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J Infect Dis ; 215(3): 387-395, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003350


Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 7 million people in Latin American areas of endemicity. About 30% of infected patients will develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocarditis. Further studies are necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease progression. Transcriptome analysis has been increasingly used to identify molecular changes associated with disease outcomes. We thus assessed the whole-blood transcriptome of patients with Chagas disease. Microarray analysis was performed on blood samples from 150 subjects, of whom 30 were uninfected control patients and 120 had Chagas disease (1 group had asymptomatic disease, and 2 groups had CCC with either a preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]). Each Chagas disease group displayed distinct gene expression and functional pathway profiles. The most different expression patterns were between CCC groups with a preserved or reduced LVEF. A more stringent analysis indicated that 27 differentially expressed genes, particularly those related to natural killer (NK)/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, separated the 2 groups. NK/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity could play a role in determining Chagas disease progression. Understanding genes associated with disease may lead to improved insight into CCC pathogenesis and the identification of prognostic factors for CCC progression.

Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Disfunção Ventricular/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia
Transplant Proc ; 48(1): 279-81, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915885


Chagas disease (CD) is becoming an increasingly recognized cause of dilated cardiomyopathy outside of Latin America, where it is endemic, due to population shifts and migration. Heart transplantation (HTx) is a therapeutic option for end-stage cardiomyopathy due to CD, but may be considered a relative contraindication due to potential reactivation of the causative organism with immunosuppression therapy. The total artificial heart (TAH) can provide mechanical circulatory support in decompensated patients with severe biventricular dysfunction until the time of HTx, while avoiding immunosuppressive therapy and removing the organ most affected by the causative organism. We report herein a patient with CD and severe biventricular dysfunction, who had mechanical circulatory support with a TAH for more than 6 months, followed by successful orthotopic HTx and treatment with benznidazole for 3 months. The patient had no evidence of recurrent disease in the transplanted heart based on endomyocardial biopsy up to 1 year post-transplantation, and remains alive more than 30 months after insertion of a TAH and 24 months after HTx.

Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Coração Artificial , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia , Disfunção Ventricular/cirurgia
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(5): e0003811, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023927


African trypanosomiasis (AT), caused by Trypanosoma brucei species, results in both neurological and cardiac dysfunction and can be fatal if untreated. Research on the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease has centred to date on the characteristic neurological symptoms, whereas cardiac dysfunction (e.g. ventricular arrhythmias) in AT remains largely unstudied. Animal models of AT demonstrating cardiac dysfunction similar to that described in field cases of AT are critically required to transform our understanding of AT-induced cardiac pathophysiology and identify future treatment strategies. We have previously shown that T. brucei can interact with heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) to induce ventricular arrhythmias in ex vivo adult rat hearts. However, it is unknown whether the arrhythmias observed ex vivo are also present during in vivo infection in experimental animal models. Here we show for the first time the characterisation of ventricular arrhythmias in vivo in two animal models of AT infection using electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. The first model utilised a commonly used monomorphic laboratory strain, Trypanosoma brucei brucei Lister 427, whilst the second model used a pleomorphic laboratory strain, T. b. brucei TREU 927, which demonstrates a similar chronic infection profile to clinical cases. The frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and heart rate (HR) was significantly increased at the endpoint of infection in the TREU 927 infection model, but not in the Lister 427 infection model. At the end of infection, hearts from both models were isolated and Langendorff perfused ex vivo with increasing concentrations of the ß-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO). Interestingly, the increased frequency of arrhythmias observed in vivo in the TREU 927 infection model was lost upon isolation of the heart ex vivo, but re-emerged with the addition of ISO. Our results demonstrate that TREU 927 infection modifies the substrate of the myocardium in such a way as to increase the propensity for ventricular arrhythmias in response to a circulating factor in vivo or ß-adrenergic stimulation ex vivo. The TREU 927 infection model provides a new opportunity to accelerate our understanding of AT-related cardiac pathophysiology and importantly has the required sensitivity to monitor adverse cardiac-related electrical dysfunction when testing new therapeutic treatments for AT.

Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/fisiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/parasitologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia
Adv Parasitol ; 75: 49-63, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21820551


Chagas disease was first described one century ago, yet the mechanisms underlying chagasic cardiomyopathy remain elusive. Disease progression often leads to heart failure and patients with this infectious cardiomyopathy have a poor prognosis. Treatment options for heart failure due to Chagas disease are not different from standard therapy. Over the past decade, cell-based therapies have emerged as a new alternative in the treatment of this disease, not only because of the possibility of replacing lost vessels and cardiomyocytes but also because these cells could potentially influence the microenvironmental changes that perpetuate the disease. In this chapter, we will review current knowledge on cell-based therapies for the treatment of Chagas disease.

Doença de Chagas/terapia , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Disfunção Ventricular/terapia , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia