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1.
Trends Plant Sci ; 25(4): 340-348, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191870

RESUMO

It is well documented that ancient sickle harvesting led to tough rachises, but the other seed dispersal properties in crop progenitors are rarely discussed. The first steps toward domestication are evolutionary responses for the recruitment of humans as dispersers. Seed dispersal-based mutualism evolved from heavy human herbivory or seed predation. Plants that evolved traits to support human-mediated seed dispersal express greater fitness in increasingly anthropogenic ecosystems. The loss of dormancy, reduction in seed coat thickness, increased seed size, pericarp density, and sugar concentration all led to more-focused seed dispersal through seed saving and sowing. Some of the earliest plants to evolve domestication traits had weak seed dispersal processes in the wild, often due to the extinction of animal dispersers or short-distance mechanical dispersal.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Domesticação , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plantas , Sementes
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 163-175, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026207

RESUMO

The adaptive radiation of the angiosperms was strongly affected by fruit and seed dispersal since the establishment of the seedlings is a fundamental process for the recruitment of juveniles to the populations. Among the species of Burseraceae, seeds with fleshy attachments and high caloric value suggest mammaliochory as an ancestral dispersal way. In Protium icicariba, at the same time as there is a visual pattern typical of ornithochory, with a report of effective demonstration, the diaspores present the highest levels of essential oils of the whole plant, suggesting other dispersion processes by olfactory guided vectors. This work aims to monitor the diasporic dispersal process in P. icicariba in situ, aiming to identify dispersers and to investigate the role of the essential oil in the dispersion of diaspores of this plant species. The natural dispersion was monitored in situ, in weekly campaigns throughout eight months, using visual and photographic records, in daily shifts of six hours, distributed along the dawn, morning, afternoon, dusk, and night. We used both direct observation and continuous picture capturing along 43 days with photographic traps. Mature diaspores removed from pseudocapsules were pooled to determine potential dispersers. Artificial models of the diaspores, in white and green colors, were also used to test hypotheses on the role of scent in the dispersion, added 1%, weight/weight, of the essential oil extracted from the mature diaspores, which chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Besides, the analysis of stomach contents of lizards collected in adjacent area was also performed. In daytime and nighttime monitoring in nature, no vertebrates were recorded dispersing diaspores. The most common was the primary wind-facilitated autochory of diaspores to the substrate, near the plant matrices. Secondarily, workers of the ant species Atta robusta can remove the pseudoarils or move the pyrenes to the anthills. The lizard species Tropidurus torquatus ingests pyrenes with the pseudoarils, and the sclerified pericarp of the pyrene is potentially resistant to chemical action of the digestive juices. Ants and lizards have also accessed the caves with natural diaspores. Concerning the artificial diaspore models, ants accessed, indistinctly, white and the green models that contained essential oils. The lizards accessed the white models, with or without essential oils, and showed insignificant access to green ones, with or without essential oil. The ingestion of pyrenes by lizards was also confirmed through analysis of stomach contents. The aggregate spatial pattern of P. icicariba at the study site, associated with clumps, may be derived from germination in the substrate near the matrices, or in the anthills or after diaspora defecation and / or regurgitation of the lizard, which is a species strongly associated with clumps of this vegetation. As the access to the diaspores by ants and lizards depends on the primary autochory, and no impediments to the germination near to the matrix plant were found, the dispersion is compatible with a multifactorial characteristic of the diplochory.


