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1.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 37(1): E14-E23, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378093

RESUMO

Dyspnea is a common symptom and anxiety is a common comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They affect individuals with COPD in a multifaceted way, causing many disabilities. Progressive relaxation exercises (PREs) are an important intervention in reducing symptoms and comorbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PREs on dyspnea and anxiety levels in individuals with COPD. A pretest-posttest randomized controlled trial was conducted at the chest diseases clinic of a university hospital in Turkey. Forty-four patients with COPD who met the inclusion criteria for participation in the study were assigned either to an intervention or a control group, with 22 patients in each group. In the intervention group, the patients performed PREs once a day for 4 weeks in addition to the standard treatment. The patients in the control group received the standard treatment. In the data collection stage of the study, questionnaire forms, namely, the Modified Borg Scale (MBS), Modified British Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), were used. Data were collected before (the first follow-up) and after the intervention (the second follow-up). In the second follow-up, the MBS, BAI, and CAT scores decreased significantly in the intervention group (P < .05) but showed no significant changes in the control group (P > .05). This study demonstrates that PREs can reduce dyspnea and anxiety levels in individuals with COPD.


Assuntos
Treinamento Autógeno , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Comorbidade , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Eur J Haematol ; 110(1): 67-76, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19) pandemic has impacted the management of patients with hematologic disorders. In some entities, an increased risk for Covid-19 infections was reported, whereas others including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) had a lower mortality. We have analyzed the prevalence of Covid-19 infections in patients with mastocytosis during the Covid-19 pandemic in comparison to data from CML patients and the general Austrian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of infections and PCR-proven Covid-19 infections was analyzed in 92 patients with mastocytosis. As controls, we used 113 patients with CML and the expected prevalence of Covid-19 in the general Austrian population. RESULTS: In 25% of the patients with mastocytosis (23/92) signs and symptoms of infection, including fever (n = 11), dry cough (n = 10), sore throat (n = 12), pneumonia (n = 1), and dyspnea (n = 3) were recorded. Two (8.7%) of these symptomatic patients had a PCR-proven Covid-19 infection. Thus, the prevalence of Covid-19 infections in mastocytosis was 2.2%. The number of comorbidities, subtype of mastocytosis, regular exercise, smoking habits, age, or duration of disease at the time of interview did not differ significantly between patients with and without Covid-19 infections. In the CML cohort, 23.9% (27/113) of patients reported signs and symptoms of infection (fever, n = 8; dry cough, n = 17; sore throat, n = 11; dyspnea, n = 5). Six (22.2%) of the symptomatic patients had a PCR-proven Covid-19 infection. The prevalence of Covid-19 in all CML patients was 5.3%. The observed number of Covid-19 infections neither in mastocytosis nor in CML patients differed significantly from the expected number of Covid-19 infections in the Austrian population. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show no significant difference in the prevalence of Covid-19 infections among patients with mastocytosis, CML, and the general Austrian population and thus, in mastocytosis, the risk of a Covid-19 infection was not increased compared to the general population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Leucemia Mieloide , Mastocitose , Faringite , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidência , Tosse , Áustria/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/complicações , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/epidemiologia , Febre , Dispneia
3.
Epidemiology ; 34(1): 8-19, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455244

RESUMO

In longitudinal studies with time-varying exposures and mediators, the mediational g-formula is an important method for the assessment of direct and indirect effects. However, current methodologies based on the mediational g-formula can deal with only one mediator. This limitation makes these methodologies inapplicable to many scenarios. Hence, we develop a novel methodology by extending the mediational g-formula to cover cases with multiple time-varying mediators. We formulate two variants of our approach that are each suited to a distinct set of assumptions and effect definitions and present nonparametric identification results of each variant. We further show how complex causal mechanisms (whose complexity derives from the presence of multiple time-varying mediators) can be untangled. We implemented a parametric method, along with a user-friendly algorithm, in R software. We illustrate our method by investigating the complex causal mechanism underlying the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We found that the effects of lung function impairment mediated by dyspnea symptoms accounted for 14.6% of the total effect and that mediated by physical activity accounted for 11.9%. Our analyses thus illustrate the power of this approach, providing evidence for the mediating role of dyspnea and physical activity on the causal pathway from lung function impairment to health status. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B988 .


Assuntos
Dispneia , Análise de Mediação , Humanos , Algoritmos , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde
4.
Cytokine ; 161: 156060, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyspnea, the cardinal manifestation of chronic heart failure (CHF), may reflect both pulmonary oedema and pulmonary remodeling resulting in tissue stiffening. Emerging evidence suggests that predominance of distinct phenotypes of alveolar and recruited macrophages, designated M1 and M2, may regulate the course of inflammatory tissue repair and remodeling in the lung. METHODS: In a CHF rat model, we found fibrotic reinforcement of the extracellular matrix with an increase in monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), corresponding to a 3-fold increase in recruited macrophages. In this clinical cross sectional study, we aimed to examine potential mediators of leukocyte activation and lung infiltration in parallel BAL and blood from CHF patients compared to non-CHF controls. RESULTS: Mini-BAL and peripheral blood samples were obtained from hospitalized CHF, acute decompensated CHF and non-CHF patients. CHF patients and decompensated CHF patients demonstrated increases from non-CHF patients in BAL MCP-1, as well as the M2 macrophage cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-ß. BAL and plasma MCP-1 were significantly correlated; however, MCP-1 was 20-fold higher in epithelial lining fluid in BAL, indicative of an alveolar chemotactic gradient. An increase in transglutaminase 2 positive M2 macrophages in parallel with a decrease in the MCP-1 receptor, CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), was apparent in BAL cells of CHF patients compared to non-CHF. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a pathway of MCP-1 mediated M2 macrophage prevalence in the lungs of CHF patients which may contribute to pulmonary fibrotic remodeling and consequent increased severity of dyspnea.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Fibrose Pulmonar , Ratos , Animais , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Proteínas Quimioatraentes de Monócitos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Dispneia
5.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(6): 327-335, nov. - dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-1056

RESUMO

Introducción: Las enfermedades pulmonares restrictivas presentan alteraciones en la mecánica toracopulmonar, reducción de la capacidad funcional y de la función pulmonar. Se pueden encontrar las alteraciones intrínsecas y extrínsecas donde se ven alterados el intersticio, la expansibilidad torácica e incluso afecciones del parénquima pulmonar. La rehabilitación pulmonar podría beneficiar a pacientes con la condición restrictiva y mejorar su condición funcional. Objetivo Establecer el impacto de la rehabilitación pulmonar en pacientes con compromiso respiratorio restrictivo intrínseco y extrínseco en la disnea, capacidad funcional, ansiedad/depresión y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Métodos Estudio descriptivo longitudinal con 50 pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar restrictiva y quienes realizaron rehabilitación pulmonar en una clínica de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Los participantes vinculados al estudio fueron separados en dos grupos: el primero con enfermedad restrictiva intrapulmonar (ERI) y el segundo grupo con enfermedad restrictiva extrapulmonar (ERE). Resultados La edad media de los pacientes fue de 53,3años. Entre las enfermedades restrictivas intrapulmonares se presentaron: enfermedad intersticial pulmonar difusa (EPID), postcondición de neumonías o síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) y secuelas de tuberculosis pulmonar. Y entre las enfermedades respiratorias extrapulmonares: resección pulmonar, resección de lóbulo pulmonar y resección en cuña. Al finalizar la rehabilitación pulmonar el grupo ERI presentó mejorías estadísticamente significativas en la distancia recorrida, consumo de oxígeno estimado (VO2e), disnea, ansiedad y calidad de vida. El grupo ERE presentó incremento significativo en la distancia recorrida y VO2e (AU)


Introduction: Restrictive lung diseases present alterations in thoracic-pulmonary mechanics, reduced functional capacity and lung function. Intrinsic and extrinsic alterations can be found where the interstitium, thoracic expandability and even lung parenchymal conditions are altered. Pulmonary rehabilitation could benefit patients with the restrictive condition and improve their functional condition. Objective Establish the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with intrinsic and extrinsic restrictive respiratory compromise on dyspnea, functional capacity, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. Methods Longitudinal descriptive study with 50 patients with restrictive lung disease who performed pulmonary rehabilitation in a clinic in the city of Cali, Colombia. The participants linked to the study were separated into two groups, the first with intrapulmonary restrictive disease (IRD) and the second group with extrapulmonary restrictive disease (ERD). Results The mean age of the patients was 53.3years. Among the restrictive intrapulmonary diseases there were: diffuse interstitial lung disease (ILD), post-condition pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary respiratory diseases: lung resection, pulmonary lobe resection, and wedge resection. At the end of pulmonary rehabilitation, the IRD group presented statistically significant improvements in distance covered, estimated oxygen consumption (VO2e), dyspnea, anxiety, and quality of life. The ERD group presented a significant increase in the distance traveled and VO2e. Conclusion Patients with restrictive lung disease improve the distance traveled, VO2e, dyspnea, anxiety and quality of life; patients with extrapulmonary respiratory disease show improvements in functional capacity (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pneumopatias/reabilitação , Dispneia/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Tolerância ao Exercício , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(47): e31699, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is a hallmark symptom of heart failure. The existing clinical studies have indicated that opioid can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of heart failure patients with dyspnea. However, there has not been any relevant systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of opioid therapy for heart failure patients with refractory dyspnea. METHODS: We searched 3 foreign electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed) and 4 Chinese electronic databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wang Fang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Chinese Scientific Journal Database) to collect potential studies from their inceptions to October 2022. The risk of bias in the included articles was assessed according to the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool in Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews (5th edition). The quality of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Data were analyzed using the RevMan Version 5.4.1. RESULTS: This study will evaluate whether opioid is effective and safe for treating refractory dyspnea in patients with heart failure. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis will provide comprehensive evidence of opioid therapy for heart failure patients with dyspnea.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Dispneia/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 51(12): 919, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451318

Assuntos
Dispneia , Humanos
8.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 496-502, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) like hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common comorbidities among COVID-19 patients. The clinical presentation and mortality pattern of COVID-19 are different for patients with comorbidities and without comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical presentation of COVID-19 and risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: A record-based cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the case records of COVID-19 patients admitted for treatment from June 2020 to September 2020 in a tertiary care centre in South India. Potential risk factors for COVID-19 mortality were analysed using univariate binomial logistic regression, generalized linear models (GLM) with the Poisson distribution. Survival curves were made using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Out of 200 COVID-19 patients with diabetes with a mean (SD) age of 56.1 (11.8) years, 61% were men. The median survival time was slightly lesser in male COVID-19 patients (15 days) as compared to female patients (16 days). The risk of mortality among COVID-19 patients with diabetes is increased for patients who presented with breathlessness (aRR = 4.5 (95% CI: 2.3-8.8)), had positive history of smoking (aRR = 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.8)), who had CKD (aRR = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.8)) and who had cardiac illness (aRR = 1.6 (95% CI: 0.9-2.7)). CONCLUSION: Diabetes patients with COVID-19 need to be given additional care and monitoring especially if they present with breathlessness, positive history of smoking, cardiac illness and, CKD. Public health campaigns and health education activities to control smoking is needed to reduce the COVID-19 mortality in diabetes patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Dispneia
9.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 535-538, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice it has been observed that several patients of cured pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) suffer with lung dysfunction and these problems are less documented routinely. Prevalence of these abnormalities remains unknown. Aim of this study is to estimate the lung function abnormality and exercise capacity including diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in cured PTB cases. METHODS: A hospital based observational descriptive study was carried out among 100 patients with PTB, who had been declared cured. These patients were evaluated by spirometry and DLCO to assess their lung function and were classified as normal or abnormal. Modified medical research council (mMRC) dyspnea scale for symptom assessment and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to determine the exercise capacity was also done. Borg's scale was used for dyspnea assessment in 6MWT. RESULTS: 83 (83%) patients having abnormal spirometry, 17 (17%) had obstructive pattern, 32 (32%) had restrictive pattern and 34 (34%) had mixed pattern. 22 (22%) patients had mild decrease in DLCO, 43 (43%) patients had moderate decrease in DLCO, while only 4 (4%) had severe decrease in DLCO. More than half of the patients having normal spirometry had reduced in DLCO. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abnormal lung functions is high even after complete anti-tubercular treatment. DLCO could be a better tool for evaluation of lung function in these patients. There is need to strengthen the National Programme to detect and treat TB patient earlier, also there is need to formulate guidelines for pulmonary rehabilitation of cured PTB patient.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Espirometria , Dispneia , Tórax , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 902, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sotrovimab neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 remained effective at the advent of B.1 lineage of the Omicron variant in outpatients. Primarily for hospitalized patients, however, the Japanese government regulated to administer this antibody agent. As this regulation enabled close monitoring in inpatients to investigate post-infusion adverse events (AEs) and efficacy, we attempted a retrospective study while the Omicron BA.1 lineage was dominant regionally. METHODS: Subjects were inpatients with COVID-19 who received infusion of sotrovimab in our institute. In line with previous clinical trials, we included patients at risk of COVID-19 worsening and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, who were hospitalized as directed by the government. For statistical analyses, we reviewed background factors of demographics, imaging, and laboratory findings for the outcome infusion-related reactions including post-infusion pyrexia over 38 degrees Celsius and/or pulse oximetry below 94%. RESULTS: In a total of 139 patients, the follow-up period had a median of 200 days (range, 154-248 days). Among 119 patients (85.6%) fully vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2, 86 (61.9% of all) underwent 2 doses while 33 (23.7% of all) received 3 doses. For the outcome of pyrexia and/or dyspnea (N = 40, 28.8%), multivariate analysis showed that significant risk factors were pre-infusion lowered oximetry below 96.5% (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.344, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.139-0.851, P = 0.021) and pre-infusion temperature more than 36.7 degrees Celsius (OR 4.056, 95% CI 1.696-9.701, P = 0.002). Infusion-related reactions included vomiting immediately after infusion, chill/shivering, dizziness, rash, pruritus, pyrexia, and dyspnea. The number of patients with any of these events was 44 (31.6%). Three patients (2.2%) showed worsening of COVID-19; one developed hypoxia and two died. Limitations for this study included no genome typing whether BA.1 or BA.2 lineage of the Omicron variant but the local epidemiology indicated the prevalence of BA.1. Another was sotrovimab administration for inpatients that allow precise detection of post-infusion events, confounding previous exacerbation definition including hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: For 24 h after infusion of sotrovimab, COVID-19 patients showing pre-infusion lowered oximetry below 96.5% and/or temperature more than 36.7 degrees Celsius may have temperature elevation or dyspnea, warranting close monitoring for these risk factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Internados , Estudos Retrospectivos , Japão/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Febre/etiologia , Dispneia
11.
J UOEH ; 44(4): 341-351, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464308

RESUMO

Little is known about the factors related to return to work (RTW) in patients with peri-operative lung cancer (LC). This study aimed to investigate whether pre-operative physical performance is associated with early RTW in patients with peri-operative LC. A total of 59 patients who wished to resume work after lung resection surgery were included and were divided into three groups: early RTW (within 14 days after discharge), delayed RTW (within 15-90 days), and non-RTW (failure of RTW within 90 days). The early RTW group had significantly lower scores on the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) and significantly higher scores on the Euro Quality of Life 5-Dimension 3-Level (EQ-5D-3L) than the non-RTW group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that EQ-5D-3L scores were significantly associated with early RTW, and mMRC scores and knee extensor strength tended to be associated with early RTW. Better pre-operative quality of life, mild dyspnea, and greater lower limb muscle strength tended to be associated with early RTW in patients with peri-operative LC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Retorno ao Trabalho , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Dispneia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 268, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338558

