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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19098, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028434

RESUMO

Cortisol is the main end product of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA axis), and melatonin (MT) has a regulating effect on HPA axis, and both are closely related to individual behavior and cognitive function. We aimed to evaluate cortisol and MT roles on children dyslexia in this study.A total of 72 dyslexic children and 72 controls were recruited in this study. Saliva samples were collected in the morning, afternoon, and night, respectively. The levels of saliva cortisol and MT were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Differences of cortisol and MT levels between dyslexic and normal children were compared, and the variation trend was also analyzed by dynamic monitoring in 3 time points.The levels of salivary cortisol and MT in children with dyslexia were all lower than those in normal children whether in the morning (7:30-8:30 AM ), at afternoon (15:30-16:30 PM ) or at night (21:30-22:30 PM ) (all P < .001). Compared with normal children, the circadian rhythm variations of salivary cortisol and MT in dyslexic children disappeared and became disordered. The salivary cortisol and MT levels in children with dyslexia were declined throughout the day; and the circadian rhythm was disordered or disappeared.The results suggest that cortisol and MT levels and their circadian rhythm may affect children dyslexia, but the mechanisms need further exploration.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos/metabolismo , Dislexia/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/análise , Melatonina/análise , Saliva/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/complicações , Ritmo Circadiano , Dislexia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 154-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696596

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the impact of dyslexia on the educational experiences of undergraduate students in medicine, dentistry, dental therapy and biomedical sciences. METHODS: It was a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry at a University in the South West region of the United Kingdom. Purposive sampling was used, and the participants included undergraduate students from the schools of medicine, dentistry and biomedical sciences. RESULTS: The sample consisted of fifteen undergraduate students including five from medicine; four from dentistry; three from dental therapy; and three from biomedical sciences. All students had a formal diagnosis of Dyslexia. The students shared their views and experiences regarding disclosure, transition into the university, learning environments, assessments and challenges after graduation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to explore the impact of dyslexia on the educational experiences of healthcare students from multiple programmes in a variety of educational settings. The findings show that the students were confident regarding disclosure of their dyslexia and had a formal diagnosis of dyslexia established during their school years. Although the participants experienced typical academic difficulties associated with dyslexia, problem-based learning (PBL) was perceived to be enjoyable and less stressful than traditional lectures and no specific challenges were reported in acquisition of clinical, communication and team-working skills.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes , Reino Unido
3.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 345-359, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697024

RESUMO

Considerable support exists for both the phonological core deficit and the naming speed deficit models of dyslexia. The double deficit model proposed that many students with dyslexia might also be impaired in both underlying processes. Employing either performance thresholds (i.e., scores below the 16th or 25th percentile) or k-means clustering as classification methods, the current study investigated whether 154 young adolescents with dyslexia could be categorized into subtypes according to the presence or absence of phonological deficits alone, naming speed deficits alone, or a combination of the two and whether group composition changed depending on classification method. Results support the existence of both single and double deficit groups and confirm that those with both deficits are the most severely impaired across multiple measures. Contrary to previous research, most adolescents were classified as either naming speed only (about a third of the group) or double deficit when defining impairment using performance thresholds to classify groups. This may suggest that although early phonological deficits are amenable to remediation, identification of language symbols fails to become automatized in most individuals with dyslexia and may require more targeted intervention. Classification differences reported in the literature may depend on age and methods employed for classification.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Criança , Dislexia/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino
4.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 411-428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709702

RESUMO

Given the link between visual stimuli and memory, children with dyslexia could benefit from research discovering what visual stimuli they find more pleasing and memorable. People like natural landscapes (e.g.,forests) more than human-made (e.g.,cityscapes) or "combined" landscapes (i.e.,combination of human-made and natural components, e.g.,tires in a meadow). The purpose was to determine if the greater likability for natural generalized to children with dyslexia and age-equivalent controls and if photograph type impacted recognition rates after the short and long term. All children liked natural landscape photographs the most but paid longer attention to combined landscape photographs. Both groups recognized all photograph types at a high rate after the short retention interval, but after the long interval, the children with dyslexia had better memory, especially for combined photographs. On the basis of these results, we advise educators to incorporate images of natural landscapes into the learning context in order to create a more aesthetically pleasing environment or to infuse combined images for a more engaging and memorable environment.


Assuntos
Atenção , Dislexia/psicologia , Julgamento , Memória , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Criança , Emoções , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação
5.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46815

RESUMO

A Dislexia do desenvolvimento é considerada um transtorno específico de aprendizagem de origem neurobiológica, caracterizada por dificuldade no reconhecimento preciso e/ou fluente da palavra, na habilidade de decodificação e em soletração. Essas dificuldades normalmente resultam de um déficit no componente fonológico da linguagem e são inesperadas em relação à idade e outras habilidades cognitivas.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico
6.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46814

RESUMO

Our mission is to educate, guide and inspire parents of children with learning disabilities or ADHD. Our aim is to help parents realize their children’s significant gifts and talents, and to show that with their love, guidance, and the right support, their children can live happy and productive lives.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Comunicação não Verbal , Função Executiva
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17070, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490406

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is the most common type of epileptogenic neuronal migration disorder, and often presents with epilepsy and reading disability. The functional role of ectopic nodules has been widely studied. However, the associated structural cortical and subcortical volumetric alterations have not been well characterized. Moreover, it is unknown whether a correlation between volumetric changes and behavioral problems exists.40 subjects with bilateral PNH and 40 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The total cerebral, gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes were compared between the two groups. Furthermore, structural and functional correlations were evaluated between volumetric changes and reading disability.There were no significant differences detected in total cerebral, gray matter or CSF volumes between the two groups, but there was a significant trend of larger gray-matter volume in PNH. Specifically, smaller white matter volumes were found in the PNH patients. Moreover, the volume of white matter was negatively related to time in the digit rapid naming task and a similar but insignificant trend was seen between the volume of gray matter and backward digit span.These findings suggest that reading disability exists in our sample of bilateral PNH. Periventricular nodules would have normally migrated to the overlying cortex. However, the total cerebral, gray matter, and CSF volumes were unaffected. Alterations in neuronal migration may have an impact in the white matter associated reading dysfluency, that is, visually normal.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/etiologia , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/complicações , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Filaminas/genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 360-373, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414528

RESUMO

During the last decades, rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been widely examined as a predictor of reading ability, but very few studies have examined the development of RAN itself. The present study followed children from ages 4 until 10, focusing on RAN performance in a developmental perspective. Relations within and between alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric RAN were investigated both concurrently and over time. The result shows that individual differences in RAN objects are stable between ages 4 and 10, with the most rapid growth of mean performance between ages 4 and 6. Early performance on RAN objects predicts both performance on RAN digits and RAN letters at age 8 and the further development between ages 8 and 10. Further, low-performing children at age 4 develop their performance on RAN digits and RAN letters later compared with high-performing children, and RAN digits performance reaches a plateau earlier than RAN letters performance.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dislexia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
9.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 390-410, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429158

RESUMO

Phonological processing deficit is a hallmark of developmental dyslexia indicating a core cognitive dysfunction. Importance of working memory in reading and its association with the tasks measuring phonological processing is also debated in research. The present study investigates the role of working memory, phonological, and orthographic processing in Hindi-speaking dyslexic children (22 dyslexic and 23 control, of Grade 4). Hindi has a consistent symbol-sound mapping with an extensive list of visually complex graphemes. Although consistent symbol-sound mapping facilitates reading, graphemic complexity has its cost on memory. A range of tasks measuring phonological processing, working memory, and orthographic knowledge was designed and administered. Dyslexic children scored significantly lower than controls not only on working memory tasks but also on the tasks of phonological processing and orthographic knowledge. Moreover, the difference in working memory between dyslexic and normal children was more pronounced with increased task complexity. These results highlight complex relationships between working memory, phonological and orthographic processing together with visual attentional processing in Hindi, that contribute to the reading deficits encountered by children with dyslexia. Their respective contributions are considered in the discussion with some of the visual and phonological features of Hindi orthography and their associated effects in reading.