Assuntos
Burseraceae/metabolismo , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Burseraceae/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lagartos/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Estômago/química
3.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 119-132, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720779

RESUMO

Mutualists can vary in the quantity and quality of service which they provide to their partners. Variation in seed disperser quality depends on seed-processing traits, dispersal distance, and deposition location, all of which ultimately affect plant fitness. Here, we compared these aspects of seed dispersal quality between a native and an invasive ant species, and examined how they affect competition and plant performance. Using experimental mesocosm communities, we examined how these two ant species affect the spatial pattern of recruitment and establishment for four myrmecochorous plant species, including one invasive species. We measured the locations of dispersed seedlings relative to ant nests, adult plants, and other dispersed seedlings, as well as measured the effects of location on plant performance. The invasive ant, Myrmica rubra, secondarily dispersed seeds farther from its nests, creating a less clumped pattern of seedling recruitment compared to the native ant, Aphaenogaster rudis. Plant species responded differently to dispersal. Invasive seedlings recruited farther from adult plants than native seedlings, and had higher survival the farther they were from conspecifics. In contrast, native plants had higher survival and grew taller when dispersed farther from invasive plants. We show that seed-dispersing ant partners differ in mutualist quality creating differences in dispersal distance and deposition location that affects a plant's competitive environment. Our results reveal the potential for long-term consequences on plant community structure with changing ant partner identity. We emphasize the need to examine dispersal quality in addition to quantity to uncover the importance of partner identity in structuring communities.


Assuntos
Formigas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Plântula , Sementes
4.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 133-142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748829

RESUMO

Myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) is a unique seed dispersal syndrome among invertebrates. It comprises three main phases: seed removal, seed manipulation, and seed deposition. However, the contribution of each phase to seed and seedling fate remains unclear. Here, we experimentally quantified the effects of each phase of myrmecochory on seed germination and seedling establishment, the two most critical life history stages involved in plant recruitment. We established 30 sample points, and each included an adult Mabea fistulifera tree, an Atta sexdens nest entrance, and six seed depots. We monitored the germination of M. fistulifera seeds for 3 months and subsequently followed the growth and mortality of the resulting seedlings for 12 months. Only the dispersal distance influenced plant establishment, reducing seed germination and increasing seedling growth, but with no effect of seed manipulation and deposition site. Despite the contrasting effects of distance on seed germination and seedling growth, the positive effect of dispersal distance on seedling growth was ten times greater than the negative effect on seed germination. Moreover, A. sexdens behaved neither as granivore nor as herbivore of M. fistulifera seeds or seedlings, which suggests that seed dispersal by A. sexdens is advantageous to M. fistulifera. Thus, the joint occurrence of these two species in disturbed areas could have a positive effect on this pioneer plant population, which might promote forest regeneration.


Assuntos
Formigas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Germinação , Plantas , Plântula , Sementes
5.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 348-358, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814305

RESUMO

Network metrics are widely used to infer the roles of mutualistic animals in plant communities and to predict the effect of species' loss. However, their empirical validation is scarce. Here we parameterized a joint species model of frugivory and seed dispersal with bird movement and foraging data from tropical and temperate communities. With this model, we investigate the effect of frugivore loss on seed rain, and compare our predictions to those of standard coextinction models and network metrics. Topological coextinction models underestimated species loss after the removal of highly linked frugivores with unique foraging behaviours. Network metrics informed about changes in seed rain quantity after frugivore loss. However, changes in seed rain composition were only predicted by partner diversity. Nestedness, closeness, and d' specialisation could not anticipate the effects of rearrangements in plant-frugivore communities following species loss. Accounting for behavioural differences among mutualists is critical to improve predictions from network models.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Benchmarking , Aves , Frutas , Plantas
6.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 45-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631473

RESUMO

Animal-mediated indirect interactions play a significant role in maintaining the biodiversity of plant communities. Less known is whether interspecific synchrony of seed rain can alter the indirect interactions of sympatric tree species. We assessed the seed dispersal success by tracking the fates of 21 600 tagged seeds from six paired sympatric tree species in both monospecific and mixed plots across 4 successive years in a subtropical forest. We found that apparent mutualism was associated with the interspecific synchrony of seed rain both seasonally and yearly, whereas apparent competition or apparent predation was associated with interspecific asynchrony of seed rain either seasonally or yearly. We did not find consistent associations of indirect interactions with seed traits. Our study suggests that the interspecific synchrony of seed rain plays a key role in the formation of animal-mediated indirect interactions, which, in turn, may alter the seasonal or yearly seed rain schedules of sympatric tree species.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Árvores , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Florestas , Roedores , Sementes
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226551, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856213