RESUMO

The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that emerged in December 2019 in China continues to claim a thousand lives worldwide. This study aimed to report characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of a Moroccan COVID-19 cohort, and identify factors which predispose patients to hospitalization and mortality from COVID-19. We conducted a cross-sectional study of symptomatic COVID-19 patients referred to COVID-19 ward of the Settat Provincial Hospital, during October 2020. A confirmed COVID-19 case was defined by a positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 genome using real-time RT-PCR assay performed on nasopharyngeal swabs. Patients´ demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed using SPSS V22.0. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mortality due to COVID-19. In total, 269 patients were reported. The median age was 64 years [IQR 54-73], 48.7% were elderly (≥ 65 years), 51.7% were men, and the case-fatality rate (CFR) was 5.58%. Males had a higher CFR (6.5%) than females (4.6%). In deceased people: 60% males, 73.3% were elderly, and oxygen saturation values of 90% or less on admission were more frequent (86.7%) than in recovered ones (10.9%). Most patients (80.3%) had at least one comorbidity: 100% of deaths, 59% older than 60 years, CFR was 6.94% and the most prevalent diseases were diabetes (54.6%), hypertension (41.7%), and cardiac disease (40.7%). The most common symptoms on presentation were dyspnea (67.7%), fever (65.4%) and cough (58.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that only older age (AOR: 10.860, 95% CI: 3.382-34.86; p<0.001) and cardiac disease (AOR: 0.244, 95% CI: 0.074-0.799; p=0.02) were associated with higher mortality rates. Categorizing patients at admission according to risk factors identified by multivariate and also univariate analyses (mainly dyspnea) is essential to help in deciding the hospitalization priority and the strategy that will eventually reduce death risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cardiopatias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Comorbidade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dispneia , Hospitais , Demografia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31270, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 3% nebulized hypertonic saline (NHS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis (AB). METHODS: We systematically searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, WANFANG, and VIP databases from inception to June 1, 2022. We included randomized controlled trials comparing NHS with 0.9% saline. Outcomes included the length of hospital stay (LOS), rate of hospitalization (ROH), clinical severity score (CSS), rate of readmission, respiratory distress assessment instrument, and adverse events. RevMan V5.4 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 27 trials involving 3495 infants were included in this study. Compared to normal saline, infants received 3% NHS showed better outcomes in LOS reduction (MD = -0.60, 95% CI [-1.04, -0.17], I2 = 92%, P = .007), ROH decrease (OR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.59, 0.91], I2 = 0%, P = .005), CSS improvement at day 1 (MD = -0.79, 95% CI [-1.23, -0.34], I2 = 74%, P < .001), day 2 (MD = -1.26, 95% CI [-2.02, -0.49], I2 = 91%, P = .001), and day 3 and over (MD = -1.27, 95% CI [-1.92, -0.61], I2 = 79%, P < .001), and respiratory distress assessment instrument enhancement (MD = -0.60, 95% CI [-0.95, -0.26], I2 = 0%, P < .001). No significant adverse events related to 3% NHS were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that 3% NHS was better than 0.9% normal saline in reducing LOS, decreasing ROH, improving CSS, and in enhancing the severity of respiratory distress. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Lactente , Humanos , Solução Salina , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Aguda , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Bronquiolite/tratamento farmacológico , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Dispneia
14.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323418