Assuntos
Dislexia/psicologia , Hinduísmo/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Leitura , Transtorno Fonológico/psicologia , Criança , Dislexia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Transtorno Fonológico/etnologia
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102903, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470173

RESUMO

Dyslexia is often characterized by disordered word recognition and spelling, though dysfunction on various non-linguistic tasks suggests a more pervasive deficit may underlie reading and spelling abilities. The serial-order learning impairment in dyslexia (SOLID) hypothesis proposes that sequence learning impairments fundamentally disrupt cognitive abilities, including linguistic processes, among individuals with dyslexia; yet only some studies report sequence learning deficits in people with dyslexia relative to controls. Evidence may be mixed because traditional sequence learning tasks often require strong motor demands, working memory processes and/or executive functions, wherein people with dyslexia can show impairments. Thus, observed sequence learning deficits in dyslexia may only appear to the extent that comorbid motor-based processes, memory capacity, or executive processes are involved. The present study measured sequence learning in college-aged students with and without dyslexia using a single task that evaluates sequencing and non-sequencing components but without strong motor, executive, or memory demands. During sequencing, each additional link in a sequence of stimuli leading to a reward is trained step-by-step, until a complete sequence is acquired. People with dyslexia made significantly more sequencing errors than controls, despite equivalent performance on non-sequencing components. Mediation analyses further revealed that sequence learning accounted for a large portion of the variance between dyslexia status and linguistic abilities, particularly pseudo-word reading. These findings extend the SOLID hypothesis by showing difficulties in the ability to acquire sequences that may play an underlying role in literacy acquisition.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Dislexia/psicologia , Linguística/tendências , Leitura , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Adulto , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 335-344, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464353

RESUMO

It is generally agreed that Morgan was the first to reliably describe dyslexia with the case of Percy F. However, Suetonius, in "The lives of the twelve Caesars" describes the Emperor Augustus as having a range of language and literacy difficulties that could be consistent with this diagnosis. Using the framework of cognitive psychology, which rarely comments on the historical record, this article argues that Suetonius describes both signs and compensating strategies typical of an adult with remediated developmental dyslexia. If accepted, this analysis would locate a possible coherent description of the condition back to the second century CE.


Assuntos
Dislexia/história , Adulto , Criança , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Leitura
12.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 267-283, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298465

RESUMO

Fluent reading in children relies on executive functions (EF). Recent research suggests that EF skills also affect arithmetic abilities. Children with reading difficulties (RD) experience deficits in EF. It is still unknown to what extent these EF deficits are the basis for both reading and arithmetic skills in children with RD compared with typical readers. To define the role of EF in reading and arithmetic in children with RD and typical readers, EF measures and reading and arithmetic fluency and non-fluency measures were assessed in 8 to 12-year-old children with RD and age-matched typical readers. Comparison and correlation analyses were performed within and between the two groups. Children with RD scored lower on reading and arithmetic fluency and non-fluency tasks compared with typical readers. For both groups, fluency measures were lower than non-fluency measures. Strong correlations were found within the entire study population between fluency measures and EF, as well as between non-fluency measures and EF compared with mixed correlations observed for the groups separately. Fluency was related to subcomponents of EF expressed in both reading and arithmetic domains for the two groups. The role of each domain and comparison with non-fluency results for each group are discussed.


Assuntos
Discalculia/psicologia , Dislexia/psicologia , Função Executiva , Leitura , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 277, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The term 'dyslexia' refers to a condition that impacts upon reading and writing abilities whilst not altering intelligence. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulties with the speed and accuracy and their reading and writing, amongst other issues. Dyslexia is not automatically considered a disability but is a protected characteristic under the UK Equality Act (2010), and therefore employers and educational institutions are required to provide 'reasonable adjustments' in order to allow individuals to reach their full potential. There is a lack of research on this issue, but what little there is suggests that doctors feel as though any support they received ended when they graduated from medical school. MAIN BODY: A core distinction between medical school and medical practice is the requirement to prescribe medicines as registered medical practitioners. Junior doctors have to master this complex and potentially hazardous skill "on the job", with a perceived lack of support. Here, we open up a debate about the potential impact of dyslexia on prescribing, and the need to find supports that may be effective in enabling doctors with dyslexia prescribe medicines safely and effectively - and thus reach their full potential as medical practitioners and promote patient safety. CONCLUSION: We argue that medical schools and hospitals could immediately provide dyslexia awareness training in both undergraduate and postgraduate settings. We discuss electronic prescribing systems, and conclude that research is required to identify effective supports for junior doctors with dyslexia.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Dislexia , Segurança do Paciente , Educação Médica , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar
14.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 374-389, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317642