RESUMO

The widely accepted "endozoochory syndrome" is assigned to angiosperm diaspores with a fleshy, attractive tissue and implies the existence of adaptations for protection against digestion during gut passage. This syndrome has led diaspore fleshiness to be emphasized as the exclusive indicator of endozoochory in much of the ecology and biogeography research. Crucially, however, endozoochory in nature is not limited to frugivory, and diaspores without "external flesh" are commonly dispersed, often over long distances, via birds and mammals by granivory. A key question is: are such diaspores somehow less prepared from an architectural point of view to survive gut passage than fleshy diaspores? To answer this question, we selected 11 European angiosperm taxa that fall outside the classical endozoochory syndrome yet are known to be dispersed via endozoochory. We studied their seed coat/pericarp morphology and anatomy both before and after gut passage through granivorous waterfowl, and determined their seed survival and germinability. We found no fundamental differences in the mechanical architecture of the seed coat and pericarp between these plants dispersed by granivory and others dispersed by frugivory. Neither diaspore traits per se, nor dormancy type, were strong predictors of diaspore survival or degree of damage during gut passage through granivores, or of the influence of gut passage on germinability. Among our 11 taxa, survival of gut passage is enabled by the thick cuticle of the exotesta or epicarp; one or several lignified cell layers; and diverse combinations of other architectural elements. These protection structures are ubiquitous in angiosperms, and likely to have evolved in gymnosperms. Hence, many angiosperm diaspores, dry or fleshy, may be pre-adapted to endozoochory, but with differing degrees of specialization and adaptation to dispersal mechanisms such as frugivory and granivory. Our findings underline the broad ecological importance of "non-classical endozoochory" of diaspores that lack "external flesh".


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Aves/fisiologia , Frutas , Intestinos/fisiologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Digestão , Germinação , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 46, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hornbills are known to play an important role in rainforests as agents of seed dispersal. Decades of scientific research has led to a vital body of knowledge on hornbill taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and conservation status. However, the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) that local people possess on hornbills has largely been underexplored. In 2018, we collaborated with the Iban people of Temburong, Brunei Darussalam, to study their TEK on hornbills. METHOD: We collaborated with the members of the Iban community from four longhouses and four villages in Temburong, Brunei Darussalam. Our study adopts a qualitative approach; we used detailed semi-directive interviews and brief semi-structured interviews to gather data. The semi-directive interviews documented the TEK related to Hornbills in detail while the brief semi-structured interviews assessed the current status of TEK in the age group of 18-40 years. RESULTS: The results show that the Iban ethnotaxonomy recognises seven folk species of hornbills, with Asian Black Hornbill (Anthracoceros malayanus) and Oriental Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) considered as a single folk species. The Iban TEK on diet and reproductive behaviour of hornbills complement existing scientific records, with the Iban TEK providing additional locale-specific information on the dietary preferences, abundance and conservation threats. However, the average Iban member has lost much of this TEK, and it is the subsistence hunters and agriculturists who have conserved it. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for encouraging transmission of knowledge from the hunters and agriculturists to others through ecotourism and conservation ventures. Our study adds further support to the understanding that the TEK of local communities is an important source of locale-specific knowledge on species of high conservation value such as hornbills.


