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1.
Turk Neurosurg ; 34(4): 733-736, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971977

RESUMO

Taste consists of sensation and perception. Specific neural structures transmit a stimulus from the taste buds to the gustatory cortex to generate taste sensation. Any disruption of this pathway, whether it affects sensation or perception, can result in taste disorders. Stereotactic procedures involving the thalamus may result in gustatory complications. A 41-year-old female patient who underwent stereotactic drainage of a thalamic cyst suffered transient ageusia. Subsequently, she developed metallic taste perception. When her stereotactic plan was re-evaluated, it was noted that the posteromedial ventral thalamus nucleus was in the path of the needle tract and the needle had passed through it. Follow-up was recommended and her symptoms completely resolved within 2 months following surgery. Modern imaging techniques allow for the visualization of neural structures related to the sense of taste. Additionally, care must be taken when planning stereotactic procedures for such lesions.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Drenagem , Disgeusia , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Ageusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Drenagem/métodos , Cistos/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Doenças Talâmicas/cirurgia , Doenças Talâmicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/cirurgia
2.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 104: adv40334, 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023144

RESUMO

Nearly 4 billion people live in a dengue risk area worldwide. The prevalence of dengue-related mucocutaneous manifestations and their association with severe dengue differ across studies. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of patients with dengue-related mucocutaneous manifestations and to investigate those were associated with severe dengue. A retrospective study was conducted in 2019 among patients with a positive RT-PCR for dengue at the University Hospital of Reunion, which has been experiencing a re-emergence of dengue since 2018. Of 847 patients with confirmed dengue, 283 (33.4%) developed mucocutaneous manifestations. Only manifestations of dehydration such as glossitis, dysgeusia, or conjunctivitis were associated with severe dengue, unlike pruritus and rash, in bivariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. The rash and pruritus of dengue appear to be accompanied by a pronounced flu-like syndrome in younger people without comorbidity or severity, although careful examination of mucous membranes would better identify signs of dehydration and thus cases likely to worsen.


