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1.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(1): 31-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910767

RESUMO

CoLaus: Diet, the Forgotten Key to Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases Abstract. Healthy eating is paramount for the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Still, data from the CoLaus study show that dietary management of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease is little implemented. Less than one fifth of participants with dyslipidemia reported being on a hypolipidemic diet, and only half of participants with diabetes reported being on an antidiabetic diet. Further, the occurrence of a myocardial infarction was not associated with an improvement in dietary quality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Dieta , Dislipidemias , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos
2.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 18-22, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887831

RESUMO

The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Chinese adult is increasing dramatically, which poses a severe challenge to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a series of new research results have been published, providing a lot of new information for the management strategy of dyslipidemia. In order to apply these new research results to clinical practice for the further prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia more reasonably and effectively, the China Cholesterol Education Program (CCEP) Working Committee organized joint expert meeting and revised the "Expert Advice on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in China Cholesterol Education Program 2014", in which a new classification standard for cardiovascular risk stratification has been proposed, and the target value of lipid-lowering therapy has been updated.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , China , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/terapia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 20(2): e386, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003856

RESUMO

Introducción: Los accidentes cerebrovasculares constituyen un problema de salud mundial con tendencia creciente; en la actualidad es la tercera causa de muerte. Objetivo: Describir la efectividad y durabilidad de la endarterectomía carotidea a largo plazo en la enfermedad carotidea extracraneal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, ambispectivo en 44 pacientes sometidos a un total de 52 endarterectomías carotideas realizadas en el servicio de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular del Hospital Docente Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras. A todos se les realizó un seguimiento clínico con ultrasonografía doppler. El período de tiempo analizado fue de ocho años. Se tuvo en cuenta las variables: sexo, edad, factores de riesgo asociados, categoría clínica, localización topográfica de las lesiones, complicaciones tardías, tiempo de permeabilidad y resultados posquirúrgicos. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (68,2 por ciento). Las lesiones carotideas asintomáticas y sintomáticas representaron el 50 por ciento respectivamente. El hábito de fumar y la dislipidemia fueron los factores de riesgo más frecuentes. Hubo predominio de las complicaciones tardías (55,8 por ciento) con relevancia de la restenosis carotidea (n= 21). El tiempo promedio de permeabilidad primaria del sector revascularizado fue de cinco años. El 86,5 por ciento de los pacientes seguidos a largo plazo mostraron resultados posquirúrgicos satisfactorios al no presentar eventos neurológicos isquémicos o lesiones carotideas con repercusión hemodinámica. Conclusiones: La endarterectomía carotidea es un procedimiento seguro con baja morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias que garantiza una reducción significativa en las tasas de enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica en el seguimiento a largo plazo con baja incidencia de complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas tardías(AU)


Introduction: Cardiovascular events constitute a global health problem with a growing tendency. Nowadays, they represent the third cause of death. Objective: To describe the effectiveness and durability of long-term carotid endarterectomy in the extracranial carotid disease. Methods: A descriptive, ambispective study was conducted in 44 patients subjected to 52 carotid endarterectomies that were performed in the service of Angiology and Vascular Surgery of Hermanos Ameijeiras Teaching-Clinical- Surgical Hospital. A clinical follow-up was performed with Doppler ultrasonography to all the patients. The period analyzed was eight years. The variables considered were: sex, age, associated risk factors, clinical category, topographical localization of the lesions, late complications, time of permeability and postsurgical results. Results: Male sex predominated (68,2 percent). Asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid lesions represented 50 percent respectively. The smoking habit and dyslipidemia were the most common risk factors. There was predominance of late complications (55,8 percent) being notable the carotid restenosis (n = 21). The average time of primary permeability of the revascularized sector was five years. 86,5 percent of the patients followed in the long term showed satisfactory postsurgical results by not presenting ischemic neurological events or carotid lesions with hemodynamic impact. Conclusions: Carotid endarterectomy is a safe procedure with low morbidity and peri-operative mortality that ensures a significant reduction in ischemic cerebrovascular disease´s rates in long-term follow-up with low incidence of late vascular and neurological complications(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/cirurgia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle
4.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(5): 431-435, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711788

