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1.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190086, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the performance in phonological processing skills, reading speed and reading comprehension before and after phonological remediation in a restricted group of schoolchildren with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with dyslexia. METHODS: Thirty-two schoolchildren from the 2nd to 8th year of Elementary School of both genders, with diagnosis of ADHD and Dyslexia according to the DSM-5, participated in this study. All patients underwent Phonological Remediation Program consisted of 18 weekly sessions. RESULTS: The results, expressed in z scores, showed a statistically significant difference between before and after remediation assessments in phonological processing skills, such as syllabic and phonemic awareness, working memory and lexical access. Rhyming task was analyzed separately because it represents another level of segmentation and, for this result, there was no significance. Besides these results, there was a statistically significant difference in reading speed and reading comprehension. CONCLUSION: The phonological remediation program contributes to the development of phonological processing, reading speed and reading comprehension in this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética , Leitura
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenoten for children in the treatment of specific developmental disorders of academic skills in children of 1-3 grades. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty children, aged 7-9 years, (Total set, Safety population) with verified specific reading disorder (F81.0), specific spelling disorder (F81.1), specific disorder of arithmetical skills (F81.2), mixed disorder of scholastic skills (F81.3; F81.2+F81.0, or F81.2+F81.1, or F81.2+F81.0+F81.1), diagnosed with the use of logopedic or psychological testing (15-35 scores in Fotekova T.A. and Akhutina T.V. reading and writing tests; 5-15 scores in arithmetical subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) were enrolled in the study. CT was conducted in 10 clinical centers in Russian Federation in 2015- 2019. Patients were randomized into two groups. The first one (n=122) received tenoten for children in a dose of 1 tablet 3 times a day, the second one (n=118) was administered placebo in the same dosage regimen. The clinical data on 237 children (121 of the tenoten group and 116 of the placebo group) were used for Intention-to-treat efficacy analysis. Data on 220 children (115 of the tenoten group and 105 of the placebo group) were included in Per-protocol analysis. The duration of study was 12 weeks. The mean total academic skills (reading, spelling, and counting) score in groups after 12 weeks of treatment was set as the primary efficacy endpoint. RESULTS: The mean total academic skills score increased by 18.55±15.87 points. The significant total difference between the median changes in the total score in the tenoten and placebo groups was 5 points. There was a trend towards positive changes in reading and spelling mean scores in tests that didn't reach statistical significance due to lack of normal distribution of points in samples. There were 73 adverse events (AEs) in 42 patients of the tenoten group and 95 AEs in 31 children of the placebo group. No serious or severe AEs were registered in the tenoten group. No AEs definitely related to the study treatment were registered. No negative drug interactions were observed in the tenoten group. CONCLUSIONS: Tenoten for children is an effective and safe treatment for specific developmental disorders of academic skills in primary school children. Tenoten for children is well tolerated. The treatment is characterized by a high level of adherence of children and their parents to therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Dislexia , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislexia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Federação Russa
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105161, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912538

RESUMO

Gerstmann syndrome is defined as a tetrad including agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and right-left disorientation. In the case studies presented in the literature, it has been reported that Gerstmann syndrome usually appears as an incomplete tetrad of symptoms or accompanied by cognitive deficits including aphasia, alexia, apraxia and some perceptual disorders. Here, we present of the patient with left angular and supramarginal gyrus infarction affecting the parietal lobe. In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, the patient had alexia and anomic aphasia as well. We discussed the clinic appearance and reviewed the current literature.