RESUMO

Task-avoidant behaviour is correlated with reading skills and may have an impact on achieving educational and occupation goals in the long run. Longitudinal studies on task avoidance and its links to reading difficulties are non-existent, however. The present study examines changes and stability of task-avoidant behaviour from childhood (Grade 2), through adolescence (Grades 7 and 9), to early adulthood (age 20) among participants identified with (n = 46) and without dyslexia (n = 151) at Grade 2, with gender effects also examined. Results showed significant changes in task avoidance from Grade 2 to Grade 7 and from Grade 9 to age 20, wherein task avoidance increased from Grade 2 to Grade 9 and then decreased until age 20. Furthermore, low correlations obtained between task avoidance assessments over time indicated instability; thus, task avoidance at one point did not predict task avoidance later on. Differences between those with and without dyslexia emerged only at Grade 2, with higher task avoidance reported in the dyslexia group. Finally, no significant gender-related effects were found for task avoidance at any time point. Together, our findings imply that although task avoidance may be linked to dyslexia in the parental reports of the young study participants, this association does not persist in participants' self-reports at later ages.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Dislexia/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
15.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 256-266, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284330

RESUMO

Many students in higher education have undiagnosed reading disabilities (RDs), but there are few measures to screen for RD in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of tasks that are sensitive to RDs-such as measures of phonemic awareness and working memory-to differentiate university students previously diagnosed with RDs from controls. Participants were university students with an RD (n = 26), a clinical control group diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 24), and neurotypical controls (n = 44). Participants completed brief phonological processing and working memory tasks. The RD group scored significantly lower on all tasks than both control groups. The phonological processing tasks alone-without the working memory task-discriminated participants with RDs from controls with excellent sensitivity and specificity. A brief battery of phonemic tasks could be an effective screening instrument for persons with RDs on university campuses.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Leitura , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Conscientização , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 296-317, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This quasi-experimental study reported the results of a structured literacy intervention programme designed for secondary school students of Year 7 to Year 9 with dyslexia. Students of the intervention group (n = 116) participated in 40-week sessions of small-size, classroom-based, and split-group intervention setting with 45-min daily lesson on both Chinese and English language compared with students in the control group who received normal classroom instructions (n = 98). RESULTS: Students in the intervention group outperformed the control groups in self-regulated learning scales, which indicated that there was positive change in students' behavioural and cognitive outcomes in learning. Although students demonstrated gains in phonetic skills, posttest results in academic achievement did not exhibit significant improvement when compared with their control group peers. CONCLUSION: The findings provided some encouraging evidence of the effectiveness of intervention programme. Students that demonstrated gains in phonetic skills and improvement in behavioural and cognitive aspects required continuous intervention lessons to become a self-regulated learner, who would be self-motivated to improve methods of learning and adopt strategies for attaining academic goals. The study contributed to the literature by presenting one of the very first school-based, small-size, classroom-based, and split-group intervention programme for secondary school dyslexic students, which included teachers and students training on English and Chinese intervention content (phonological and literacy content), teaching curriculum integrated with school curriculum, and coteaching with school teachers in the mainstream classrooms, whereas most of the existing intervention programmes used pull-out approach involving the first language only.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Alfabetização/psicologia , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Adolescente , Currículo , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Fonética , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 284-295, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332875

RESUMO

Reading is vital to every aspect of modern life, exacerbated by reliance of the internet, email, and social media on the written medium. Developmental dyslexia (DD) characterizes a disorder in which the core deficit involves reading. Traditionally, DD is thought to be associated with a phonological impairment. However, recent evidence has begun to suggest that the reading impairment in some individuals is provoked by a visual processing deficit. In this paper, we present WISC-IV data from more than 300 Italian children with a diagnosis of DD to investigate the manifestation of phonological and visual subtypes. Our results indicate the existence of two clusters of children with DD. In one cluster, the deficit was more pronounced in the phonological component, while both clusters were impaired in visual processing. These data indicate that DD may be an umbrella term that encompasses different profiles. From a theoretical perspective, our results demonstrate that dyslexia cannot be explained in terms of an isolated phonological deficit alone; visual impairment plays a crucial role. Moreover, general rather than specific accounts of DD are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação/psicologia , Dislexia/psicologia , Transtornos da Percepção/psicologia , Leitura , Percepção Visual , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Escalas de Wechsler
18.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 39-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220840