RESUMO

In the past five decades, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has become fairly established as an important risk factor or marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as CVD - and all-cause mortality. Substantial evidence supports a strong inverse association between baseline levels of CRF and the risk of developing CVD risk factors, including dyslipidemia. Additionally, accumulating evidence also supports that maintaining or improving a certain level of CRF over time leads to a lower rate of developing CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, and also improves survival. Recent evidence also supports the role of resistance exercise and muscular strength to reduce the development of metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia and potentially reduce development of diabetes as well, in addition to improving survival. Therefore, great efforts are needed to increase both CRF and muscle strength with aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Lipídeos/sangue , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Força Muscular , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Treinamento de Resistência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1649-1656, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is linked to chronic inflammation, which in return leads to a set of chronic disorders. Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to reduce inflammation. Furthermore, Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementations may be more effective than the single supplementation in control dyslipidemia. Therefore, we designed and conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of co-supplementation of vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids on the lipid profile. METHODS: A comprehensive search for studies published between January 1990 and July 2018 was performed. The initial search extracted 3015 potentially relevant articles. After studying these publications, 9 RCTs were potentially eligible and retrieved in full text. RESULTS: The meta-analysis indicate that on total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride individually did not show any significant difference between intervention and control groups, but vitamin E an omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementations significantly reduce VLDL levels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin E co-supplementation can reduce VLDL, although its effect on other lipid profile parameters requires more well-designed studies.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Prognóstico
6.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261830

RESUMO

Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been recognized as having key importance in obesity- and metabolic-related diseases. Although there is increasing evidence of the potential benefits induced by probiotics in metabolic disturbances, there is a lack of large cross-sectional studies to assess population-based prevalence of probiotic intake and metabolic diseases. Our aim was to evaluate the association of probiotic ingestion with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional study was designed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014. Probiotic ingestion was considered when a subject reported consumption of yogurt or a probiotic supplement during the 24-hour dietary recall or during the Dietary Supplement Use 30-Day questionnaire. We included 38,802 adults and 13.1% reported probiotic ingestion. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension was lower in the probiotic group (obesity-adjusted Odds Ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.92, p < 0.001; hypertension-adjusted OR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.71-0.88, p < 0.001). Accordingly, even after analytic adjustments, body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the probiotic group, as were systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly higher in the probiotic group for the adjusted model. In this large-scale study, ingestion of probiotic supplements or yogurt was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Iogurte/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Disbiose , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146458

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) contains prebiotic components, fructans, antibacterial compounds, and organosulfur compounds. The complex ingredients of garlic seem to impart a paradoxical result on the gut microbiome. In this study, we used a mouse model to clarify the effects of whole garlic on the gut microbiome. C57BL/6N male mice were fed with or without whole garlic in normal diet (ND) or in high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Supplementation with whole garlic attenuated HFD-enhanced ratio of serum GPT/GOT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), levels of T-Cho (total cholesterol) and LDLs (low-density lipoproteins), and index of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), but had no significant effect in the levels of serum HDL-c (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), TG (total triacylglycerol), and glucose. Moreover, garlic supplementation meliorated the HFD-reduced ratio of villus height/crypt depth, cecum weight, and the concentration of cecal organic acids. Finally, gut microbiota characterization by high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that whole garlic supplementation increased the α-diversity of the gut microbiome, especially increasing the relative abundance of f_Lachnospiraceae and reducing the relative abundance of g_Prevotella. Taken together, our data demonstrated that whole garlic supplementation could meliorate the HFD-induced dyslipidemia and disturbance of gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disbiose , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Alho , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Raízes de Plantas , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(3): 1901-1910, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that melatonin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effect of melatonin supplement on dyslipidemia and anthropometric indices. METHODS: We searched electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library up to Des 2018 without any language restriction. To compare the effects of melatonin with placebo, differences in standardized means difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled using random effects model. RESULTS: Twelve trials including 641 participants included in meta-analysis finally. The dose of melatonin was reported at 0.8-30 mg. Comparing with the control group, melatonin may improve low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-0.31 mmol/L, 95% CI (-0.61, 0.01), P = 0.049, I2 = 42%) and triglyceride (TG) level (SMD = -0.45 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.77, -0.13, P = 0.006, I2 = 47%). No significant effect of melatonin on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and anthropometric indices was found. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our systematic review and Meta-analyzes showed that supplementation of melatonin could be effective in improving lipid parameters and should be considered in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, although the effect of this supplement on anthropometric indices needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dislipidemias/sangue , Humanos
9.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126110