Assuntos
Agrafia/etiologia , Anomia/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Discalculia/etiologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Síndrome de Gerstmann/etiologia , Lobo Parietal/irrigação sanguínea , Agrafia/diagnóstico , Agrafia/psicologia , Anomia/diagnóstico , Anomia/psicologia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/psicologia , Discalculia/diagnóstico , Discalculia/psicologia , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/psicologia , Síndrome de Gerstmann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Gerstmann/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 295-303, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192066

RESUMO

Este estudio compara las estrategias para leer oraciones utilizadas por un grupo de escolares con dislexia (n = 107) y un grupo con sordera e implante coclear (n = 61) de lengua castellana. Los resultados indican que solo los participantes con sordera adoptan la estrategia de palabras clave (EPC), que consiste en identificar algunas de las palabras de la oración con contenido semántico propio, e ignorar las palabras funcionales. Se observa además que el uso de la EPC está asociado con un déficit sintáctico. Por otra parte, cuando los dos grupos se emparejan en el nivel lector con niños con desarrollo típico en lectura (Grupo Control, n = 785), las diferencias entre los Grupos Disléxico y Control desaparecieron. Sin embargo, los niños con sordera mantenían su tendencia a usar la EPC y seguían presentando dificultades para procesar las palabras funcionales. Estos resultados excluyen la hipótesis de que la EPC sea un procedimiento utilizado de forma general para compensar los déficits de lectura, pareciendo depender, más específicamente, de dificultades en la capacidad sintáctica


The present study compares the strategies to read sentences used by Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia (n = 107) and cochlear-implanted children with deafness (n = 61). The results show that children with deafness, but not with dyslexia, adopt the key-word-strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some content words of the sentence while ignoring the function words. Furthermore, it appeared that the KWS was associated with poor syntactic ability. Moreover, when Dyslexic and Deaf Groups were carefully matched at reading level with normally developing children (Control Group, n = 785) all of the differences between dyslexics and normally developing children disappeared. Children with hearing loss however were still poor at dealing with function words and consequently maintained their tendency to use the KWS. These results exclude the hypothesis that the KWS is a broadly used procedure to compensate for reading deficits but seems, rather, to depend on poor syntactic ability


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Dislexia/psicologia , Leitura , Surdez/psicologia , Estratégias , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000833, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898188

RESUMO

The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with altered low-gamma oscillatory function in left auditory cortex, but a causal relationship between oscillatory function and phonemic processing has never been established. After confirming a deficit at 30 Hz with electroencephalography (EEG), we applied 20 minutes of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to transiently restore this activity in adults with dyslexia. The intervention significantly improved phonological processing and reading accuracy as measured immediately after tACS. The effect occurred selectively for a 30-Hz stimulation in the dyslexia group. Importantly, we observed that the focal intervention over the left auditory cortex also decreased 30-Hz activity in the right superior temporal cortex, resulting in reinstating a left dominance for the oscillatory response. These findings establish a causal role of neural oscillations in phonological processing and offer solid neurophysiological grounds for a potential correction of low-gamma anomalies and for alleviating the phonological deficit in dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Leitura , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Auditivo/efeitos da radiação , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/efeitos da radiação , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/efeitos da radiação , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790989

RESUMO

The article provides a review of research on dyslexia. Various views on the role of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are examined. The results of neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies are presented, indicating a disturbance of some higher mental functions in dyslexia. The main neurocognitive deficits observed in dyslexia are considered: a disturbance of certain parameters of attention and working memory, a decrease in the speed of information processing, and insufficient automation of new skills. Based on the data presented, dyslexia appears to be a multifactorial and multideficit disorder.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000840, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845876

RESUMO

Humans' propensity to acquire literacy relates to several factors, including the ability to understand speech in noise (SiN). Still, the nature of the relation between reading and SiN perception abilities remains poorly understood. Here, we dissect the interplay between (1) reading abilities, (2) classical behavioral predictors of reading (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming), and (3) electrophysiological markers of SiN perception in 99 elementary school children (26 with dyslexia). We demonstrate that, in typical readers, cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN relates to the degree of development of the lexical (but not sublexical) reading strategy. In contrast, classical behavioral predictors of reading abilities and the ability to benefit from visual speech to represent the syllabic content of SiN account for global reading performance (i.e., speed and accuracy of lexical and sublexical reading). In individuals with dyslexia, we found preserved integration of visual speech information to optimize processing of syntactic information but not to sustain acoustic/phonemic processing. Finally, within children with dyslexia, measures of cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN were negatively related to reading speed and positively related to the compromise between reading precision and reading speed, potentially owing to compensatory attentional mechanisms. These results clarify the nature of the relation between SiN perception and reading abilities in typical child readers and children with dyslexia and identify novel electrophysiological markers of emergent literacy.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Neuroimagem , Fonética
8.
Codas ; 32(3): e20180127, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elaborate a remediation program with rapid automatized naming and reading, as well as to verify the clinical significance of the elaborated program for students with dyslexia. METHOD: The study involved five students from 3rd to the 5th grade of elementary school, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, with an interdisciplinary diagnosis of dyslexia. All students were submitted to pre- and post-test application of metalinguistic skills and reading test, reading comprehension and rapid automatized naming test. RESULTS: The analysis was performed using the JT method that allowed to verify positive or negative change and clinical significance in the post-testing. The results showed clinical significance in the tests of identification, syllable addition and combination, final and medial phoneme; in addition to nonwords repetition, real words and pseudowords reading, reading comprehension and rapid automatized naming test when comparing the pre- and post-testing. CONCLUSION: The elaborated program was efficient and applicable as an intervention instrument based on scientific evidence for students with dyslexia since it showed clinical significance for reading performance.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura , Criança , Compreensão , Dislexia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Estudantes
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576595

RESUMO

Dyslexia is a common learning disorder that renders children susceptible to poor health outcomes and many elements of socioeconomic difficulty. It is commonly undiagnosed until a child has repeatedly failed to learn to read in elementary school; this late diagnosis not only places the child at an academic disadvantage but also can be a precursor to psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety and depression. Genetic and neuroimaging research have revealed that dyslexia is heritable and that it is undergirded by brain differences that are present even before reading instruction begins. Cognitive-behavioral research has revealed that there are early literacy skill deficits that represent red flags for dyslexia risk and can be measured at a preschool age. Altogether, this evidence points to dyslexia as a disorder that can be flagged by a pediatrician before school entry, during a period of heightened brain plasticity when interventions are more likely to be effective. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the most recent advances in dyslexia research, which converge to indicate that early identification and screening are crucial to the prevention or mitigation of adverse secondary consequences of dyslexia. We further highlight evidence-based and practical strategies for the implementation of early risk identification in pediatric practice so that physicians can be empowered in their ability to treat, educate, and advocate for their patients and families with dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Leitura , Criança , Dislexia/psicologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Lactonas , Fatores de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456019

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children. It refers to the phenomenon in which children with normal intelligence lag significantly behind their peers in reading ability. In China, there is no unified standard for the assessment of dyslexia due to the use of simplified and traditional Chinese characters in different regions. This study was aimed at analyzing the reliability and validity of the self-developed Chinese dyslexia assessment tool named Chinese Reading Ability Test (CRAT), which was suitable for students of grade 3 to 5 in primary school. We randomly selected three primary schools in Shantou city of China, including two in the central district and one in the surrounding district. A total of 1492 students of grades 3 through 5 were recruited. We assessed the reliability of CRAT by test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The validity assessment was realized by discriminant validity, content validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For reliability, the test-retest correlation coefficient of the total score of the CRAT was 0.671. The difference between the test-retest was not statistically significant. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CRAT was 0.75. For validity, the correlation coefficient between the score of each subscale and the total score of the scale ranged from 0.29 to 0.73. The indexes of the three structural equation models all meet the standard (p > 0.05, χ2/df < 2.00, RMSEA < 0.05, GFI > 0.90, AGFI > 0.90, NFI > 0.90, CFI > 0.90 and IFI > 0.90). The fitting effects of the models were good. The CRAT has sufficient reliability and validity which could be used for the assessment and auxiliary diagnosis of Chinese Dyslexia in primary school students of grade 3 to 5.


Assuntos
Orientação Infantil , Dislexia , Criança , China , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 87, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurodevelopmental learning disorder with high heritability. A number of candidate susceptibility genes have been identified, some of which are linked to the function of the cilium, an organelle regulating left-right asymmetry development in the embryo. Furthermore, it has been suggested that disrupted left-right asymmetry of the brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as DD. However, it is unknown whether there is a common genetic cause to DD and laterality defects or ciliopathies. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we studied two individuals with co-occurring situs inversus (SI) and DD using whole genome sequencing to identify genetic variants of importance for DD and SI. Individual 1 had primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a rare, autosomal recessive disorder with oto-sino-pulmonary phenotype and SI. We identified two rare nonsynonymous variants in the dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 gene (DNAH5): a previously reported variant c.7502G > C; p.(R2501P), and a novel variant c.12043 T > G; p.(Y4015D). Both variants are predicted to be damaging. Ultrastructural analysis of the cilia revealed a lack of outer dynein arms and normal inner dynein arms. MRI of the brain revealed no significant abnormalities. Individual 2 had non-syndromic SI and DD. In individual 2, one rare variant (c.9110A > G;p.(H3037R)) in the dynein axonemal heavy chain 11 gene (DNAH11), coding for another component of the outer dynein arm, was identified. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the likely genetic cause of SI and PCD in one individual, and a possibly significant heterozygosity in the other, both involving dynein genes. Given the present evidence, it is unclear if the identified variants also predispose to DD and further studies into the association between laterality, ciliopathies and DD are needed.


Assuntos
Dineínas do Axonema/genética , Dislexia/genética , Situs Inversus/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/patologia , Dineínas/genética , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Situs Inversus/diagnóstico por imagem , Situs Inversus/patologia
13.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421001

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of dyslexia at early ages in different countries and regions. This increase has serious consequences within school and family settings, due to the poor academic performance that characterizes people with dyslexia and the socio-emotional problems they sometimes display. One of the most frequent problems in the identification of the dyslexia is the lack of a common diagnostic protocol that encompasses specific criteria for the assessment of any child. The Learning Disabilities and Development Disorders research group at the University of Malaga has developed a protocol for the early detection of dyslexia. The protocol is based on the diagnostic and response to intervention models. Consequently, it takes into account diagnostic criteria agreed upon by some associations and committees of experts, as well as certain specific cognitive and language determinants that characterize people who present with dyslexia following adequate instruction, according to recent research. The action protocol is developed over several stages, and we propose the use of structured interviews with parents and teachers alongside standardized tests for the evaluation of intelligence, reading and writing, as well as the risk factors that determine the appearance of the problem. This action protocol provides a model for the detection of dyslexia, which seeks to distinguish it from other comorbid problems and identify its characteristics and determinants, in order to offer effective intervention and/or prevention from an early age.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Idioma , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Leitura , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes
14.
Dev Sci ; 23(5): e12977, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333455

RESUMO

Dyslexia has been associated with a problem in visual-audio integration mechanisms. Here, we investigate for the first time the contribution of unisensory cues on multisensory audio and visual integration in 32 dyslexic children by modelling results using the Bayesian approach. Non-linguistic stimuli were used. Children performed a temporal task: they had to report whether the middle of three stimuli was closer in time to the first one or to the last one presented. Children with dyslexia, compared with typical children, exhibited poorer unimodal thresholds, requiring greater temporal distance between items for correct judgements, while multisensory thresholds were well predicted by the Bayesian model. This result suggests that the multisensory deficit in dyslexia is due to impaired audio and visual inputs rather than impaired multisensory processing per se. We also observed that poorer temporal skills correlated with lower reading skills in dyslexic children, suggesting that this temporal capability can be linked to reading abilities.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Leitura
15.
Environ Int ; 139: 105707, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposures to heavy metals has been linked to many developmental disorders. However, few studies have investigated the effects of exposure and co-exposure to metals on dyslexia, especially with regard to dyslexics in China. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between urine metal concentrations and dyslexia in a case-control study among children in China. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in the Tongji Reading Environment and Dyslexia (READ) research program. A total of 228 dyslexics and 228 controls were matched on gender, age (within one year), and grade. The concentrations of 21 urine metals were measured by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of Chinese dyslexia. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, two metals (selenium and argentum) were significantly associated with dyslexia in single-metal multivariable models. Argentum was positively associated with the risk of dyslexia, while selenium was negatively associated. In the multiple-metal model, compared with extreme quartiles, the ORs (95% CIs) for selenium was 0.36 (95% CI: 0.14-0.93; Ptrend = 0.029). In the joint association analysis, children with higher levels of urine argentum and lower level of urine selenium had a significantly higher risk of dyslexia than those with low levels of argentum and selenium (OR = 5.06, 95% CI: 1.67-18.84). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that exposure to selenium and argentum may relate to dyslexia in China. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate these relationships and investigate potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Metais Pesados , Selênio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Dislexia/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 24(2): 159-177, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248886

