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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 25-29, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945037

RESUMO

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by maternal and infant characteristics. During 2003-2017, IMBD rates decreased 4% for infants of Hispanic mothers, 11% for infants of non-Hispanic black (black) mothers, and 12% for infants of non-Hispanic white (white) mothers. In 2017, these rates were highest among infants of black mothers (13.3 per 10,000 live births) and were lowest among infants of white mothers (9.9). During 2003-2017, IMBD rates for infants who were born extremely preterm (20-27 completed gestational weeks), full term (39-40 weeks), and late term/postterm (41-44 weeks) declined 20%-29%; rates for moderate (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) infants increased 17%. Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950230

RESUMO

The concept of digital health literacy can be regarded as the result of the increasing social permeation of digital media and their use in everyday life. Due to increasing accessibility and ubiquity, there is an increasing need not only for searching and finding, but especially for assessing the reliability as well as selecting and applying health information for one's own health concerns. In the context of digitization, it needs to be emphasized that users are not just passive recipients, but rather actively participate in the communication process by interacting with existing content or by sharing their own health-related information.With particular focus on children and adolescents, this paper provides an overview of the current state of research on digital health literacy. In addition to its terminological and conceptual foundations and its links with media literacy, the relationship between digital health literacy and social and health inequality is discussed. Inequalities are not only generated by access to digital media but, above all, by the skills required for their use. After an overview of available instruments is provided, initial reflections on how to promote the individual and structural dimension of digital health literacy with focus on school settings is given.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(4): 97-102, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999684

RESUMO

Identifying persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are unaware of their status and linking them to care are critical steps in achieving viral suppression and reducing the risk for transmitting HIV (1). In 2017, 43% of new diagnoses of HIV infection were among persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (blacks) (2), who represent 13% of the U.S. population (3). Fewer blacks, compared with whites, were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days of diagnosis, retained in care, or virally suppressed (4). Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) is an initiative intended to reduce new HIV infections by 90% from 2020 to 2030 (5). EHE's Phase 1 is focused on 50 jurisdictions* that accounted for >50% of new diagnoses during 2016-2017 and seven states† with disproportionate HIV prevalence in rural areas (5). The purpose of this analysis was to examine HIV testing outcomes among blacks in high prevalence EHE jurisdictions, using CDC's 2017 National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation data. Blacks accounted for 43.2% of CDC-funded tests and 49.1% of new diagnoses of HIV infection. Seventy-nine percent of blacks with newly diagnosed HIV infection were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days (below the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of 85%), 71.4% interviewed for partner services, and 81.8% referred to prevention services. To achieve the goals of EHE, HIV prevention programs should focus on locally tailored evidence-based§ testing strategies to enhance and overcome barriers for linkage to and retention in care and reduce onward HIV transmission and HIV-related disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939501

RESUMO

The distribution of harms to health varies spatially determined by the socioeconomic conditions of the environment. This research aimed to assess the spatial distribution of dental caries in 12-year-old children and their correlation with socioeconomic indicators in Brazilian states. The sample of this ecological study comprised all the 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District. Thematic and correlation maps were constructed in order to assess the spatial dependency, as well as the correlation between dental caries and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that the states with the worst DMFT indexes were located in the north and northeast, showing spatial autocorrelation. These regions also had the worst results for the following variables: poverty, illiteracy, education, and income. The bivariate analysis showed that household income and education level had negative spatial correlation with the DMFT index, while illiteracy and poverty rates showed positive correlation. Despite advances in the decline of DMFT index in recent years, there is still an inequity in the distribution of the caries disease.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 55-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710118

RESUMO

AIM: To assess oral health inequalities between differently-abled and healthy school children. METHODS: The study was conducted on a sample of 300 differently-abled and 300 healthy school children in Bengaluru. A calibrated investigator recorded oral health status according to World Health Organization (WHO) proforma 2013. Chi-square/Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, and multiple logistic regression were applied. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Mean DMFT in the study group and the control group was 1.32 ± 1.36 and 1.25 ± 1.21 respectively. In the study group, 52.7% had gingival bleeding compared to 41.0% in the control group. Within the study group, children who belonged to the lower middle class (aOR = 2.02) were more likely to have caries experience whereas visually impaired children (aOR = 0.32), speech and hearing impaired children (OR = 0.10), children suffering from polio (aOR = 0.80), and those with caries-free in deciduous dentition (aOR = 0.42) were less likely to have caries experience in permanent teeth (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oral health inequalities exist for differently-abled children. Hence, improvement of their oral health status and priority care are needed.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência
8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 671-681, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 601-609, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215037