Assuntos
Dengue , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reunião/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia , Dengue Grave/complicações , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Prurido/epidemiologia , Prurido/etiologia , Desidratação , Prevalência , Criança , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(8): 3085-3098, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysgeusia is characterized by a loss of taste perception, leading to malnutrition. This situation affects inflammatory conditions such as respiratory and neurological conditions, obesity, cancer, chemotherapy, aging, and many others. To date, there is not much information on the prevalence and risk of dysgeusia in an inflammatory condition; also, it is unclear which flavor is altered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched three databases from January 2018 to January 2023. Participants were children, adults, or elderly persons with an inflammatory condition and evaluated taste loss. A random effects model was used for statistical analysis to calculate the pooled odds ratio with its corresponding 95.0% confidence interval to estimate the probability of taste alteration (dysgeusia) in an inflammatory condition. RESULTS: The data allowed us to conduct a systematic review, including 63 original articles and 15 studies to perform the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicated a heterogenicity of 84.7% with an odds ratio of 3.25 (2.66-3.96), indicating a significant risk of Alzheimer's disease, SARS-CoV-2, chemotherapy, and rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory conditions and taste alterations are linked. Dysgeusia is associated with a higher risk of malnutrition and poorer general health status, especially in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Disgeusia , Inflamação , Percepção Gustatória , Humanos , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 45(4): 104302, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The incidence of ageusia and dysgeusia after endoscopic endonasal (EEA) resection of olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) is not well established despite recognized impairment in olfactory function. METHODS: We retrospectively administered a validated taste and smell survey to patients undergoing EEA for resection of OGM at two institutions. Demographics and clinical characteristics were collected and survey responses were analyzed. RESULTS: Twelve patients completed the survey. The median time from surgery was 24 months. The average total complaint score was 5.5 out of 16 [0-13]. All patients reported a change in sense of smell while only 42 % reported a change in sense of taste. Taste changes did not consistently associate with laterality or size of the neoplasm. Significant heterogeneity existed when rating severity of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first case series examining taste changes after EEA resection of OGM. Despite universal olfactory dysfunction, only a minority of patients reported a change in their sense of taste. Our findings may improve patient counseling and expectations after surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Humanos , Meningioma/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Endoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia
7.
N Engl J Med ; 390(13): 1186-1195, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nirmatrelvir in combination with ritonavir is an antiviral treatment for mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The efficacy of this treatment in patients who are at standard risk for severe Covid-19 or who are fully vaccinated and have at least one risk factor for severe Covid-19 has not been established. METHODS: In this phase 2-3 trial, we randomly assigned adults who had confirmed Covid-19 with symptom onset within the past 5 days in a 1:1 ratio to receive nirmatrelvir-ritonavir or placebo every 12 hours for 5 days. Patients who were fully vaccinated against Covid-19 and who had at least one risk factor for severe disease, as well as patients without such risk factors who had never been vaccinated against Covid-19 or had not been vaccinated within the previous year, were eligible for participation. Participants logged the presence and severity of prespecified Covid-19 signs and symptoms daily from day 1 through day 28. The primary end point was the time to sustained alleviation of all targeted Covid-19 signs and symptoms. Covid-19-related hospitalization and death from any cause were also assessed through day 28. RESULTS: Among the 1296 participants who underwent randomization and were included in the full analysis population, 1288 received at least one dose of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (654 participants) or placebo (634 participants) and had at least one postbaseline visit. The median time to sustained alleviation of all targeted signs and symptoms of Covid-19 was 12 days in the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group and 13 days in the placebo group (P = 0.60). Five participants (0.8%) in the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group and 10 (1.6%) in the placebo group were hospitalized for Covid-19 or died from any cause (difference, -0.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -2.0 to 0.4). The percentages of participants with adverse events were similar in the two groups (25.8% with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and 24.1% with placebo). In the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group, the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were dysgeusia (in 5.8% of the participants) and diarrhea (in 2.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The time to sustained alleviation of all signs and symptoms of Covid-19 did not differ significantly between participants who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and those who received placebo. (Supported by Pfizer; EPIC-SR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05011513.).


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Disgeusia/induzido quimicamente , Vacinação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico
8.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 70: 102569, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia is a common side effect in oncology patients, significantly impacting their quality of life. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological strategies in treating dysgeusia in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. METHODS: Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive literature search across five databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Database. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools to assess the quality of the included studies. A harvest plot was used to synthesise evidence about the differential effects of population-level interventions. RESULTS: Nine studies of non-pharmacological strategies to manage dysgeusia were included. These studies encompassed a variety of interventions, including oral applications and supplements, instrumental techniques, and educational programs. The review identified promising interventions such as cryotherapy and Miraculine supplementation, which showed potential in mitigating taste alterations. Instrumental techniques like photobiomodulation therapy and complementary and integrative medicine approaches, including acupuncture and herbs, were also found to be beneficial. Educational and self-management strategies emerged as effective interventions for empowering patients to manage dysgeusia. Despite the diversity of interventions and the limitations of the included studies, such as small sample sizes and geographical differences, these findings underscore the potential of non-pharmacological strategies in managing dysgeusia. CONCLUSION: The results support the integration of these strategies into clinical practice, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to improve patient care. Further research should prioritize rigorous studies to enhance evidence and explore long-term effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Disgeusia , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Disgeusia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Georgian Med News ; (347): 93-95, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609121

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe manifestations of diseases of the oral mucosa of patients in the Adjara region during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 55 patients, 25 women (45.5%) and 30 men (54.5%), aged between 18 and 89 years with confirmed COVID-19 at different stages of severity. After obtaining informed consent, we examined their mouths and recorded clinical findings. Forty percent of the patients had at least 1 oral lesion. The most common lesions were candidiasis and ulcers (7 patients each); 2 patients had enanthems. Geographic tongue and caviar tongue were also observed. Altered taste, dry mouth, and painful/burning mouth were noted in 60%, 27.3%, and 36.4% of patients, respectively. Oral mucosal alterations and lesions were prevalent in this series of COVID-19 patients. An altered taste and a painful/burning mouth were common symptoms. For the first time, we performed a description of the oral cavity of patients diagnosed with COVID 19 in the Adjara region. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The variable "age" was compared using the Student's t-test and P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Traumatismos Faciais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mucosa Bucal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disgeusia , Pandemias , Boca , Dor
10.
JAMA ; 331(12): 1045-1054, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530258

RESUMO

Importance: Dry mouth, oral candidiasis, and recurrent aphthous ulcers are 3 of the most common oral conditions that may be associated with patient discomfort, decreased quality of life, and morbidity. Observations: In a meta-analysis of 26 population-based cohort and cross-sectional studies, the global prevalence of dry mouth symptoms was 23% (95% CI, 18% to 28%), placing individuals at risk of oral candidiasis, dental caries, dysgeusia, masticatory/speech impairment, and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Dry mouth is associated with using more than 3 oral medications per day (odds ratio [OR], 2.9 [95% CI, 1.4 to 6.2]), head and neck radiation, and Sjögren disease. Symptoms may include difficulty swallowing and speaking, thirst, and halitosis. Dry mouth is associated with an 11.5% (95% CI, 3.6% to 27%) higher risk of oral candidiasis, based on a meta-analysis of 6 observational cohorts. Management of dry mouth includes mechanical salivary stimulants, oral moisturizers, and/or systemic sialagogues. Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by overgrowth of the Candida genus with C albicans, which accounts for 76.8% of infections. The prevalence of oral candidiasis is higher in patients who are immunosuppressed, for example, those with HIV (35% [95% CI, 28% to 42%]) and those with salivary gland hypofunction (OR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.73 to 5.28]). Common risk factors associated with oral candidiasis include use of antibiotics (P = .04) and oral mucosal disorders such as lichen planus. Oral burning and dysgeusia are common symptoms of oral candidiasis. Treatment includes addressing risk factors and use of topical and/or systemic antifungal medications. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is characterized by symptomatic round or oval oral ulcers, which are covered by a gray-white fibrin layer and encircled by an erythematous ring. A meta-analysis of 10 case-controlled studies revealed an increased risk of recurrent aphthous stomatitis associated with polymorphism of IL-1ß (+3954C/T) (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.07 to 2.17]) and IL-1ß (-511C/T) (OR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.67]). Another meta-analysis of 9 case-control studies reported that patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis had a higher frequency of nutritional deficiencies, including vitamin B12 (OR, 3.75 [95% CI, 2.38 to 5.94]), folic acid (OR, 7.55 [95% CI, 3.91 to 14.60]), and ferritin (OR, 2.62 [95% CI, 1.69 to 4.06]). Recurrent aphthous stomatitis can be associated with systemic diseases. A meta-analysis of 21 case-control studies revealed that celiac disease is associated with a higher incidence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (25% vs 11%; OR, 3.79 [95% CI, 2.67 to 5.39]; P <.001). Topical corticosteroids are first-line agents to manage recurrent aphthous stomatitis; however, systemic medications may be necessary in more severe cases. Conclusions and Relevance: Dry mouth, oral candidiasis, and recurrent aphthous ulcers are common oral conditions that may be associated with patient discomfort, decreased quality of life, and morbidity. First-line treatment includes over-the-counter sialagogues for dry mouth, topical antifungals for oral candidiasis, and topical corticosteroids for aphthous ulcers. Oral conditions that do not improve with first-line treatment may require treatment with systemic medications.


