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4.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 111(4): 352-362, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first successful kidney transplant in humans was performed in 1954. In the following 25 years, the biomedical, ethical, and social implications of kidney transplantation were widely discussed by both healthcare professionals and the public. Issues relating to race, however, were not commonly addressed, representing a "blind spot" regarding racial disparities in access and health outcomes. METHODS: Through primary sources in the medical literature and lay press, this paper explores the racial dynamics of kidney transplantation in the 1950-1970s in the United States as the procedure grew from an experimental procedure to the standard of care for patients in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESULTS & DISCUSSION: An extensive search of the medical literature found very few papers about ESRD, dialysis, or renal transplant that mentioned the race of the patients before 1975. While the search did not reveal whether race was explicitly used in determining patient access to dialysis or transplant, the scant data that exist show that African-Americans disproportionately developed ESRD and were underrepresented in these early treatment populations. Transplant outcome data in the United States failed to include race demographics until the late 1970s. The Social Security Act of 1972 (PL 92-603) extended Medicare coverage to almost all Americans with ESRD and led to a rapid increase in both dialysis and kidney transplantation for African-Americans in ESRD, but disparities persist today.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Falência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Transplante de Rim/história , Afro-Americanos/história , Diálise , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/história , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/história , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Medicare/história , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
6.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 109(4): 224-237, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This article covers violence prevention (homicide and suicide) activities in the African American community for nearly 50 years. METHOD: Drawing on lived experience the works of early and recent efforts by African American physicians, the author illustrates we know a great deal about violence prevention in the African American community. RESULTS: There remains challenges of implementation and political will. Further, most physicians, like the public, are confused about the realities of homicide and suicide because of the two different presentations both are given in the media and scientific literature. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to homicide and suicides should be based on science not distorted media reports. There are violence prevention principles that, if widely implemented, could stem the tide of violence.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Homicídio/história , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/história , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Violência/história , Violência/prevenção & controle , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homicídio/etnologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Violência/etnologia , Violência/psicologia
8.
Salud Colect ; 13(3): 443-455, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340511

RESUMO

Over the last 26 years, the Mexican government has developed a number of activities and discourses around what has been called "intercultural health," directed especially at indigenous peoples in Mexico (some 62, according to linguistic criteria). In this way, the government has built health care institutions (rural centers, clinics, and hospitals) in states like Puebla, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Queretaro, and Jalisco, proposing the implementation of cultural pertinence indicators (which are minimal and inadequate). Nevertheless, the health conditions among indigenous populations and the quality of health care provided by public institutions continue to be precarious in terms of human and material resources (health personnel, drugs, etc.) and discriminatory with respect to the form and content of the provided services. This paper describes some of the governmental interventions that purport to be institutional improvements in the field of interculturality, but that actually represent the continuity of arbitrary and exclusive policies.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/história , Política de Saúde/história , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/história , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Índios Centro-Americanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Racismo/história , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , México , Racismo/etnologia
9.
Am J Med Sci ; 352(1): 109-19, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27432044

RESUMO

By 1965, the policies and programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society brought optimism to black physicians and a new wave of resistance against black civil rights advocates in the American South. The largest of the first Head Start programs, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), had its roots in Freedom Summer 1964 and the Medical Committee for Human Rights. Like other proposed programs with strong medical components, CDGM was caught in a legislative Bermuda triangle created by the powerful Mississippi congressional delegation to maintain white supremacy and plantation economics. Physician-led investigations exposed the extraordinary level of poor health among Mississippi's black children, supported Head Start as a remedy, and awakened the white medical establishment to health disparities of the Jim Crow period. It was also the beginning of positive change in the previously silent white medical community in the South and their support of civil justice in health.


Assuntos
Direitos Civis/história , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Afro-Americanos/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Mississippi , Política
10.
Am J Med Sci ; 352(1): 120-7, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27432045

RESUMO

The civil rights and social legislation of the Great Society following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was slow to provide relief for black in the South. Mississippi Senator James Eastland led an effort to defund Head Start, including his state's program, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), a program with a strong medical component. A senatorial committee, including Robert Kennedy, came to investigate CDGM in 1967. The unimaginable poverty, hunger, malnutrition and chronic disease found in black families was vehemently denied by Eastland. Visits of physician groups then corroborated the findings. The Mississippi delegation made sure that food relief never came and funding for CDGM ceased. Health services were lost to 6000 impoverished children. The epic television documentary, Hunger in America, soon premiered on network television. It triggered ongoing efforts to address health disparities, including implementation of the National Nutrition and Health Survey (NHANES). Similar physician leadership is needed to address the lasting health disparities in our country.


Assuntos
Direitos Civis/história , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Médicos/história , Política , Afro-Americanos/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Mississippi
12.
J BUON ; 21(6): 1568-1570, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039729

RESUMO

At the end of the 19th century, in an attempt to define cancer's etiology, scientists considered that cancer was mainly affecting the white race and the temperate zone countries. In their turn, epidemiological studies held in the early 20th century sustained the dogma of cancer's racial distribution, targeting and stigmatizing ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/história , Grupos Étnicos/história , Neoplasias/história , Racismo/história , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia
15.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 51(1): 16-20, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25586840

RESUMO

Medicine has seen dramatic changes in the last 50 years, and vaccinology is no different. Australia has made a significant contribution to world knowledge on vaccine-preventable diseases. Certain deadly diseases have disappeared or become rare in Australia following successful introduction of vaccines. As diseases become rarer, public knowledge about the diseases and their serious consequences has decreased, and concerns about potential vaccine side effects have increased. To maintain confidence in immunisations, sharing of detailed information about the vaccines and the diseases we are trying to prevent is integral to the continued success of our public health programme. Modern quality immunisation programmes need to communicate complex information to immunisation providers and also to the general community. Improving immunisation coverage rates and eliminating the gap in coverage and timeliness between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous people has become a high priority.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/história , Programas de Imunização/história , Vacinação/história , Vacinas/história , Viroses/história , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etnologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/história , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Viroses/etnologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle
16.
Lancet ; 385(9974): 1248-59, 2015 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25458715

RESUMO

Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/história , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/história , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , América Latina , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/história
17.
Int J Public Health ; 60(1): 91-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25398320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although the past two decades have involved changes in the living conditions of the oldest old in Sweden, little is known about how health inequalities have developed in this group during the period. This study explores the educational disparities in a wide range of health outcomes among the oldest old in Sweden between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: The study uses the repeated cross-sectional design of the SWEOLD survey, a nationally representative survey of the oldest old in Sweden with comparable data from 1992, 2002, and 2011. The development of educational disparities in health was tracked across the three waves. RESULTS: The results show that although the prevalence of most health problems increased during the period, the prevalence of disability in activities of daily living decreased. Despite these changes, educational disparities in health remained largely unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that the association between education and health is remarkably robust. It prevailed into the oldest age groups, was consistently found for a wide range of health problems, and tended to be stable over extended periods of time.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia
18.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 26(6): 539-44, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25379770

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing clinical consensus that Medicaid sterilization consent protections should be revisited because they impede desired care for many women. Here, we consider the broad social and ideological contexts for past sterilization abuses, beyond informed consent. RECENT FINDINGS: Throughout the US history, the fertility and childbearing of poor women and women of color were not valued equally to those of affluent white women. This is evident in a range of practices and policies, including black women's treatment during slavery, removal of Native children to off-reservation boarding schools and coercive sterilizations of poor white women and women of color. Thus, reproductive experiences throughout the US history were stratified. This ideology of stratified reproduction persists today in social welfare programs, drug policy and programs promoting long-acting reversible contraception. SUMMARY: At their core, sterilization abuses reflected an ideology of stratified reproduction, in which some women's fertility was devalued compared to other women's fertility. Revisiting Medicaid sterilization regulations must therefore put issues of race, ethnicity, class, power and resources - not just informed consent - at the center of analyses.


Assuntos
Política de Planejamento Familiar/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/ética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/história , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/história , Esterilização Involuntária/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/ética , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Medicaid/ética , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social , Esterilização Involuntária/ética , Esterilização Involuntária/legislação & jurisprudência , Esterilização Tubária/ética , Esterilização Tubária/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Direitos da Mulher
20.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 37(3): 224-34, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25102213

RESUMO

A critical textual analysis of the 6 issues of Towards Justice in Health, a magazine published by Nurses for Social Responsibility (NSR) between 1992 and 1995, makes visible their work. True to their purpose, NSR provided an alternative and courageous voice on the political nature of health and health care that was largely missing in mainstream nursing literature at that time. Towards Justice in Health both documents the emergence of the new economic world order and concomitant shift to the right in Canadian politics during the early 1990s with its impacts on health care and the nursing workplace and provides a grassroots response.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Defesa do Paciente , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social , Canadá , Promoção da Saúde/história , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Política , Justiça Social/história
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