Assuntos
Aves/classificação , Ecologia , Conhecimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Brunei , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dispersão de Sementes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2249-2256, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418227

RESUMO

Disturbance is the driving force of forest succession, which can change forest structure and surface vegetation. Disturbance also affects rodent-mediated seed dispersal. In this study, numbered plastic tags were used to examine the responses of rodent dispersal behavior to the fates of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata acorns at three habitats formed by different artificial disturbances in pine-oak mixed forests in the Qinling Mountains, i.e., unlogged stand, stand in the third year after tending thinning, and bare land. The results showed that seed removal rate from stands in the third year after tending was significantly higher than that in the other two habitats. The proportion of predation in bare land was significantly lower than that in the unlogged stand (25.0%) and in the stand in the third year after tending thinning (36.3%). In the third year after tending thinning, the seed predation rate after seed moving was significantly higher than those in the unlogged stand (17.3%) and bare land (5.0%). Moreover, the proportion of scatter hoarding after removal was also highest in the stand in the third year after tending thinning (4.3%). The longest average dispersal distance (26 m) occurred in the stand in the third year after tending thinning, which was significantly longer than those at the other two habitats. Therefore, the different habitat types significantly influenced the initial seed dispersal process by rodents, with consequences on the rates of seedling establishment. Habitat types affected the foraging strategies of rodents, thereby leading to different seed dispersal modes and natural regeneration patterns in the forest.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Quercus/fisiologia , Roedores , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Florestas , Sementes
10.
Biol Lett ; 15(7): 20190264, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288682

RESUMO

Juvenile animals generally disperse from their birthplace to their future breeding territories. In fragmented landscapes, habitat-specialist species must disperse through the anthropogenic matrix where remnant habitats are embedded. Here, we test the hypothesis that dispersing juvenile frugivores leave a footprint in the form of seed deposition through the matrix of fragmented landscapes. We focused on the Sardinian warbler ( Sylvia melanocephala), a resident frugivorous passerine. We used data from field sampling of bird-dispersed seeds in the forest and matrix of a fragmented landscape, subsequent disperser identification through DNA-barcoding analysis, and data from a national bird-ringing programme. Seed dispersal by Sardinian warblers was confined to the forest most of the year, but warblers contributed a peak of seed-dispersal events in the matrix between July and October, mainly attributable to dispersing juveniles. Our study uniquely connects animal and plant dispersal, demonstrating that juveniles of habitat-specialist frugivores can provide mobile-link functions transiently, but in a seasonally predictable way.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Sementes , Árvores
11.
Primates ; 60(5): 449-457, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342225

RESUMO

Frugivorous vertebrates such as primates are important dispersal agents in tropical forests, although the role of folivorous colobines is generally not considered. However, recent studies reported seed dispersal by endo- and epizoochory in colobine primates, including the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), suggesting that the role colobines play in seed dispersal might have been underestimated. In the Lower Kinabatangan Floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we investigated whether seeds were still able to germinate after being ingested by proboscis monkeys. Faecal samples (n = 201) from proboscis monkeys were collected between 2015 and 2017. Intact seeds belonging to eight plant species were found in 77% of the faecal samples. Nauclea spp. were the most abundant plant species, accounting for 98% of all intact seeds. This study is the first to conduct germination trials on seeds defecated by proboscis monkeys. Higher germination success was recorded in ingested Nauclea spp. seeds than in control seeds, from both ripe and unripe Nauclea orientalis fruits (P < 0.001). Therefore, we suggest that proboscis monkeys play a role in seed dispersal by enhancing the germination success of defecated seeds for at least some plant species. Similar to other colobines, although proboscis monkeys may provide a lower contribution to seed dispersal (low seed diversity over short distances) than other sympatric frugivores, this study emphasises that proboscis monkeys do contribute to the dispersal of intact seeds, such as Nauclea spp., in potentially suitable riverine habitats.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Dispersão Vegetal , Rubiaceae/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Bornéu , Malásia
12.
Ecology ; 100(10): e02797, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234233