RESUMO

Reading is an emerging process from human brain activity. This process sometimes is subject to disorders which has been studied from the performance of studies that provide data that are treated with qualitative and quantitative linear tools to obtain the average behavior determined and the causality of it. This research focuses on the nonlinear quantitative study of reading disorder and in this way fractal geometry and roughness interface growth theory approach were selected to be used in the processing of brain wave quantification (EEG). From the EEG of children with and without reading disorders in the State of Mexico (experimental and control group) were built time series of standard deviation for each of the 19 channels distributed in cerebral cortex. The self-affinity of these time series (treated as interfaces in motion) is studied by the scaling behavior of their structure functions. It was found that the behavior of the time series of children with reading problems (experimental group) and without them (control group) is similar to the Family-Vicsek scaling dynamic for a kinetic roughening of moving interface.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Fractais , Leitura , Processos Estocásticos , Córtex Cerebral , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , México
17.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(3): 553-562, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144579

RESUMO

Recent research on visual object recognition has suggested that the right hemisphere can engage either holistic or part-based processing depending on whether the recognition relies on configural (exact distances among features) or featural information, respectively. Consistent with this finding, expert Chinese reading has been marked by a left-side bias (an indication of right-hemisphere lateralization) with decreased holistic processing (as assessed using the composite paradigm) due to its reliance on featural information. Here we examine two common perceptual expertise phenomena in object recognition - holistic processing and left-side bias - of Chinese characters in adolescents with developmental dyslexia and matched controls. We found that those with dyslexia showed stronger holistic processing, a weaker left-side bias, and worse performance in Chinese character dictation than controls. This was in contrast to Limited writers (proficient readers with limited writing experience) reported in Tso, Au, and Hsiao (Psychological Science, 25, 1757-1767, 2014), who showed stronger holistic processing and worse dictation performance, but the same level of left-side bias as controls. This result demonstrated two different perceptual mechanisms underlying holistic processing: Limited writers' holistic processing may be due to difficulties in de-emphasizing configural information unimportant to Chinese characters, whereas readers with dyslexia may have deficits selectively attending to character components to form appropriate part-based representations in the right hemisphere.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 47-55, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089815

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Reading disability (RD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms often co-occur in school-age children. Methods: The present study evaluated the performance of 216 Brazilian children from 3rd and 4th grades on "cool" executive function (EF) abilities and phonological processing. The children were divided into three groups: those with ADHD symptoms only, those with RD only, and controls. Results: MANOVA analyses, controlling for age and nonverbal intelligence, showed worse performance for the RD group, compared to the ADHD symptoms group, on measures of phonological processing (phonemic awareness, phonological short-term memory, and lexical access) and "cool" EF components (orthographic verbal fluency and processing speed). The ADHD symptoms group did not differ from the control group on the majority of the "cool" EF tasks. Compared to the control group, the ADHD symptoms group and the RD group both showed significantly more errors in rapid automatized naming of figures, which evaluates the inhibition component of EF; performance on this task was similar for these groups. Conclusion: We conclude that children with RD have greater impairment in phonological processing and "cool" EF compared to those with ADHD symptoms. Furthermore, deficits in inhibitory control may be shared among children with both conditions.