RESUMO

Observational studies have shown that dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber is a non-digestible form of carbohydrates, due to the lack of the digestive enzyme in humans required to digest fiber. Dietary fibers and lignin are intrinsic to plants and are classified according to their water solubility properties as either soluble or insoluble fibers. Water-soluble fibers include pectin, gums, mucilage, fructans, and some resistant starches. They are present in some fruits, vegetables, oats, and barley. Soluble fibers have been shown to lower blood cholesterol by several mechanisms. On the other hand, water-insoluble fibers mainly include lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; whole-grain foods, bran, nuts, and seeds are rich in these fibers. Water-insoluble fibers have rapid gastric emptying, and as such may decrease the intestinal transit time and increase fecal bulk, thus promoting digestive regularity. In addition to dietary fiber, isolated and extracted fibers are known as functional fiber and have been shown to induce beneficial health effects when added to food during processing. The recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for total fiber intake for men and women aged 19-50 are 38 gram/day and 25 gram/day, respectively. It is worth noting that the RDA recommendations are for healthy people and do not apply to individuals with some chronic diseases. Studies have shown that most Americans do not consume the recommended intake of fiber. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding dietary fiber, sources of food containing fiber, atherosclerosis, and heart disease risk reduction.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(1): 94-101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814419

RESUMO

Despite previous studies suggesting that choline and betaine ameliorate lipid accumulation in rat livers, the relative effectiveness of the two nutrients is unclear. We examined the efficacy of dietary supplementation with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in the rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented B6-deficient, betaine-supplemented B6-deficient, or both choline and betaine-supplemented B6-deficient diets (all containing 9 g of l-methionine (Met)/kg) for 35 d. Two experiments were performed, i.e., one using 17 mmol/kg diet choline bitartrate, betaine anhydrous, and the combination and another using 8.5 mmol/kg diet. Rats fed a B6-deficient diet developed lipid accumulation in the liver with a reduction of plasma lipids induced by the disruption of Met metabolism. However, the addition of 17 mmol/kg diet choline or betaine was sufficient to ameliorate the disruptions of lipid and Met metabolism. Additionally, 8.5 mmol/kg diet choline ameliorated liver lipid deposition, while the same amount of betaine had no significant effects on liver or plasma lipid profiles. Supplementation with choline resulted in a higher liver betaine than that found using the same amount of betaine alone, although the overall liver betaine content was reduced in B6-deficient rats. Our findings indicate that choline is more effective than betaine in ameliorating B6 deficiency-related disruptions in Met metabolism and liver lipid accumulation by increasing liver betaine levels.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Colina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina B 6/complicações , Animais , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina B 6/sangue
11.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 36(1): 21-27, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181581

RESUMO

Introducción: El sedentarismo es señalado en la literatura internacional como una de las principales causas de la aparición de algunos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Objetivo: Valorar la influencia de un programa de ejercicio físico terapéutico en diferentes indicadores clínicos relacionados con la dislipidemia (colesterol total, HDL y LDL), en sujetos sedentarios que presentan algún factor de riesgo cardiovascular. Método: Estudio de intervención con evaluación antes y después de una muestra formada por 340 pacientes (132 varones y 208 mujeres) derivados de los 2 centros de atención primaria del municipio de Molina de Segura (Murcia) y que participaron en un programa de 30 semanas de ejercicio físico que combinaba circuitos de trabajo de acondicionamiento muscular con otros de resistencia cardiorrespiratoria. En cuanto a los indicadores clínicos, los profesionales sanitarios recogieron en el historial médico aquellos indicadores de salud correspondientes a la evolución biológica del proceso por el cual los sujetos estudiados habían iniciado el programa de ejercicio físico. Resultados: Los análisis estadísticos muestran una mejora significativa (p < 0,005) en el indicador de LDL y una mejora no significativa en los indicadores de colesterol total y HDL tras la realización de un programa de 3 meses de ejercicio físico con una frecuencia de 3 sesiones semanales. Conclusiones: La prescripción de ejercicio físico en sujetos dislipémicos desde los centros de atención primaria se debe valorar como recurso para la mejora de los indicadores clínicos propios de su enfermedad


Introduction: A sedentary lifestyle is indicated in the international literature as one of the main causes for the onset of some cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To assess the effect of a therapeutic physical exercise programme on different clinical indicators related to dyslipidaemia (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL) in sedentary subjects with a cardiovascular risk factor. Method: Intervention study with before-and-after evaluation of a sample of 340 patients (132 males and 208 females) referred from the 2 primary care centres of the municipality of Molina de Segura (Murcia), and who participated in a 30-week programme of physical exercise combining muscle-conditioning work circuits with other cardio-respiratory resistance workouts. Regarding the clinical indicators, the health professionals collected in the medical history the health indicators corresponding to the biological evolution of the process for which the subjects studied had started the physical exercise programme. Results: The statistical analyses showed a significant improvement (p<.005) in the LDL indicator and a non-significant improvement in total and HDL cholesterol indicators after a 3-month exercise programme of 3 weekly sessions. Conclusions: The prescription of physical exercise in dyslipidaemic subjects from primary care centre should be evaluated as a resource for improving the clinical indicators specific to their pathology


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício/fisiologia , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Dislipidemias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Análise Estatística , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Análise de Dados , Colesterol/análise , Distribuição por Idade
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(1): 3-8, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality. Over the last years, mortality has decreased significantly, more in individuals with diabetes than in healthy ones. That is mostly due to the control of other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of our study was to analyze the dyslipidemia control in two diabetes cohorts. METHODS: Patients from two distinct cohorts were studied, 173 patients from the BHS (Brasília Heart Study) and 222 patients from the BDS (Brazilian Diabetes Study). The data on dyslipidemia control were studied in both different populations. All patients had diabetes. RESULTS: There are significant differences concerning comorbidities between the LDL-C and BDS groups. The average glycated hemoglobin is of 8.2 in the LDL-C > 100 group in comparison with 7.7 and 7.5 in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.024). There is a higher percentage of hypertensive patients with LDL between 70-100 (63.9%), when comparing the < 70 and > 100 groups (54.3% and 54.9%, respectively; p = 0.005). Diastolic pressure is higher in the group with LDL > 100, with an average of 87 mmHg, in comparison with 82.6 mmHg and 81.9 mmHg in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.019). The group with LDL > 100 has the greatest percentage of smokers (8.7%) in comparison with the groups with LDL between 70-100 and < 70 (5.6% and 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.015). There is also a difference in the previous incidence of coronaropathy. In the group with LDL < 70, 28.3% of patients had already experienced a previous infarction, compared with 11.1% and 10.6% in the 70-100 and > 100 groups, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The data in our study have shown that the dyslipidemia control in diabetic patients is inadequate and there is a tendency of direct association between lack of blood glucose control and lack of dyslipidemia control, in addition to the association with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as diastolic hypertension and smoking. This worsened control might be related to the plateau in the descending curve of mortality, and investments in this regard can improve the cardiovascular health in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dislipidemias/complicações , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Brasil/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Phytomedicine ; 53: 43-52, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTg) defines as high amounts of triglyceride (TG) in the blood which can lead to serious complications over time. HTg is usually a part of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Different medications have been used to treat HTg but experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating HTg as an adjuvant therapy. In most cases, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited evidences exist about their mechanisms and clinical usefulness. PURPOSE: This review focused on the herbs which have been shown TG lowering effect. METHOD: The search was done in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases a 20-year period between 1997 to 2017 with keywords search of medicinal plant, plant extract, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein. RESULTS: According to the results, many plants showed positive effects but Allium sativum, Nigella sativa, Curcuma longa, Anethum graveolens and Commiphora mukul had the best TG lowering effect with exact mechanisms of action. CONCLUSION: It seems that use of these plants as complementary therapeutics or extraction of their active ingredients along with currently available drugs will improve the management of HTg in patients.


Assuntos
Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Lipase Lipoproteica/sangue , Fitoterapia/métodos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(3): 311-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599796

RESUMO

The ingestion of tea flavonoids (TF) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) contributes to anti-hyperlipidaemia. In the current study, TF or FOS or TF together with FOS were orally administrated to mice fed a high sucrose (HS) diet. UPLC-MS analyses showed that FOS significantly increased the concentrations of urine catechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate and gallocatechin gallate. The mice fed with HS for continuous 8 weeks exhibited severe dyslipidemia and abnormal liver fat accumulation. However, oral administration of FOS or TF or in combination significantly decreased the effects of HS on the serum total cholesterol, total triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. Co-treatment of FOS and TF more effectively regulated lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipogenesis. Intake of TF together with FOS reduced the level of dyslipidemia marker (elaidic acid) by increasing anti-oxidative activity than treatments of FOS or TP alone in HS-fed mice. Histological observations of liver confirmed these health benefits.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Catequina/urina , Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Dislipidemias/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 186-211, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468651

RESUMO

In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased de novo lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which feeds back on increased fructose metabolism and, 5) increased methylglyoxal and Maillard reaction that may affect adenosyl-monophosphate-dependent kinase Fructose increases cortisol activation especially in visceral fat. The hormones involved in satiety control are affected by fructose consumption. Fructose derived advance glycation end-products  may also induce a state of inflammation by engaging its receptor, RAGE. Directionality for the effect of fructose on metabolic syndrome is becoming clear: fructose drives hepatic fat, which in turn drives insulin resistance. There is an urgent need for more clinical and educational interventions to regulate/reduce fructose consumption in our population, especially in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Frutose/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Gorduras/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 110: 456-464, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530048

RESUMO

10-Dehydrogingerdione is a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor of natural origin. Some synthetic CETP inhibitors have recently been reported to suppress proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Therefore, the present study aimed mainly to clarify the effect of 10-Dehydrogingerdione on cellular adhesion inflammatory molecules, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction markers in addition to PCSK9 as compared to atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rabbits. Dyslipidemia was induced in 30 male rabbits, distributed in 3 equal groups through feeding dietary cholesterol (0.5% w/w) for 3 months. Two dyslipidemic groups were concurrently treated with either atorvastatin or 10-Dehydrogingerdione (10 mg/kg/ day, p.o) and dietary cholesterol. One additional group including 10 normal rabbits fed normal diet served as normal control (NC) group. Both 10-Dehydrogingerdione and atorvastatin significantly reduced serum CETP level and activity as well as PCSK9 and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels but increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as compared to dyslipidemic control (DC) rabbits (p < 0.001). Both treatments also induced a marked decrease in the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels, inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as atherogenic and coronary risk indexes in addition to aortic atheromatous changes and intima/media ratio, respectively as compared to the DC group (p < 0.001). The reduction in these markers showed a significant correlation with PCSK9 suppression and CETP inhibitory effect. Interestingly, 10-Dehydrogingerdione exerted a greater ameliorative potential regarding these biomarkers than atorvastatin. Our findings suggest that 10-Dehydrogingerdione is a promising PCSK9 inhibitor with a significant protective value against many atherosclerotic risk factors.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Guaiacol/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Coelhos
18.
Maturitas ; 119: 46-53, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502750