RESUMO

We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord. We used flexible parametric survival models to determine regional ICC rates and risk factors for incident ICC. We included 64,231 women from 45 countries. During 320,141 person-years (pys), 356 incident ICC cases were diagnosed (Europe 164, South Africa 156, North America 19 and Latin America 17). Raw ICC incidence rates per 100,000 pys were 447 in South Africa (95% confidence interval [CI]: 382-523), 136 in Latin America (95% CI: 85-219), 76 in North America (95% CI: 48-119) and 66 in Europe (95% CI: 57-77). Compared to European women ICC rates at 5 years after ART initiation were more than double in Latin America (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.68) and 11 times higher in South Africa (aHR: 10.66, 95% CI: 6.73-16.88), but similar in North America (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.37-1.71). Overall, ICC rates increased with age (>50 years vs. 16-30 years, aHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40) and lower CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (per 100 cell/µl decrease, aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.36). Improving access to early ART initiation and effective cervical cancer screening in women living with HIV should be key parts of global efforts to reduce cancer-related health inequities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comparação Transcultural , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Surg Res ; 245: 207-211, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Males and females are known to have varied responses to medical interventions. Our study aimed to determine the effect of sex on surgical outcomes after pyloromyotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 2003-2012, we performed a serial, cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of all patients aged <1 y who underwent pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The primary predictor of interest was sex. Outcomes included mortality, in-hospital complications, cost, and length of stay. Regression models were adjusted by race, age group, comorbidity, complications, and whether operation was performed on the day of admission with region and year fixed effects. RESULTS: Of 48,834 weighted operations, 81.8% were in males and 18.2% were in females. The most common reported race was white (47.3%) and most of the patients were ≥29 days old (72.5%). There was no difference in the odds of postoperative complications, but females had a significantly longer length of stay (incidence rate ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.18-1.39; P ≤ 0.01), higher cost (5%, 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; P ≤ 0.01), and higher odds of mortality (odds ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.52-6.98; P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that females had worse outcomes after pyloromyotomy compared with males. These findings are striking and are important to consider when treating either sex to help set physician and family expectations perioperatively. Further studies are needed to determine why such differences exist and to develop targeted treatment strategies for both females and males with pyloric stenosis.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estenose Pilórica Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Piloromiotomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estenose Pilórica Hipertrófica/economia , Estenose Pilórica Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 97, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a deprivation index to study health inequalities in 221 areas of Ecuador, to describe the pattern of deprivation in Ecuador, and to explore the applications of the index to study health inequalities by analysing the association between deprivation and mortality in the study areas. METHODS: We performed principal component analyses of available indicators of the 221 cantons of Ecuador. A set of 41 sociodemographic, social capital, and subjective well-being variables were obtained from the 2010 National Population Census and the National Living Conditions Survey 2013-2014. To explore the application of the index in public health, the association between the index and standardised mortality ratios was estimated through a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The final index was constructed with 17 indicators. The first component explained 51.8% of the total variance of the data. A geographic pattern and a positive association of the index with the standardised mortality ratios of the cantons were observed in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed a deprivation index that can identify disadvantaged areas in Ecuador. This index could be a valuable tool for the detection of vulnerabilised populations and the development of interventions and policies adapted to local needs.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Áreas de Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 12(21): 796-800, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of graphic depictions (pictorials) to represent medical conditions is an accepted method that can complement standard methodology of comprehensive geriatric assessment. OBJECTIVES: To use the clinical pathway method to develop a comprehensive geriatric genogram assessment tool (CGGAT), which could supplement the written summary letter and recommendations. METHODS: We used the critical paths method to develop a tool to facilitate implementation of the comprehensive geriatric assessment recommendations. A multidisciplinary group of clinicians used the critical pathways method to develop a CGGAT. RESULTS: We used the CGGAT to depict the physical and functional status of patients and to complement the textual historical information, family dynamics, and current patient issues. CGGAT is a simple instrument that provides a visual structure and it can facilitate the sharing of information among team members, encourage interdisciplinary dialogue, enhance understanding and adherence on the part of patients and professionals, and reduce the burden on the clinicians who conduct the initial comprehensive geriatric assessment. CONCLUSIONS: We showed the benefits and obstacles related to the adaptation of this new tool and provide recommendations for further development.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Procedimentos Clínicos , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Testes Psicológicos
14.
Global Health ; 15(1): 67, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Countries must be able to describe and monitor their populations health and well-being needs in an attempt to understand and address them. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have re-emphasized the need to invest in comprehensive health information systems to monitor progress towards health equity; however, knowledge on the capacity of health information systems to be able do this, particularly in low-income countries, remains very limited. As a case study, we aimed to evaluate the current capacity of the national health information systems in Mozambique, and the available indicators to monitor health inequalities, in line with SDG 3 (Good Health and Well Being for All at All Ages). METHODS: A data source mapping of the health information system in Mozambique was conducted. We followed the World Health Organization's methodology of assessing data sources to evaluate the information available for every equity stratifier using a three-point scale: 1 - information is available, 2 - need for more information, and 3 - an information gap. Also, for each indicator we estimated the national average inequality score. RESULTS: Eight data sources contain health information to measure and monitor progress towards health equity in line with the 27 SDG3 indicators. Seven indicators bear information with nationally funded data sources, ten with data sources externally funded, and ten indicators either lack information or it does not applicable for the matter of the study. None of the 27 indicators associated with SDG3 can be fully disaggregated by equity stratifiers; they either lack some information (15 indicators) or do not have information at all (nine indicators). The indicators that contain more information are related to maternal and child health. CONCLUSIONS: There are important information gaps in Mozambique's current national health information system which prevents it from being able to comprehensively measure and monitor health equity. Comprehensive national health information systems are an essential public health need. Significant policy and political challenges must also be addressed to ensure effective interventions and action towards health equity in the country.