismos de la lectura


Introduction. Epilepsy in pediatric age are frequently associated with cognitive disorders. Different studies correlated the presence of transient cognitive disorders with the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Case report. A 23-year-old woman with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy was evaluated with invasive videoEEG in the context of epilepsy surgery. There were selected 300 periods of 10 seconds duration from the invasive videoEEG, which were classified into two groups. Group 1 showed IEDs restricted to the cortex of the middle frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, left lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus (dominant hemisphere). In group 2, IEDs was observed in the upper and middle frontal gyrus, precentral, the inferior and middle temporal left gyrus. The patient read the same text during the selected peirods. The number of words read in each period was counted. The working memory was evaluated by the inverse digit test. In group 1, the average number of words read was 10.2 (95% CI: 10.04-10.35); in group 2 it was 2.3 (95% CI: 2.12-2.27; t(146) = 94.55; p < 0.0001). In group 1, the average of inverse digits was 4.05 (95% CI: 3.81-4.30); in group 2 it was 2.67 (95% CI: 2.48-2.86; t(33) = 10.34; p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Our finding allows us to infer that the interference of IEDs in the cortex of the upper and middle frontal gyrus, precentral, middle and lower temporal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere, causes a dysfunction of neural networks involved in reading


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
15.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 658-669, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between self-reported cognitive difficulties, objective neuropsychological test performances, and subjective health complaints in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to examine the degree of impaired cognitive functions. METHOD: A total of 236 consecutively recruited outpatients, 18-62 years of age, completed the tests. Self-administered questionnaires were used for assessing fatigue, pain, depression, anxiety and subjective cognitive complaints (Everyday Memory Questionnaire [EMQ]). Also, neuropsychological tests, that is, Stroop I-IV, California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) learning and delay, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Letter Number (L-N) Sequencing, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task were performed to examine whether these objective measures correlated with subjective complaints and were compared with normative data. RESULTS: There was a trend of association (p < .05) between the unadjusted EMQ with Stroop IV (inhibition and shifting attention), the CVLT-II learning and delay (verbal learning and memory), and the WAIS-III L-N Sequencing (working memory), but none were statistically significant at the .001 level. The EMQ was positively associated with fatigue, pain, and depression (p < .001). The PASAT (working memory) was negatively associated with pain (p < .001). Between 21% and 38% of the patients performed below the 1.5-SD cutoff for clinically significant impairment on the Stroop tests. CONCLUSION: The self-reported cognitive performance was not strongly associated with the objective cognitive performances on any domains in patients with CFS. Patients with higher fatigue, pain, and depression levels reported greater subjective cognitive difficulties, as well as higher pain related to lower objective working memory function. The CFS patients had problems mainly in the domains of psychomotor speed and attention measured by the objective neuropsychological tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Life Sci ; 231: 116584, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220527