RESUMO

Identifying potentially invasive species and preventing their introduction and establishment are of critical importance in invasion ecology and land management. Although an extensive body of research has been dedicated to identifying traits that confer invasiveness, our current knowledge is still often inconclusive due to limitations in geographic extent and/or scope of traits analyzed. Here, using a comprehensive set of 45 traits, we performed a case study of invasive traits displayed by exotic woody plants in the United States (U.S.) by comparing 63 invasive and 794 non-invasive exotic woody plant species naturalized across the country. We found that invasive woody species often bear the following two key traits: vegetative reproduction and long-distance seed dispersal (via water, birds or mammals). Boosted classification tree models based on these traits accurately predicted species invasiveness (86% accuracy on average). Presented findings provide a generalized understanding of the relative importance of functional traits in identifying potentially invasive woody species in the U.S. The knowledge generated in this study can be used to improve current classification systems of non-native woody plants used by various U.S. governmental agencies and land managers.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Ecologia , Plantas , Madeira
13.
Ecol Lett ; 22(9): 1387-1395, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207017

RESUMO

Many plants rely on animals for seed dispersal, but are all individuals equally effective at dispersing seeds? If not, then the loss of certain individual dispersers from populations could have cascade effects on ecosystems. Despite the importance of seed dispersal for forest ecosystems, variation among individual dispersers and whether land-use change interferes with this process remains untested. Through a large-scale field experiment conducted on small mammal seed dispersers, we show that an individual's personality affects its choice of seeds, as well as how distant and where seeds are cached. We also show that anthropogenic habitat modifications shift the distribution of personalities within a population, by increasing the proportion of bold, active, and anxious individuals and in-turn affecting the potential survival and dispersal of seeds. We demonstrate that preserving diverse personality types within a population is critical for maintaining the key ecosystem function of seed dispersal.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo , Comportamento Alimentar , Florestas , Personalidade , Roedores , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Sementes , Árvores
14.
Ecol Appl ; 29(7): e01963, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247121

RESUMO

Animals across a range of taxa use social information when foraging. Fruit-eating vertebrates are no exception and use social information to find fruit, which may ultimately affect plant populations via seed dispersal. In many systems, mutualistic relationships between fruiting plants and frugivores are critical to maintain ecosystem functioning, especially in the tropics. On the island of O'ahu, Hawaii, USA, all native, fruit-eating birds are extinct and several plant species are experiencing reduced recruitment likely due to a lack of seed dispersal. Over the years, numerous bird species, many of which are frugivorous, have been introduced to the island. Yet, introduced birds may not recognize native fruits as a resource and social information may be needed for introduced frugivores to target and feed on native fruits. We investigated whether social information, in the form of broadcasted bird vocalizations, of introduced birds could increase visitations and more importantly frugivory on focal fruiting plants. We also tested whether the visitation rates of introduced bird species to focal plants were influenced by conspecific and/or heterospecific vocalizations. We conducted 80 playback experiments at native and introduced fruiting plants, and compared responses to silent control periods. Four times as many frugivores were detected and 10 times more frugivory events were recorded at plants with broadcasted vocalizations compared to control periods. The Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) exhibited the strongest response to both conspecific and heterospecific playbacks. White-eyes also consumed the most fruit from the widest array of plant species during trials. Introduced birds that use social information and readily identify novel resources may more effectively colonize new areas. We suggest that the White-eye's use of social information may help to support their robust population on O'ahu. Ecosystems throughout the world are affected by the loss of mutualistic relationships, many of which provide valuable ecological services. As humans continue to modify environments, novel conservation approaches may be required to maintain important ecological functions. The use of social information to facilitate frugivory may not only be important in Hawaii, but in other tropical systems where key frugivorous species are lost or abundances have been reduced.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Hawaii , Humanos , Ilhas
15.
Oecologia ; 190(3): 605-617, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197480