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Moçambique , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 70, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent scholarship has increasingly identified global power asymmetries as the root cause of health inequities. This article examines how such asymmetries manifest in global governance for health, and how this impacts health outcomes. RESULTS: We focus on the political-economic determinants of global health inequities, and how these determinants operate at different levels of social action (micro, meso, and macro) through distinct but interacting mechanisms. To clarify how these mechanisms operate, we develop an integrative framework for examining the links between global neoliberalism-the currently dominant policy paradigm premised on advancing the reach of markets and promoting ever-growing international economic integration-and global health inequities, and show how these mechanisms have macro-macro, macro-meso-macro, and macro-micro-macro manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach enables the design of theoretically-nuanced empirical strategies to document the multiple ways in which the political economy entrenches or, alternatively, might ameliorate global health inequities.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 71, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of crowdfunding platforms to cover the costs of healthcare is growing rapidly within low-, middle-, and high-income countries as a new funding modality in global health. The popularity of such "medical crowdfunding" is fueled by health disparities and gaps in health coverage and social safety-net systems. Crowdfunding in its current manifestations can be seen as an antithesis to universal health coverage. But research on medical crowdfunding, particularly in global health contexts, has been sparse, and accessing robust data is difficult. To map and document how medical crowdfunding is shaped by, and shapes, health disparities, this article offers an exploratory conceptual and empirical analysis of medical crowdfunding platforms and practices around the world. Data are drawn from a mixed-methods analysis of medical crowdfunding campaigns, as well as an ongoing ethnographic study of crowdfunding platforms and the people who use them. RESULTS: Drawing on empirical data and case examples, this article describes three main ways that crowdfunding is impacting health equity and health politics around the world: 1) as a technological determinant of health, wherein data ownership, algorithms and platform politics influence health inequities; 2) as a commercial determinant of health, wherein corporate influence reshapes healthcare markets and health data; 3) and as a determinant of health politics, affecting how citizens view health rights and the future of health coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than viewing crowdfunding as a social media fad or a purely beneficial technology, researchers and publics must recognize it as a complex innovation that is reshaping health systems, influencing health disparities, and shifting political norms, even as it introduces new ways of connecting and caring for those in the midst of health crises. More analysis, and better access to data, is needed to inform policy and address crowdfunding as a source of health disparities.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Política , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Tecnologia
19.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 77, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil is a populous high/middle-income country, characterized by deep economic and social inequalities. Like most other Latin American nations, Brazil constructed a health system that included, on the one hand, public health programs and, on the other, social insurance healthcare for those working in the formal sector. This study analyzes the political struggles surrounding the implementation of a universal health system from the mid-1980s to the present, and their effects on selected health indicators, focusing on the relevant international and national contexts, political agendas, government orientations and actors. MAIN TEXT: In the 1980s, against the backdrop of economic crisis and democratization, Brazil's health reform movement proposed a Unified Health System (SUS), which was incorporated into the 1988 Constitution. The combination of a democratic system with opportunities for interaction between various developmental and social agendas and actors has played a key role in shaping health policy since then. However, the expansion of public services has been hampered by insufficient public funding and by the strengthening of the private sector, subsidized by the state. Private enterprises have expanded their markets and political influence, in a process that has accelerated in recent years. Despite these obstacles, SUS has produced significant health-status improvements and some (although incomplete) reductions in Brazil's vast health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: We find that a combination of long-term structural and contingent factors, international agendas and interests, as well as domestic political struggles, explains the advances and obstacles to building a universal system in an economically important yet unequal peripheral country. Further consolidation of SUS and reduction of health inequalities hinge on the uncertain prospects for democracy and national development, on enlarging the political coalition to support a public and universal health system, and on strengthening the state's ability to regulate the private sector.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Política , Brasil , Humanos
20.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): 199-205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764523

RESUMO

Initial conceptualizations of violence and trauma in forensic nursing have remained relatively narrowly defined since the specialty's inception. The advent of trauma-informed care has been important but has limitations that obfuscate social and structural determinants of health, equity, and social justice. As forensic nursing practice becomes more complex, narrow definitions of violence and trauma limit the effectiveness of trauma-informed care in its current incarnation. In keeping with the nursing model of holistic care, we need ways to teach, practice, and conduct research that can accommodate these increasing levels of complexity, including expanding our conceptualizations of violence and trauma to advance health equity and social justice. The objective of this article is to introduce the concepts of structural violence and trauma- and violence-informed care as equity-oriented critical paradigms to embrace the increasing complexity and health inequities facing forensic nursing practice.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Forense , Equidade em Saúde , Trauma Psicológico/enfermagem , Justiça Social , Vítimas de Crime , Currículo , Educação em Enfermagem , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa em Enfermagem
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