RESUMO

Taurine is a key functional amino acid with many functions in the nervous system. The effects of taurine on cognitive function have aroused increasing attention. First, the fluctuations of taurine and its transporters are associated with cognitive impairments in physiology and pathology. This may help diagnose and treat cognitive impairment though mechanisms are not fully uncovered in existing studies. Then, taurine supplements in cognitive impairment of different physiologies, pathologies and toxicologies have been demonstrated to significantly improve and restore cognition in most cases. However, elevated taurine level in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by exogenous administration causes cognition retardations only in physiologically sensitive period between the perinatal to early postnatal period. In this review, taurine levels are summarized in different types of cognitive impairments. Subsequently, the effects of taurine supplements on cognitions in physiology, different pathologies and toxication of cognitive impairments (e.g. aging, Alzheimer' disease, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced brain damage, ischemia model, mental disorder, genetic diseases and cognitive injuries of pharmaceuticals and toxins) are analyzed. These data suggest that taurine can improve cognition function through multiple potential mechanisms (e.g. restoring functions of taurine transporters and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors subunit; mitigating neuroinflammation; up-regulating Nrf2 expression and antioxidant capacities; activating Akt/CREB/PGC1α pathway, and further enhancing mitochondria biogenesis, synaptic function and reducing oxidative stress; increasing neurogenesis and synaptic function by pERK; activating PKA pathway). However, more mechanisms still need explorations.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Receptores de GABA , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Taurina/fisiologia
17.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 413-418, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia prevalence increases with age and a significant contribution is given by stroke survivors; its treatment is mainly based on rehabilitation, but outcome cannot be easily predicted. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to detect possible predictors of the outcome of dysphagia in patients beginning rehabilitation after a major Central Nervous System injury. METHODS: Dysphagia severity was measured in 95 consecutive patients (71 with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke) upon admission to our neurorehabilitation unit and at discharge, during the year 2017. The initial evaluation included also demographic data, functional and geriatric multidimensional assessment, laboratory test results and comorbidities. Their possible predictive value on the degree of recovery of the swallowing process at discharge has been analyzed. RESULTS: Poor functional conditions and the presence of cognitive impairment on admission appear to be associated with a worse outcome of dysphagia at discharge. A significant correlation exists between scores at functional scales at the beginning of rehabilitation and dysphagia score at discharge. Patients with cognitive impairment at the beginning (n = 60) showed a significantly lower degree of recovery of dysphagia at discharge. CONCLUSION: Other factors, beside the degree of dysphagia itself, are important to predict its outcome. Their knowledge not only allows an initial prognostic assessment; it can also be useful to decide which aspects should receive greater attention when treating patients with dysphagia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
18.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 670-684, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to determine whether qualitative analysis of different types of intrusion errors on a verbal cognitive task was useful in detecting subtle cognitive impairment in preclinical stages prior to the progression to dementia. METHOD: Different types of semantic intrusions on the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scales of Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L) were compared across 160 individuals diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN), amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and dementia. The sample included Hispanics and non-Hispanic European Americans. RESULTS: Across diagnostic groups, the most common type of intrusion error was actual targets presented from a competing word list under conditions eliciting proactive semantic interference (PSI), and retroactive semantic interference (RSI), followed by intrusions that represented one of three overlapping semantic categories but none of the targets from List A or B. Nonsemantic intrusions rarely occurred. These competing list intrusions (CLI) and semantically related intrusions (SRI) differentiated between aMCI and CN participants. Further, these intrusion error were related to brain amyloid load, indicating their importance as potential primary markers of AD-related neurodegeneration. Ethnicity effects were not seen across the types of intrusion errors. CONCLUSIONS: Two types of intrusion errors (CLI and SRI) showed differences between the CN and aMCI group, with the aMCI group evidencing a higher rate of these intrusion errors compared with the CN group. These results support previous literature about the LASSI-L's sensitivity at the earliest stages of abnormal aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica
19.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 725-738, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic descent of cerebellar tonsils into the cervical spine in Chiari malformation Type I (CMI) is typically associated with occipital headache. Accumulating evidence from experimental studies suggests cognitive effects of CMI. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI using a battery of standardized neuropsychological and symptom inventory instruments. METHOD: Eighteen untreated adults with CMI, and 18 gender, age, and education matched healthy controls completed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and standardized measures of pain, mood, and disability. Morphometric measurements of key neural and osseous elements were also obtained from structural brain magnetic resonance images, for correlation with symptom outcomes. RESULTS: CMI patients exhibited deficits in RBANS attention, immediate memory, delayed memory, and total score. After controlling for pain and associated affective disturbance, the significant group effect for RBANS attention remained. CMI patients also presented seven morphometric differences comprising the cerebellum and posterior cranial fossa compartment that differed from healthy controls, some of which were associated with self-reported pain and disability. Notably, group differences in tonsillar position were associated with self-reported pain, disability, and delayed memory. CONCLUSION: Adult CMI is associated with domain-specific cognitive change, detectable using a standard clinical instrument. The extent of cognitive impairment is independent of pain or affective symptomatology and may be related to the key pathognomonic feature of the condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/complicações , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Fossa Craniana Posterior/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fossa Craniana Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 711-724, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is increasingly recognized that trauma victims, particularly Veterans, have co-occurring psychological and physical conditions that impact cognition, especially the domains of sustained attention and executive functioning. Although previous work has generally attempted to isolate the unique cognitive effects of common combat-related comorbidities, less work has been done to examine how these conditions co-occur, and whether unique cognitive signatures accompany certain clinical combinations. METHOD: To address this gap, we examined how several deployment-related conditions were associated with performance on a well-validated measure of sustained attention (i.e., gradual onset continuous performance task [gradCPT]) and a battery of standard neuropsychological measures in 123 Veterans from the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders. Initially, a Principal component analysis was conducted to investigate how comorbid conditions grouped together. RESULTS: Several sustained attention measures from the gradCPT were differentially associated with four unique combinations of trauma-related pathology. Specifically, a somatic component representing the combination of current pain, sleep disturbance, and mild traumatic brain injury was associated with a higher rate of failures of attentional engagement. On the other hand, a comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mood disorder component (moodPTSD), as well as a substance use disorder component, were associated with higher rates of inhibitory control failures. Increased attentional instability was associated with moodPTSD as well as an anxiety disorder component. In contrast, the cognitive effects of deployment-related trauma were not observed on standard neuropsychological measures. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that unique combinations of trauma-related pathology have dissociable effects on sustained attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Veteranos , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/complicações , Distúrbios de Guerra/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
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