RESUMO

Studies of alexia and agraphia have played historically important roles in efforts to understand the relation between brain and behavior. In the second half of the 19th century, works by Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke led to the concept of delimited cortical centers in the left cerebral hemisphere concerned with discrete aspects of spoken and written language. These specialized centers were linked by white matter pathways. Charlton Bastian, Jean-Martin Charcot, Sigmund Exner, and Jules Dejerine championed center-pathway models of reading and writing. Dejerine played a dominant role, rejecting the idea of a left frontal lobe center that mediated writing and proposing a unique, specialized role for the left angular gyrus in both reading and writing. In 1891 and 1892, he detailed the symptoms of alexia and agraphia that resulted from injury to the left angular gyrus and from the isolation of the left angular gyrus from visual input required for reading. During the early 20th century, his work and that of other so-called diagram makers was confronted and largely discredited by Pierre Marie, joined later by Henry Head and Kurt Goldstein. In the 1960s, the center-pathway model was resurrected and refined by Norman Geschwind. He drew upon foundational works of Dejerine, Hugo Liepmann, and others to describe syndromes resulting from cortical disconnections and, in doing so, helped to establish a framework for the modern discipline of behavioral neurology.


Assuntos
Agrafia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Neurologia/história , Agrafia/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pesquisa
19.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 53-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220841

RESUMO

The kanji and kana (or kanji vs. kana) problem in the Japanese language denotes the dissociation between kanji (morphograms) and kana (phonograms) in reading/comprehension and writing. Since paragraphia of kana in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was first reported in 1893, kanji-kana dissociation has been the central topic in Japanese aphasiology. Recent advancements in lesion-to-symptom analyses and functional imaging studies have identified some areas whose damage causes dissociative disturbances of reading or writing between kanji and kana. That is, (1) angular alexia with agraphia causes kanji agraphia; alexia of kana with an angular gyrus lesion is the result of a damage to the middle occipital gyrus; (2) alexia with agraphia for kanji is caused by a posterior inferior temporal cortex (mid-fusiform/inferior temporal gyri; visual word form area) lesion, whereas pure agraphia for kanji is caused by a posterior middle temporal gyrus lesion; and (3) pure alexia, particularly for kanji, results from a mid-fusiform gyrus lesion (Brodmann's Area [BA] 37), whereas pure alexia for kana results from a posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri lesion (BA 18/19).


Assuntos
Agrafia/diagnóstico , Mapeamento Encefálico/história , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Agrafia/história , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dislexia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Redação
20.
J Genet ; 98(2)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204704

RESUMO

Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and their role in maintenance of cell activity and integrity, this protein remains poorly characterized in many of the symbiotic soil mycorrhizal fungi such as Rhizophagus irregularis. Thus, in the current study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the evolutionary history, time of divergence followed by estimation of population genetic parameters of hsp60 using R. irregularis as a model organism. Sequence alignment reported here identified several close homologues for hsp60 (gene) and Hsp60 (protein) from diverse taxa, while the output from protein-based phylogenetic tree indicates that mitochondrial Hsp60 of R. irregularis shares close evolutionary relationship with classical α-proteobacteria. This is perhaps the first line of evidence elucidating the likelihood of hsp60 from fungal taxa sharing a close evolutionary relationship with classical α-proteobacteria as a common ancestor. Comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial hsp60 from selected fungal taxa from the evolutionary point of view explains the possibility of gene duplication and or horizontal gene transfer of this gene across various fungal species. Synteny relationships and population genetics credibly explain high genetic variability associated with fungal hsp60 presumably brought by random genetic recombination events. The results presented here also confirm a high level of genetic differentiation of hsp60 among all the three fungal populations analysed. In this context, the outcome of the current study, basedon computational approach, stands as a testimony for explaining the possibility of increased genetic differentiation experienced by hsp60 of R. irregularis.


Assuntos
Chaperonina 60/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Glomeromycota/genética , Chaperonina 60/metabolismo , Códon , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Dislexia/genética , Genética Populacional , Glomeromycota/classificação , Glomeromycota/metabolismo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Sintenia
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