RESUMO

Persistent breathlessness >28 days after acute COVID-19 infection has been identified as a highly debilitating post-COVID symptom. However, the prevalence, risk factors, mechanisms and treatments for post-COVID breathlessness remain poorly understood. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for relevant studies published from 1 January 2020 to 1 November 2021 (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021285733) and included 119 eligible papers. Random-effects meta-analysis of 42 872 patients with COVID-19 reported in 102 papers found an overall prevalence of post-COVID breathlessness of 26% (95% CI 23-29) when measuring the presence/absence of the symptom, and 41% (95% CI 34-48) when using Medical Research Council (MRC)/modified MRC dyspnoea scale. The pooled prevalence decreased significantly from 1-6 months to 7-12 months post-infection. Post-COVID breathlessness was more common in those with severe/critical acute infection, those who were hospitalised and females, and was less likely to be reported by patients in Asia than those in Europe or North America. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed (including deconditioning, restrictive/obstructive airflow limitation, systemic inflammation, impaired mental health), but the body of evidence remains inconclusive. Seven cohort studies and one randomised controlled trial suggested rehabilitation exercises may reduce post-COVID breathlessness. There is an urgent need for mechanistic research and development of interventions for the prevention and treatment of post-COVID breathlessness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Terapia por Exercício
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 404, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report a case of acute respiratory distress associated with a histological pattern of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia, and discuss the possible responsibility of flecainide therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old African woman developed a rapidly progressive dyspnea and required admission in the intensive care unit for orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Chest X-ray examination revealed bilateral infiltrates predominating in the basal part of both lungs. Lung computed tomography disclosed bilateral ground-glass opacities and septal thickening. After exclusion of the most common causes of infectious or immune pneumonia, a toxic origin was investigated and flecainide toxicity was considered. Lung biopsy was consistent with the unusual pattern of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. Clinical and radiological improvement was noted after corticosteroid therapy, but the patient died from septic complications. CONCLUSION: Flecainide-induced lung injury has rarely been reported in the literature and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The histological pattern of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia has been previously observed with amiodarone. There are no firm guidelines for the treatment of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia, but some patients may positively respond to corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica , Pneumonia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Flecainida/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/complicações , Pulmão/patologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Biópsia , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/complicações , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 397, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphangiomas are rare benign malformations of the lymphatics that occur due to blockage of the lymphatic system during fetal development. They commonly occur in the neck and axilla, while involvement of the pericardium is rare. We report herein the case of a 16-month-old Sri Lankan child with a large pericardial cystic lymphangioma presenting with sudden-onset shortness of breath. CASE PRESENTATION: A 16-month-old Sri Lankan boy presented with sudden-onset dyspnea for 1-day duration following a febrile illness that lasted 2 days. On examination, he was afebrile and had subcostal, intercostal, and suprasternal recessions, with a respiratory rate of 50 breaths per minute. He had a loud expiratory grunt. The chest expansion was reduced on the right side, which was dull to percussion. Auscultation revealed a marked reduction of air entry over the right lower and mid zones. Chest X-ray showed a well-demarcated opacity involving the lower and mid zones of the right hemithorax associated with a tracheal shift to the opposite side. Ultrasound scan of the chest revealed fluid-filled right hemithorax suggesting a septate pleural effusion. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the thorax showed a large multiloculated extrapulmonary cystic lesion involving the right hemithorax with a mediastinal shift towards the left side associated with displacement of the right-side mediastinal structures. He underwent mini-thoracotomy and surgical excision of the cyst. A large cyst originating from the pericardium was observed and excised during surgery. Histological examination revealed a lesion composed of cysts devoid of a lining epithelium but separated by connective tissue, mature adipose tissue, and lymphoid aggregates. The child showed complete recovery postoperatively with full expansion of the ipsilateral lung. CONCLUSION: We report the case of a patient with cystic lymphangioma who was perfectly well and asymptomatic until 16 months of age. This case report presents the very rare occurrence of a large cystic lymphangioma originating from the pericardium. It highlights the importance of considering rare possibilities and performing prompt imaging in situations of diagnostic uncertainty to arrive at an accurate diagnosis that can be lifesaving.


Assuntos
Cistos , Linfangioma Cístico , Linfangioma , Neoplasias do Mediastino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Linfangioma Cístico/diagnóstico , Linfangioma Cístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico , Linfangioma/complicações , Linfangioma/cirurgia , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/patologia , Dispneia , Cistos/complicações
17.
Dan Med J ; 69(11)2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331152