Assuntos
Doenças Estomatognáticas , Humanos , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estomatite Aftosa/etiologia , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Estomatognáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/etiologia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/terapia
11.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 51(3): 308-310, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The actual situation of oral care and oral troubles for patients with gastric cancer received chemotherapy is not clear. METHODS: Questionnaire survey in the form of oral questions was performed for patients with gastric cancer who received chemotherapy from December 2021 to February 2022. The relevance between the survey results and background factors was examined using the χ2 test. RESULTS: We performed the questionnaire survey for 36 patients. Of the 36 patients, 29 patients received dental check-up before starting chemotherapy. Fourteen of the 29 patients(48%)continued the dental check-up. Of 14 patients who continued the dental check-up, 9 patients were 65 years or older, while 14 of 15 patients who discontinued the dental check-up were 65 years or older. Continuity of dental check-up was low among the elderly patients. The rate of dysgeusia were 78 vs 30% in the patients who adopted and who did not adopt oral care other than toothbrushing(p=0.01). The frequency of oral troubles was dysgeusia(47%), stomatitis(42%), and dry mouth(36%). The severity of the oral troubles was, in order, dysgeusia, dry mouth, and pain. The most common side effect due to chemotherapy causing decreased food intake was dysgeusia. CONCLUSIONS: Dysgeusia was the most frequent and severe oral trouble.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Estomatite , Xerostomia , Humanos , Idoso , Disgeusia/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Estomatite/etiologia , Xerostomia/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(3): 739-749, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556303

RESUMO

Patients with diabetes exhibit altered taste sensitivity, but its details have not been clarified yet. Here, we examined alteration of sweet taste sensitivity with development of glucose intolerance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Compared to the cases of Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a control, glucose tolerance of OLETF rats decreased with aging, resulting in development of diabetes at 36-weeks-old. In brief-access tests with a mixture of sucrose and quinine hydrochloride, OLETF rats at 25 or more-weeks-old seemed to exhibit lower sweet taste sensitivity than age-matched LETO ones, but the lick ratios of LETO, but not OLETF, rats for the mixture and quinine hydrochloride solutions decreased and increased, respectively, aging-dependently. Expression of sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3, in circumvallate papillae (CP) was almost the same in LETO and OLETF rats at 10- and 40-weeks-old, while expression levels of a bitter taste receptor, T2R16, were greater in 40-weeks-old rats than in 10-weeks-old ones in both strains. There was no apparent morphological alteration in taste buds in CP between 10- and 40-weeks-old LETO and OLETF rats. Metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota revealed strain- and aging-dependent alteration of mucus layer-regulatory microbiota. Collectively, we concluded that the apparent higher sweet taste sensitivity in 25 or more-weeks-old OLETF rats than in age-matched LETO rats was due to the aging-dependent increase of bitter taste sensitivity in LETO rats with alteration of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos OLETF , Paladar , Peso Corporal , Disgeusia , Quinina/farmacologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ratos Long-Evans , Glicemia/análise
14.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 42(3): 215-224, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416635

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate local and systemic photobiomodulation (PBM) in patients with COVID-19-related dysgeusia, with the expectation of improving taste dysfunction. Background: PBM has garnered attention as a potential therapy in long COVID, a condition characterized by many persistent symptoms following the acute phase of COVID-19. Among these symptoms, dysgeusia, or altered taste perception, can significantly affect patients' quality of life. Emerging research suggests that PBM may hold promise in ameliorating dysgeusia by modulating cellular processes and reducing inflammation. Further clinical studies and randomized controlled trials are essential to establish the efficacy and safety of PBM for the treatment of dysgeusia in long COVID, but initial evidence suggests that this noninvasive modality may offer a novel avenue for symptom management. Methods: Seventy patients experiencing dysgeusia were randomly assigned to receive active local and systemic PBM (n = 34) or simulated PBM (n = 36). Low-power laser (red wavelength) was used at 18 spots on the lateral borders of the tongue (3 J per spot), salivary glands (parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands-3 J per spot), and over the carotid artery for 10 min (60 J). Alongside laser therapy, all patients in both groups received weekly olfactory therapy for up to 8 weeks. Results: Dysgeusia improved in both groups. At weeks 7 and 8, improvement scores were significantly higher in the PBM group than in the sham group (p = 0.048). Conclusions: Combined local and systemic PBM, as applied in this study, proved effective and could serve as a viable treatment option for alleviating dysgeusia in long-COVID patients. Clinical Trial Registration: RBR-2mfbkkk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Humanos , COVID-19/radioterapia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/radioterapia , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3455, 2024 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342941