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women throughout the United States and Europe. Despite efforts to raise awareness, the sex-specific risk factors are still poorly recognized in both regions, and many women do not identify cardiovascular disease as a primary threat. During midlife, the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically, and this unique time gives an opportunity to identify both traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as emerging risk factors unique to women. This review will focus on the current guidelines for cardiovascular risk assessment in Europe and the United States, traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors, and preventive lifestyle recommendations for midlife women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Medição de Risco/normas , Fatores de Risco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
19.
Pathology ; 51(2): 222-226, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528924

RESUMO

There is a large amount of controversy relating dietary fat intake and coronary artery disease. It has been strongly suggested that saturated fat is not harmful and that polyunsaturated fat is either not beneficial or even harmful. Given that dietary lipids and fibre can influence serum lipids which are strongly linked to the risk of coronary artery disease I have reviewed recent evidence linking diet and serum lipids to confirm a diet-heart disease link. Over 84 studies have been included in a recent meta-analysis and meta-regression which examined the effects of changes in fat type on lipid levels. An absolute 1% reduction in saturated fat or trans fat intake as a percentage of energy with replacement by n-6 polyunsaturated fat would lead to a reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of 0.05 mmol/L. In most Western countries the difference in intake between the highest quintile and the lowest quintile of saturated fat is about 7%, so moving from the highest to the lowest quintile should lower LDL cholesterol by 0.35 mmol/L or about 10%. This change should lower cardiovascular disease rates by at least 10%. Replacing this amount of saturated fat with carbohydrate of average quality would lower LDL cholesterol by 0.21 mmol/L and increase fasting triglyceride by 0.17 mmol/L. This combination of effects would have a neutral effect on cardiovascular disease rates. However, replacement of trans fat appears to reduce disease rates and total mortality. Substituting low glycaemic index carbohydrates for high glycaemic index carbohydrates will lower triglyceride by 15-25% and reduce cardiovascular risk. Large doses of fish oil will lower triglyceride with a mean lowering of 0.45 mmol/L for a 3.5 g/day amount. Large doses of soluble fibre (3.5-7.0 g/day) lower LDL cholesterol by 0.2-0.35 mmol/L with Konjac glucomannan being the most effective per gram. Plant sterols or stanols lower LDL cholesterol by about 10% for a 2 g/day dose, while exercise and weight loss lower cardiovascular risk predominantly by lowering fasting triglyceride. In conclusion, diet lowers LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and dietary changes should be ultimately linked to a reduced risk of heart disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Perda de Peso , Carboidratos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(1): 357-366, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274033

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanism implicated in the effect of an insoluble fiber (obtained from carob pod) rich in polyphenols (IFCP) in lipid metabolism in the liver. METHODS: Male New Zealand rabbits were fed with the following diets for 8 weeks: control diet (CT group), dyslipidemic diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL group) and dyslipidemic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus 3% IFCP (DL + IFCP group). RESULTS: Dyslipidemic diet with IFCP was able to reduce development of mixed dyslipidemia, liver relative weight and collagen I protein expression compared to DL rabbits. Analyses of the main enzymes implicated in cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism revealed that IFCP increased hepatic concentration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily a, polypeptide 1C (CYP7A1) (82.34, 114.42%, respectively) as well as protein expression of LDL receptor (42.48%) in DL rabbits. Importantly, IFCP also increased hepatic lipase (HL) levels (91.43%) and decreased glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1c) liver expression levels (20.38 and 41.20%, respectively). Finally, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) hepatic expression increased in DL + IFCP group compared with DL (159.81 and 48.00%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that IFCP is able to abrogate the deleterious effects of hepatic dyslipidemia by modulating SIRT1 and PGC-1α pathways.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Galactanos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mananas/farmacologia , Gomas Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Galactanos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Mananas/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Gomas Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Gomas Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Coelhos , Sirtuína 1
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