RESUMO Introdução: Dificuldades de leitura (DL) e sintomas do Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) frequentemente coocorrem em crianças escolares. Métodos: O presente estudo comparou o desempenho em FE "frias" e processamento fonológico de 216 crianças brasileiras de 3ª e 4ª anos, que foram divididas em três grupos: apenas com sintomas de TDAH, apenas em DL e controles. Resultados: As análises de MANOVA, controlando para idade e inteligência não-verbal, indicaram que o grupo com DL apresentou desempenho significativamente inferior ao grupo com sintomas de TDAH nas medidas de processamento fonológico (consciência fonológica, memória verbal de curto prazo e acesso lexical) e em componentes das FE "frias" (fluência verbal ortográfica e velocidade de processamento). O grupo com sintomas de TDAH não se diferiram do grupo controle na maior parte das tarefas de FE "frias". Ambos os grupos com sintomas de TDAH e DL apresentaram desempenhos significativamente menores (mais erros) em comparação às crianças de desenvolvimento típico na tarefa de Nomeação Seriada Rápida de figuras que avalia o componente de controle inibitório, e o desempenho foi semelhante entre os grupos. Conclusão: Conclui-se que crianças com DL apresentam maior comprometimento em processamento fonológico e FE "frias" em comparação àquelas com sintomas de TDAH e que déficits no controle inibitório podem ser compartilhados entre crianças com ambas as condições.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Cognição , Dislexia , Neuropsicologia
19.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(1): 12-22, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193617

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de un nuevo método educativo diseñado en la Universidad de Barcelona para dotar a los profesionales de material y herramientas para estimular la lectura en el alumnado de primer curso de educación primaria. Se realizó un diseño pre-post con niños/as separados en 2 grupos: experimental y control. El método fue aplicado en el grupo experimental de noviembre a abril. Tres veces por semana se administraron desde la escuela sesiones grupales en las que se trabajaba mayoritariamente la descodificación, el vocabulario y la comprensión. Por otro lado, de una a 4 veces por semana, según el nivel de eficiencia lectora detectado en cada alumno/a, se llevaron a cabo sesiones individuales online desde el domicilio de los participantes completamente adaptadas al nivel de cada alumno/a, en donde el objetivo principal era trabajar la descodificación. Los análisis mostraron que el grupo experimental obtuvo mejores resultados en fluidez lectora (velocidad y precisión) en todas las pruebas administradas comparado con el grupo de control a final de curso


The aim of this study was to measure the impact of a new method designed at the University of Barcelona to give professionals material and tools that could stimulate reading among first grade of primary school children. The children were split into two groups, an experimental and a control group, and their performances were evaluated within a pre- and post-design. The methodology was applied in the experimental group between November and April. Three times a week, children took part in group sessions that were organized at school. During these sessions, they mainly worked on decoding, vocabulary and comprehension. Between 1 and 4 times a week, according to the reading proficiency of each child, individual online sessions took place at home. These sessions, whose objective was to work primarily on decoding, were entirely adapted to meet the needs of each child, according to his/her level. The analysis of data showed that, at the end of the school term, the experimental group got better results in terms of reading fluency (speed and accuracy) in all tests assessed than the control group


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Leitura , Compreensão/fisiologia , Dislexia/reabilitação , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Estudos de Casos e Controles
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182253

RESUMO

We examined phonological recoding during silent sentence reading in teenagers with a history of dyslexia and their typically developing peers. Two experiments are reported in which participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing correctly spelled words (e.g., church), pseudohomophones (e.g., cherch), and spelling controls (e.g., charch). In Experiment 1 we examined foveal processing of the target word/nonword stimuli, and in Experiment 2 we examined parafoveal pre-processing. There were four participant groups-older teenagers with a history of dyslexia, older typically developing teenagers who were matched for age, younger typically developing teenagers who were matched for reading level, and younger teenagers with a history of dyslexia. All four participant groups showed a pseudohomophone advantage, both from foveal processing and parafoveal pre-processing, indicating that teenagers with a history of dyslexia engage in phonological recoding for lexical identification during silent sentence reading in a comparable manner to their typically developing peers.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Transtorno Fonológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Leitura
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