RESUMO

Recent literature indicates that post-COVID-19 patients suffer from a plethora of complications, including chemosensory dysfunction. However, little attention has been given to understand the interactions between chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary dysfunctions in these patients. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence and combinations of chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary dysfunctions, (2) to identify the odorants/tastants that are compromised, and (3) to explore possible associations between the four dysfunctions in post-COVID-19 patients. One hundred post-COVID-19 patients and 76 healthy controls (pre-COVID-19) were included in this cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Participants' smell, taste, trigeminal, and salivary functions were assessed. The patients had a significantly higher prevalence of parosmia (80.0%), hyposmia (42.0%), anosmia (53.0%), dysgeusia (34.0%), complete ageusia (3.0%), specific ageusia (27.0%), dysesthesia (11.0%) and dry mouth (18.0%) compared to controls (0.0% for all parameters, except 27.6% for hyposmia). Complete loss of bitter taste was the most prevalent specific ageusia (66.7%) and coffee was the most common distorted smell (56.4%). Seven different combinations of dysfunction were observed in the patients, the most common being a combination of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (48.0%). These findings indicate that post-COVID-19 patients experience a range of chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary disturbances, occurring in various combinations.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anosmia , Estudos Transversais , SARS-CoV-2 , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Olfato
17.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(3): 150, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many patients experience oral adverse events during head and neck cancer radiotherapy (RT). The methods of management of such events are under debate. One such technique is the intraoral stent (IOS) technique, which removes normal tissue from the irradiation field. This retrospective study examined the factors associated with the occurrence of oral mucositis (OM) and dysgeusia and the efficacy of IOSs in preventing them. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients who underwent RT in the maxilla or nasal cavity between 2016 and 2022 were included. They were investigated for background characteristics, treatment factors (IOS and dose-volume histogram), and oral adverse events (OM and dysgeusia). RESULTS: Significant risk factors for the incidence of grade ≥ 2 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0) OM were the non-use of IOSs (p = 0.004) and diabetes (p = 0.025). A significant risk factor for the incidence of grade ≥ 1 dysgeusia was concomitant chemotherapy (p = 0.019). The radiation dose to the tongue was significantly lower in the IOS group than in the non-IOS group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the use of an IOS during RT reduces the severity of OM by reducing irradiation to the tongue. Therefore, the use of an IOS is recommended during RT performed in the maxilla or nasal cavity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Estomatite , Humanos , Maxila , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/prevenção & controle , Cavidade Nasal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Estomatite/etiologia , Estomatite/prevenção & controle
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2512, 2024 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291123

RESUMO

In taste disorders, the key to a correct diagnosis and an adequate treatment is an objective assessment. Compared to psychophysical tests, EEG-derived gustatory event-related potentials (gERP) could be used as a less biased measure. However, the responses identified using conventional time-domain averaging show a low signal-to-noise ratio. This study included 44 patients with dysgeusia and 59 healthy participants, who underwent a comprehensive clinical examination of gustatory function. gERPs were recorded in response to stimulation with two concentrations of salty solutions, which were applied with a high precision gustometer. Group differences were examined using gERP analyzed in the canonical time domain and with Time-Frequency Analyses (TFA). Dysgeusic patients showed significantly lower scores for gustatory chemical and electrical stimuli. gERPs failed to show significant differences in amplitudes or latencies between groups. However, TFA showed that gustatory activations were characterized by a stronger power in controls than in patients in the low frequencies (0.1-4 Hz), and a higher desynchronization in the alpha-band (8-12 Hz). Hence, gERPs reflect the altered taste sensation in patients with dysgeusia. TFA appears to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio commonly present when using conventional time-domain averaging, and might be of assistance for the diagnosis of dysgeusia.


