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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17070, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490406

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is the most common type of epileptogenic neuronal migration disorder, and often presents with epilepsy and reading disability. The functional role of ectopic nodules has been widely studied. However, the associated structural cortical and subcortical volumetric alterations have not been well characterized. Moreover, it is unknown whether a correlation between volumetric changes and behavioral problems exists.40 subjects with bilateral PNH and 40 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The total cerebral, gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes were compared between the two groups. Furthermore, structural and functional correlations were evaluated between volumetric changes and reading disability.There were no significant differences detected in total cerebral, gray matter or CSF volumes between the two groups, but there was a significant trend of larger gray-matter volume in PNH. Specifically, smaller white matter volumes were found in the PNH patients. Moreover, the volume of white matter was negatively related to time in the digit rapid naming task and a similar but insignificant trend was seen between the volume of gray matter and backward digit span.These findings suggest that reading disability exists in our sample of bilateral PNH. Periventricular nodules would have normally migrated to the overlying cortex. However, the total cerebral, gray matter, and CSF volumes were unaffected. Alterations in neuronal migration may have an impact in the white matter associated reading dysfluency, that is, visually normal.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/etiologia , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/complicações , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Filaminas/genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/genética , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(12): 517-523, 16 jun., 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180479

RESUMO

Introducción. La epilepsia en la edad pediátrica se asocia frecuentemente a trastornos cognitivos. Distintos estudios correlacionaron la presencia de trastornos cognitivos transitorios con la presencia de descargas epilépticas interictales (DEI). Caso clínico. Mujer de 23 años, con epilepsia focal farmacorresistente evaluada con videoelectroencefalograma (video-EEG) invasivo en el contexto de cirugía de la epilepsia. Del video-EEG invasivo se seleccionaron 300 épocas de 10 s de duración, que se clasificaron en dos grupos. El grupo 1 evidenció DEI restringidas a la corteza del giro frontal medio, el giro temporal inferior y los giros occipitotemporales lateral y medial izquierdos (hemisferio dominante). En el grupo 2 se observaron DEI en el giro frontal superior y medio, el giro precentral y los giros temporales medio e inferior izquierdos. La paciente leyó el mismo texto durante las épocas seleccionadas. Se contabilizó el número de palabras leídas en cada época. Se evaluó la memoria de trabajo mediante la prueba de dígitos inversos. En el grupo 1, la media de palabras leídas fue de 10,2 (IC 95%: 10,04-10,35); en el grupo 2, de 2,3 (IC 95%: 2,12-2,27; t(146) = 94,55; p < 0,0001). En el grupo 1, la media de dígitos inversos fue de 4,05 (IC 95%: 3,81-4,30); en el grupo 2, de 2,67 (IC 95%: 2,48-2,86; t(33) = 10,34; p < 0,0001). Conclusión. El hallazgo permite inferir que la interferencia de las DEI en la corteza del giro frontal superior y medio, el giro precentral, y los giros temporales medio e inferior del hemisferio dominante provoca una disfunción de las redes neuronales implicadas en los mecanismos de la lectura


Introduction. Epilepsy in pediatric age are frequently associated with cognitive disorders. Different studies correlated the presence of transient cognitive disorders with the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Case report. A 23-year-old woman with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy was evaluated with invasive videoEEG in the context of epilepsy surgery. There were selected 300 periods of 10 seconds duration from the invasive videoEEG, which were classified into two groups. Group 1 showed IEDs restricted to the cortex of the middle frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, left lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus (dominant hemisphere). In group 2, IEDs was observed in the upper and middle frontal gyrus, precentral, the inferior and middle temporal left gyrus. The patient read the same text during the selected peirods. The number of words read in each period was counted. The working memory was evaluated by the inverse digit test. In group 1, the average number of words read was 10.2 (95% CI: 10.04-10.35); in group 2 it was 2.3 (95% CI: 2.12-2.27; t(146) = 94.55; p < 0.0001). In group 1, the average of inverse digits was 4.05 (95% CI: 3.81-4.30); in group 2 it was 2.67 (95% CI: 2.48-2.86; t(33) = 10.34; p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Our finding allows us to infer that the interference of IEDs in the cortex of the upper and middle frontal gyrus, precentral, middle and lower temporal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere, causes a dysfunction of neural networks involved in reading