RESUMO

Indirect interactions among plant species mediated by frugivorous animals can be central to population and community dynamics, since the successful seed dispersal of species may depend on facilitative or competitive interactions with heterospecific plants. Yet, empirical evidence on these interactions is very scarce and mostly available at small spatial scales, within populations. Because lipid-rich fruits are known to be preferred by migratory birds, here we test our prediction of competitive inferiority of a carbohydrate-rich fruited species (the hawthorn Crataegus monogyna) compared to lipid-rich co-fruiting species in a Mediterranean region where the bulk of seed dispersal relies on migratory birds. We assessed avian seed dispersal in both relative (fruit removal rate) and absolute terms (seed dispersal magnitude) in seven hawthorn populations distributed across an altitudinal gradient encompassing three contrasting fruiting contexts: hawthorn is scarce in the lowlands, common in the midlands, and the dominant fruit species in the highlands. We found evidence of seed dispersal reduction due to interspecific competition in the lowland populations, where lipid-rich fruits dominate. Besides, DNA barcoding analysis of bird-dispersed seeds revealed that only a small subset of the local frugivore assemblages consumed hawthorn fruits in the lowland communities. Instead, the consumers of hawthorn fruits resembled the local frugivore assemblages where hawthorn fruits were more dominant and frugivore choices more limited. Our study suggests mechanisms by which the rarity or dominance of plant species might be jointly influenced by environmental constraints (here, precipitation along the altitudinal gradient) and frugivore-mediated indirect interactions among plants hindering or facilitating seed dispersal.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Herbivoria
16.
Plant Reprod ; 32(4): 331-340, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222677

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Elucidation of key regulators in Arabidopsis fruit patterning has facilitated knowledge-translation into crop species to address yield loss caused by premature seed dispersal (pod shatter). In the 1980s, plant scientists descended on a small weed Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and developed it into a powerful model system to study plant biology. The massive advances in genetics and genomics since then have allowed us to obtain incredibly detailed knowledge on specific biological processes of Arabidopsis growth and development, its genome sequence and the function of many of the individual genes. This wealth of information provides immense potential for translation into crops to improve their performance and address issues of global importance such as food security. Here, we describe how fundamental insight into the genetic mechanism by which seed dispersal occurs in members of the Brassicaceae family can be exploited to reduce seed loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We demonstrate that by exploiting data on gene function in model species, it is possible to adjust the pod-opening process in oilseed rape, thereby significantly increasing yield. Specifically, we identified mutations in multiple paralogues of the INDEHISCENT and GA4 genes in B. napus and have overcome genetic redundancy by combining mutant alleles. Finally, we present novel software for the analysis of pod shatter data that is applicable to any crop for which seed dispersal is a serious problem. These findings highlight the tremendous potential of fundamental research in guiding strategies for crop improvement.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/fisiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/fisiologia , Arabidopsis , Brassica napus/genética , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Dispersão de Sementes
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 137: 190-199, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102687

RESUMO

The tribe Urticeae (Urticaceae), popularly known as Nettles, include 12 genera and ca. 200 species, constituting a diverse and cosmopolitan plant clade centered in tropical Asia, Africa, and South America. The global distribution of this clade makes it an excellent group to test hypotheses regarding the processes underlying tropical intercontinental disjunctions. More specifically, it allows us to test whether current distribution patterns resulted from recent transoceanic long-distance dispersal or ancient vicariance after boreotropical migration. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Nettles with the nuclear ITS and four plastid DNA regions (rbcL, trnL-F, matK and rpl14-rpl36) using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony approaches. We inferred divergence times using a Bayesian uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock model and ancestral areas using the divergence-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) model. Our results indicate a tropical Asian origin for the tribe during the late Paleocene. Migration events to Eurasia, South America and Africa occurred mainly during the Oligocene and Miocene. However, several long-distance dispersal events, including dispersals from Asia to Hawaii or Australasia, were inferred to have occurred from the Miocene onwards. The fleshy fruits and winged diaspores of several taxa are suited for long-distance dispersal.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes/fisiologia , Urticaceae/fisiologia , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Fatores de Tempo , Clima Tropical
18.
Biol Lett ; 15(5): 20180770, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039725