Assuntos
Disgeusia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Disgeusia/diagnóstico , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Tempo , Paladar/fisiologia
19.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 63(3): 293-302, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: P2X3 receptor antagonists hold promising potential as a therapeutic option for patients with refractory or unexplained chronic cough, a condition lacking approved therapies. This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of HRS-2261, a novel selective P2X3 receptor antagonist, in healthy subjects. METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial of HRS-2261 consisted of three phases: the single ascending dose (SAD) study phase, the food-effect study phase, and the multiple ascending dose (MAD) study phase. In the SAD phase, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of HRS-2261 (25, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg) or placebo. Subjects in the 200 mg group of the SAD phase progressed directly to the food-effect phase following safety evaluation. In the MAD phase, healthy subjects were randomized to receive HRS-2261 (50, 200, and 400 mg) or placebo twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability. RESULTS: A total of 62 and 30 subjects were enrolled in the SAD and MAD phases, respectively, with 12 subjects from the SAD phase transitioning to the food-effect phase. The incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) were not dose dependent, and most AEs were mild except for one moderate AE (epididymitis, which was not related to treatment) in the 400 mg group. Dysgeusia was reported in nine subjects, including two from the SAD phase, one from the food-effect phase, and six from the MAD phase. The median Tmax and geometric mean t1/2 were 0.9-2.0 h and 4.1-8.5 h in the SAD, and 2.0-2.7 h and 4.6-5.0 h on day 14 in the MAD, respectively. Drug exposures in the SAD and MAD phases were both less than dose proportional. The accumulation of the drug was slight with repeated twice-daily dosing. Food-effect study results showed that food intake did not affect the plasma exposure of HRS-2261. CONCLUSIONS: HRS-2261 demonstrated good tolerability, with a low incidence of dysgeusia. The PK profile was favorable. This study supports further development of HRS-2261 as a potential P2X3 receptor antagonist for chronic cough. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinical trials.gov, identifier: NCT05274516. Trial registration date: March 10, 2022.


Assuntos
Disgeusia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X , Masculino , Humanos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/efeitos adversos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Área Sob a Curva , Método Duplo-Cego
20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 22(2): 380-384, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-targeted radionucleotide therapy has been shown to cause dry mouth, but the oral manifestations of PSMA-targeted immunotherapy have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the oral manifestations of PSMA-targeted immunotherapies (bispecific antibodies or Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell therapies) in the management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the oral toxicities of PSMA-targeted immunotherapies of the patients seen at a single institution's cancer center between 2020 and 2023. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. RESULTS: In a total of 19 patients treated with PSMA-targeted immunotherapies between 2020 and 2023, 9 patients (47%) experienced the following oral toxicities: xerostomia (n = 6; 32%), mucositis (n = 2; 10%), dysgeusia, dry throat and teeth sensitivity in (n = 1 each; 5%), respectively. Oral infections, such as candidiasis and herpes simplex, were not observed in any patients. Mucositis was managed with salt rinses and resolved within few months from onset. Xerostomia persisted in all the patients (median: 306 days, range: 98-484 days) among those who reported dry mouth at the time of data collection, despite treatment with salivary stimulants (n = 5; 83%). Dysgeusia was also persistent, although it was not specifically treated. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with PSMA-targeted immunotherapies for prostate cancer can present with various short-term and long-term off-tumor on-target oral toxicities including xerostomia and dysgeusia that may affect quality of life. This study serves as a foundation to future prospective studies with a larger sample size and also helps oncologists managing prostate cancer patients with targeted immunotherapies to familiarize common oral toxicities. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of oral medicine consultation for a comprehensive oral examination and management of oral complications.


Assuntos
Mucosite , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Xerostomia , Masculino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disgeusia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Dipeptídeos , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos
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