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
3.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2019(165): 91-109, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070302

RESUMO

Current definitions of specific learning disability (SLD) identify a heterogeneous population that includes individuals with weaknesses in reading, math, or writing, and these academic difficulties often co-occur in many of the same individuals. The Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center (CLDRC) is an interdisciplinary, multisite research program that uses converging levels of analysis to understand the genetic and environmental etiology, neuropsychology, and developmental outcomes of SLDs in reading (RD), math (MD), and writing (WD), along with the comorbidity between these SLDs and other developmental disorders. The latest results from the CLDRC twin study suggest that shared genetic influences contribute to the significant covariance between all aspects of reading (word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension) and math (calculations, math fluency, and word problems), and distinct genetic or environmental influences also contribute to weaknesses in each specific academic domain. RD and MD are associated with a range of negative outcomes on both concurrent measures and measures of functional outcomes completed 5 years after the twins were first assessed. Over the next several years the CLDRC will continue to expand on this work by administering a comprehensive test battery that includes measures of all dimensions of academic achievement that are described in current definitions of SLD and incorporating these measures in new neuroimaging and molecular genetic studies.


Assuntos
Discalculia , Dislexia , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Discalculia/epidemiologia , Discalculia/etiologia , Discalculia/genética , Discalculia/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/epidemiologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/genética , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
4.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 14: 11-24, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929855

RESUMO

Biological systems-level principles of the genetic landscape underlying the neurobiology of dyslexia provide a novel and heuristic theoretical framework for a new understanding of the disability. Dyslexia may result from reduced neuroplasticity and earlier peak of maturation of the posterior corpus callosum, temporoparietal region of the left hemisphere reading network, and temporoparietal region of the right hemisphere circuitry of attentional networks. This precocious abridgement of a typically prolonged maturation originates prenatally or in early childhood, driven by environmentally-guided epigenetic mechanisms as retrogressive, adaptive responses to stress. Epigenetics suggests the importance of identifying circumstances that influence reading-related maturational timing; and network control theory suggests an instructional orientation for enhancing plasticity. Thus, dyslexia may be an unexceptional genetic variation resulting from gene/environment interactions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Corpo Caloso/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Compreensão/fisiologia , Dislexia/genética , Epigênese Genética , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Leitura
5.
Dev Sci ; 22(1): e12723, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207641

RESUMO

Speech perception deficits are commonly reported in dyslexia but longitudinal evidence that poor speech perception compromises learning to read is scant. We assessed the hypothesis that phonological skills, specifically phoneme awareness and RAN, mediate the relationship between speech perception and reading. We assessed longitudinal predictive relationships between categorical speech perception, phoneme awareness, RAN, language, attention and reading at ages 5½ and 6½ years in 237 children many of whom were at high risk of reading difficulties. Speech perception at 5½ years correlated with language, attention, phoneme awareness and RAN concurrently and was a predictor of reading at 6½ years. There was no significant indirect effect of speech perception on reading via phoneme awareness, suggesting that its effects are separable from those of phoneme awareness. Children classified with dyslexia at 8 years had poorer speech perception than age-controls at 5½ years and children with language disorders (with or without dyslexia) had more severe difficulties with both speech perception and attention control. Categorical speech perception tasks tap factors extraneous to perception, including decision-making skills. Further longitudinal studies are needed to unravel the complex relationships between categorical speech perception tasks and measures of reading and language and attention.


Assuntos
Fonética , Leitura , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Atenção , Conscientização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala
6.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 49(4): 759-761, 2018 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458537

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this clinical forum is to provide a broad survey of up-to-date, evidence-based information about dyslexia that can be readily applied to clinical practice by speech-language pathologists. Topics include (a) theoretical and clinical frameworks for understanding dyslexia in relation to other language-based communication disorders, (b) the neurobiological basis of dyslexia, (c) the current state of dyslexia legislation, (d) issues around identification of dyslexia, (e) and evidence-based reviews of instruction for reading and writing. Conclusion: Though there have been numerous papers written on the topic of dyslexia, this clinical forum is unique in that it is the only combination of articles to focus on dyslexia with the speech-language pathologist in mind.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/reabilitação , Humanos
7.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 49(4): 762-773, 2018 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458538

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the language basis of dyslexia in the context of developmental language disorders (DLDs). Whereas most studies have focused on the phonological skills of children with dyslexia, we bring attention to broader language skills. Method: We conducted a focused literature review on the language basis of dyslexia from historical and theoretical perspectives with a special emphasis on the relation between dyslexia and DLD and on the development of broader language skills (e.g., vocabulary, syntax, and discourse) before and after the identification of dyslexia. Results: We present clinically relevant information on the history of dyslexia as a language-based disorder, the operational definitions used to diagnose dyslexia in research and practice, the relation between dyslexia and DLD, and the language abilities of children with dyslexia. Conclusions: We discuss 3 clinical implications for working with children with dyslexia in school settings: (a) Children with dyslexia-with and without comorbid DLDs-often have language deficits outside the phonological domain; (b) intervention should target a child's strengths and weaknesses relative to reading outcomes, regardless of diagnostic labels; and (c) those who have dyslexia, regardless of language abilities at the time of diagnosis, may be at risk for slower language acquisition across their lifetime. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess multiple language skills early, at the time of the diagnosis of dyslexia, and years later to better understand the complex development of language and reading in children with dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia/etiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/psicologia , Dislexia/reabilitação , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos
8.
Eur J Neurosci ; 48(10): 3212-3233, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218584

RESUMO

The capacity for language is one of the key features underlying the complexity of human cognition and its evolution. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate normal or impaired linguistic ability. For developmental dyslexia, early postmortem studies conducted in the 1980s linked the disorder to subtle defects in the migration of neurons in the developing neocortex. These early studies were reinforced by human genetic analyses that identified dyslexia susceptibility genes and subsequent evidence of their involvement in neuronal migration. In this review, we examine recent experimental evidence that does not support the link between dyslexia and neuronal migration. We critically evaluate gene function studies conducted in rodent models and draw attention to the lack of robust evidence from histopathological and imaging studies in humans. Our review suggests that the neuronal migration hypothesis of dyslexia should be reconsidered, and the neurobiological basis of dyslexia should be approached with a fresh start.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neocórtex/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Humanos
9.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 41(8): 718-724, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reading disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly evaluated due to the lack of validated tests to screen for them. They are often attributed to hand tremors associated with the disease. In this study, we evaluated the "alouette test" validated for dyslexia screening, in PD by comparing the results to healthy patients. METHODS: The "alouette test" was conducted on a fixed surface to avoid errors related to tremor. A fixation and tracking test were then performed. All the tests were filmed to be analyzed later by 2 examiners blinded to the neurological diagnosis. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were included, 19 with PD, and 19 healthy age-matched patients. PD patients read on average 250.9±13.7 words correctly vs. 260.3±2.7 words for healthy patients (P=0.008). This difference was greatest for the older patient subgroup (>65 years), who had the disease longer (P=0.014). Tracking and fixation tests were more impaired in PD patients compared to healthy patients. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted many reading disorders in PD. The use of the "alouette test" which can easily be implemented in clinical practice, could help to diagnose these disorders. Better evaluation of these difficulties would allow for better medical care of these patients.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Dislexia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme/fisiologia , Leitura , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
Brain Dev ; 40(10): 850-856, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies on hiragana reading skill and phonological awareness in Japanese schoolchildren with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: Three seven-year-old children with PVL who had no intellectual disabilities or dysarthria were recruited. Their perinatal information, brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) at term equivalent age, accompanying neurodevelopmental disorders, ophthalmologic features, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), a hiragana reading test (four tasks), and a phonological awareness task (mora reversal tasks) were analyzed. RESULTS: Patient (Pt) 1 and pt2 were male. Pt2 and pt3 were siblings of triplets. Their gestational age was 28 or 32 weeks, and their birth weights were 1196, 1554, and 1848 g, respectively. Their brain MRI revealed cystic or non-cystic periventricular white matter injury involving the deep white matter at the trigone of both lateral ventricles. Pt1 had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pt3 had pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. All patients had strabismus with spared best-corrected visual acuity. Scores of Reading/Decoding in K-ABC ranged from 89 to 99. As for the single mora reading task or the non-word reading task in the kana reading test, Z scores of their reading time ranged from 2.3 to 5.9 compared to control children. Pt1 and pt3 made significant errors in the mora reversal task of three-mora words, whereas all patients could answer all words correctly in the mora reversal task of two-mora words. CONCLUSION: All children showed significantly prolonged reading time despite their adequate letter recognition. Two patients showed delayed phonological awareness. It was suggested that hiragana decoding impairment due to subcortical and/or cortical injury related to PVL affected their reading ability.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Leucomalácia Periventricular/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Criança , Dislexia/etiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro , Leucomalácia Periventricular/complicações , Masculino , Trigêmeos
11.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 60(7): 695-702, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722009

RESUMO

AIM: To assess associations between white matter properties and pre-reading skills (phonological awareness and receptive and expressive language) in children born preterm and at term at the onset of reading acquisition. METHOD: Six-year-old children born preterm (n=36; gestational age 22-32wks) and at term (n=43) underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural assessments. Tracts were selected a priori based on findings from a study of 6-year-old children born at term: the left-hemisphere arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and right-hemisphere uncinate fasciculus. Using linear regression, we assessed associations between fractional anisotropy of tracts and phonological awareness and receptive and expressive language scores. We investigated whether associations were moderated by prematurity. RESULTS: Fractional anisotropy of the left-hemisphere arcuate fasciculus contributed unique variance to phonological awareness across birth groups. The association between fractional anisotropy of the right-hemisphere uncinate fasciculus and receptive and expressive language was significantly moderated by prematurity. INTERPRETATION: A left-hemisphere tract was associated with phonological awareness in both birth groups. A right-hemisphere tract was associated with language only in the term group, suggesting that expressive and receptive language is mediated by different white matter pathways in 6-year-old children born preterm. These findings provide novel insights into similarities and differences of the neurobiology of pre-reading skills between children born preterm and at term at reading onset. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: White matter properties and pre-reading abilities were associated in children born preterm at the onset of reading. The neurobiology of phonological awareness was similar in children born preterm versus children born at term at 6 years. The neurobiology of language was different in children born preterm versus children born at term at 6 years.


Assuntos
Dislexia/etiologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Anisotropia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Idioma , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 123(3): 193-211, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671637

RESUMO

Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) present with significant deficits in reading skills, but scant research exists to understand the characteristics of the reading delays or best practices for reading instruction with this population. Study 1 examined the relationship between phonological awareness and reading skills in individuals with FXS. Study 2 evaluated the feasibility of a web-based reading intervention, which incorporated phonological awareness and phonics instruction but was originally developed for mainstream students, for children with FXS. Results suggest that phonological awareness and reading skills are correlated in this population, and that instruction targeting phonological awareness and phonics should not be ruled out for individuals with FXS. Further studies are needed to examine their potential effects.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Conscientização , Criança , Dislexia/etiologia , Dislexia/reabilitação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/complicações , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 60(7): 703-710, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667706

RESUMO

AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the preliteracy abilities of young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to identify which of these abilities best predicted conventional literacy (spelling). METHOD: Forty-two children with NF1 (23 males, 19 females; mean age [SD] 5y 6mo [6mo]) were compared with 32 unaffected children (15 males, 17 females; mean age [SD] 5y 4mo [6mo]). All children completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment including measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid automatic naming) and letter-sound knowledge. RESULTS: Children with NF1 performed significantly poorer than the comparison group across all cognitive and preliteracy domains, with specific weaknesses evident in phonological awareness (F1,68 =14.13, p<0.001, partial η2 =0.17), phonological memory (F1,68 =13.87, p<0.001, partial η2 =0.17), and letter-sound knowledge (F1,71 =5.65, p=0.020, partial η2 =0.07). Within the group with NF1 group, over a third of children demonstrated impairment in at least one phonological processing domain and the risk of phonological impairment was 5.60 times that of unaffected children. Children's letter-sound knowledge was the strongest predictor of conventional literacy (spelling). INTERPRETATION: This study establishes that preliteracy deficits are present and detectable in young children with NF1. As a result of the high incidence of preliteracy impairment, we recommend screening phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge to identify risk of future learning disorders. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 are at elevated risk of preliteracy deficits. The most affected domains are phonological awareness and phonological memory. Letter-sound knowledge is the strongest predictor of conventional literacy (spelling).


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Análise de Variância , Conscientização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 183: 19-28, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304447

RESUMO

Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach. Seventy-eight adults with dyslexia and 23 normal-reading adults performed WM and ATP tasks, as well as reading and phonological awareness tests. Readers with dyslexia showed poorer performance on all tests. Both WM and ATP were significant predictors of reading performance and phonological awareness among participants with dyslexia. Dividing participants with dyslexia according to their performance level on WM and ATP tasks revealed group differences in reading and phonological awareness tests. Both WM and ATP contribute to dyslexia, and varying levels of difficulties in both of these abilities are observed among this population. This is strong evidence in favor of the multi-deficit approach in dyslexia, and suggests that researchers should consider this approach in future studies of dyslexia.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Fonética , Leitura , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dislexia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Neurocase ; 24(1): 31-40, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350575

RESUMO

Phonological deficits are common in aphasia after left-hemisphere stroke, and can have significant functional consequences for spoken and written language. While many individuals improve through treatment, the neural substrates supporting improvements are poorly understood. We measured brain activation during pseudoword reading in an individual through two treatment phases. Improvements were associated with greater activation in residual left dorsal language regions and bilateral regions supporting attention and effort. Gains were maintained, while activation returned to pre-treatment levels. This case demonstrates the neural support for improved phonology after damage to critical regions and that improvements may be maintained without markedly increased effort.


Assuntos
Agrafia/reabilitação , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/reabilitação , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Fonética , Idoso , Agrafia/diagnóstico por imagem , Agrafia/etiologia , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/etiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Tempo de Reação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Dev Sci ; 21(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785865

RESUMO

Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors. The maternal factor is whether mothers are themselves dyslexic or not (with/without dyslexia) and the infant factor is whether infants are at-/not-at family risk for dyslexia (due to their mother or father being dyslexic). The maternal behaviour is mothers' infant-directed speech (IDS), which typically involves vowel hyperarticulation, thought to benefit speech perception and language acquisition. The infant behaviour is auditory perception measured by infant sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time, which has been found to be reduced in dyslexic children. Here, at-risk infants showed significantly poorer acoustic sensitivity than not-at-risk infants and mothers only hyperarticulated vowels to infants who were not at-risk for dyslexia. Mothers' own dyslexia status had no effect on IDS quality. Parental speech input is thus affected by infant risk status, with likely consequences for later linguistic development.


Assuntos
Dislexia/etiologia , Comportamento Materno , Mães , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Fala , Percepção da Fala
17.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 30(1): 31-37, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061089

RESUMO

Reading disorder is a recognized feature in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Surface dyslexia, characterized by regularization errors, is typically seen in the English-speaking semantic variant of PPA (svPPA). However, dyslexic characteristics of other languages, particularly logographical languages such as Chinese, remain sparse in the literature. This study aims to characterize and describe the dyslexic pattern in this group of patients by comparing an English-speaking svPPA group with a Chinese-speaking svPPA group. The authors hypothesized that Chinese-speaking individuals with svPPA would likely commit fewer surface dyslexic errors. By accessing the database of Singapore's National Neuroscience Institute and the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center of the United States, the authors identified three Chinese-speaking and 18 English-speaking patients with svPPA, respectively, for comparison. The results suggest that, instead of surface dyslexia, svPPA in Chinese-speaking individuals is characterized by a profound deep dyslexic error. Based on current evidence suggesting the role of the temporal pole as a semantic convergence center, the authors conclude that this region also mediates and converges lexical-semantic significance in logographical languages.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/complicações , Dislexia/etiologia , Semântica , Idoso , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Leitura , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
18.
Dev Sci ; 21(2)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256101

RESUMO

Impaired procedural learning has been suggested as a possible cause of developmental dyslexia (DD) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study examined the relationship between measures of verbal and non-verbal implicit and explicit learning and measures of language, literacy and arithmetic attainment in a large sample of 7 to 8-year-old children. Measures of verbal explicit learning were correlated with measures of attainment. In contrast, no relationships between measures of implicit learning and attainment were found. Critically, the reliability of the implicit learning tasks was poor. Our results show that measures of procedural learning, as currently used, are typically unreliable and insensitive to individual differences. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnvV-BvNWSo.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Dislexia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 25(5): 395-399, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28489413

RESUMO

Poststroke language disorders are frequent and include aphasia, alexia, agraphia, and acalculia. These disorders refer to an acquired inability to read, write and calculate. In this study, we evaluated the two year outcomes of writing and reading disorders in poststroke patients, the natural course, recovery and mortality. We evaluated all the patients with stroke who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla in period of six months, who developed poststroke alexia, agraphia, acalculia, or different combinations of these language disorders. Outcome of these patients was evaluated again after 24 months. For clinical assessment of alexia, agraphia, and acalculia we used Minnesota Test for Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia. We investigated 59 (30.5%) of 193 stroke patients with alexia, agraphia, acalculia, and combinations. Outcome of these patients after 24 months was: 37 (62.7%) died, 13 (22%) fully recovered, and 9 (15.3%) of them retained the same disorder or developed dementia or blindness. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that patients with combined language disorders had significantly higher mortality. The main factors influencing language disorders recovery in this study are initial severity of reading, writing and calculation impairment, age, neglect, and level of education.


Assuntos
Dislexia/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Redação , Adulto , Idoso , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/classificação , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
20.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 60(3): 275-282, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238964

RESUMO

AIM: Difficulties in reading comprehension can arise from either word reading or listening comprehension difficulties, or a combination of the two. We sought to determine whether children with rolandic epilepsy had poor reading comprehension relative to typically developing comparison children, and whether such difficulties were associated with word reading and/or general language comprehension difficulties. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, children with rolandic epilepsy (n=25; 16 males, 9 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 7mo) and a comparison group (n=39; 25 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 3mo) completed assessments of reading comprehension, listening comprehension, word/non-word reading, speech articulation, and Non-verbal IQ. RESULTS: Reading comprehension and word reading were worse in children with rolandic epilepsy (F1,61 =6.89, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 and F1,61 =6.84, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 respectively), with listening comprehension being marginal (F1,61 =3.81, p=0.055, ηp2=0.06). Word reading and listening comprehension made large and independent contributions to reading comprehension, explaining 70% of the variance. INTERPRETATION: Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of reading comprehension difficulties. Thorough assessment of individual children is required to ascertain whether the difficulties lie with decoding text, or with general comprehension skills, or both. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of poor reading comprehension. This was related to poor word reading, poor listening comprehension, or both. Reading comprehension interventions should be tailored to the profile of difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Dislexia/etiologia , Epilepsia Rolândica/complicações , Epilepsia Rolândica/psicologia , Estimulação Acústica , Análise de Variância , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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