RESUMO

Mutualistic interactions like those established between plants and mycorrhizal fungi or seed dispersers are key drivers of plant population dynamics and ecosystem functioning; however, these interactions have rarely been explored together. We assembled a tripartite fungi-plant-disperser network in the Gorongosa National Park-Mozambique, to test (1) if diversity and importance of plant mutualists above- and belowground are correlated, and (2) whether biotically and abiotically dispersed plants are associated with distinct arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We quantified seed dispersal by animals for 1 year and characterized the AMF of 26 common plant species. Sixteen plant species were dispersed by 15 animals and colonized by 48 AMF virtual taxa (VT), while the remaining 10 plant species were not dispersed by animals and associated with 34 AMF VT. We found no evidence for a correlation between the number of plant partners above- and belowground or on plant specialization on both types of partners. We also found no evidence for differentiation of AMF communities between biotically and abiotically dispersed plants. Our results suggest that the establishment of plant interactions with seed dispersers and mycorrhizal fungi is largely independent and that both biotically and abiotically dispersed plants seem to associate with similar communities of AMF.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Ecossistema , Moçambique , Raízes de Plantas , Sementes
19.
J Anim Ecol ; 88(8): 1250-1262, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063251

RESUMO

While large avian frugivores are known to be key dispersers for large-seeded tree species, their role in community-wide plant-disperser networks is still poorly known. Large avian frugivores are also among the most threatened due to anthropogenic impacts. We evaluated the role of large avian frugivores in a plant-disperser community by (a) determining whether the plant-disperser community was modular, with a distinct community of large frugivores (thereby highlighting their importance), (b) determining relative qualitative and quantitative roles played by large-bodied frugivores vis-à-vis other frugivores and (c) determining impacts of large-bodied frugivore loss on the plant-disperser community. The study was carried out at a tropical forest site in north-east India, which is part of the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot. We collected tree watch data (20:55 hr) from 46 tree species, which represented 85% of tree species that are predominantly bird-dispersed in the area. We found that the plant-disperser community was modular, with a distinct module of large-seeded tree species and large frugivores. Intermediate-sized frugivores such as barbets and bulbuls were the most connected, while large-sized frugivores, such as hornbills and imperial pigeons, were moderately well connected. Qualitative and quantitative roles played by different dispersers varied across the gradient of frugivore body size. Hornbills, the largest avian frugivores, consumed a significantly greater number of fruits and swallowed larger proportions of fruits compared with other avian groups. In comparison with similar-sized frugivores, imperial pigeons fed on larger-sized fruits, highlighting their importance for dispersal of large-seeded plants. Under simulated extinction scenarios, larger extinction cascades were not necessarily caused by larger frugivores; however, extinctions of certain large-bodied frugivores (hornbills, imperial pigeons) caused extinction cascades. Integrating information from networks and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches enabled a better understanding of large frugivore role in a plant-disperser community. While large-bodied frugivores may not be playing a central role in plant-disperser communities, they are crucial as seed dispersal service providers for large-seeded plants. In conjunction with the reported local extinctions of large frugivores like hornbills from the south Asian region, this study's findings highlight the irreplaceable quantitative and qualitative impacts that tropical plant communities are likely to experience in the future.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Aves , Florestas , Frutas , Sementes , Árvores
20.
Science ; 364(6435): 78-82, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948550

RESUMO

Increasing rates of human-caused species invasions and extinctions may reshape communities and modify the structure, dynamics, and stability of species interactions. To investigate how such changes affect communities, we performed multiscale analyses of seed dispersal networks on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Networks consisted exclusively of novel interactions, were largely dominated by introduced species, and exhibited specialized and modular structure at local and regional scales, despite high interaction dissimilarity across communities. Furthermore, the structure and stability of the novel networks were similar to native-dominated communities worldwide. Our findings suggest that shared evolutionary history is not a necessary process for the emergence of complex network structure, and interaction patterns may be highly conserved, regardless of species identity and environment. Introduced species can quickly become well integrated into novel networks, making restoration of native ecosystems more challenging than previously thought.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Dispersão de Sementes , Simbiose , Animais , Hawaii , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
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