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cachexia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is high and associated with reduced quality of life, increased mortality and morbidity. We aimed to test the effect of a high protein diet combined with exercise on fat-free mass (FFM), functional capacity, symptom burden and dyspnoea. METHODS: Outpatients with COPD and severe or very severe (GOLD grade III-IV) disease and malnutrition commencing pulmonary rehabilitation were randomised to a high-protein diet or standard care. FFM was measured by bio-impedance analysis (BIA), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and mid-thigh circumference (MTC), peripheral muscle function by six-minute walking distance (6MWD) and handgrip strength (HGS), symptoms by the COPD Assessment Trial (CAT) and dyspnoea by the Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale and Borg scores; all at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Ten out of 13 randomised patients completed the trial. The intervention group was superior to the control group with respect to 6MWD (97 ± 93 m, p = 0.04) at 12 weeks. No differences were observed between the groups in HGS, anthropometrics, symptom burden or dyspnoea. CONCLUSION: In patients with COPD attending rehabilitation, a high protein diet combined with physical exercise had a clinically relevant effect on walking distance. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04888182.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Dispneia/complicações , Dispneia/reabilitação , Tolerância ao Exercício , Força da Mão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Qualidade de Vida
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347584

RESUMO

Madelung's disease is a lipodystrophy of unknown etiology. This article reports a case of Madelung's disease complicated with laryngeal cancer. The clinical manifestations of the patient were progressive hoarseness and dyspnea, dysphagia, and diffuse symmetrical swelling of the neck, submental, and submandibular. Dynamic laryngoscopy revealed a giant cauliflower-like neoplasm in the throat, with the left vocal cord fixed. Laryngeal CT showed laryngeal carcinoma (transglottic type), signs of lymph node metastasis in the left jugular chain region, and Madelung syndrome in the neck. Biochemical tests showed albumin 38.7 g/L, globulin 27.5 g/L, prealbumin 160 g/L, aspartate aminotransferase 14 IU/L, γ-transpeptidase 80 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 7 IU/L, Creatinine 43 µmol/L. Preoperative pathology suggested squamous cell carcinoma. Admission diagnosis included laryngeal cancer (transglottic T4N1M0), Ⅲ degree laryngeal obstruction, Madelung's disease and fatty liver. The patient recovered well after surgery.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla , Humanos , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/diagnóstico , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/patologia , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/cirurgia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Laringoscopia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 408, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is common after COVID-19 pneumonia and can be characterized by a defective CO2 diffusion (DLCO) despite normal pulmonary function tests (PFT). Nevertheless, DLCO impairment tends to normalize at 1 year, with no dyspnea regression. The altered regional distribution of ventilation and a dysfunction of the peripheral lung may characterize dyspnea at 1 year after COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at assessing the pattern of airway resistance and inflammation and the regional ventilation inhomogeneity in COVID-19 pneumonia survivors at 12-months after hospital discharge. METHODS: We followed up at 1-year patients previously admitted to the respiratory units (intensive care or sub-intensive care unit) for COVID-19 acute respiratory failure at 1-year after hospital discharge. PFT (spirometry, DLCO), impulse oscillometry (IOS), measurements of the exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) were used to evaluate lung volumes, CO2 diffusion capacity, peripheral lung inflammation/resistances and the regional inhomogeneity of ventilation distribution. A full medical examination was conducted, and symptoms of new onset (not present before COVID-19) were recorded. Patients were therefore divided into two groups based on the presence/absence of dyspnea (defined as mMRC ≥1) compared to evaluate differences in the respiratory function derived parameters. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were admitted between October and December 2020. Of them, 42/67 (63%) patients were discharged alive and 33 were evaluated during the follow up. Their mean age was 64 ± 11 years and 24/33 (73%) were males. Their maximum respiratory support was in 7/33 (21%) oxygen, in 4/33 (12%) HFNC, in 14/33 (42%) NIV/CPAP and in 8/33 (24%) invasive mechanical ventilation. During the clinical examination, 15/33 (45%) reported dyspnea. When comparing the two groups, no significant differences were found in PFT, in the peripheral airway inflammation (FENO) or mechanical properties (IOS). However, EIT showed a significantly higher regional inhomogeneity in patients with dyspnea both during resting breathing (0.98[0.96-1] vs 1.1[1-1.1], p = 0.012) and during forced expiration (0.96[0.94-1] vs 1 [0.98-1.1], p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: New onset dyspnea characterizes 45% of patients 1 year after COVID-19 pneumonia. In these patients, despite pulmonary function test may be normal, EIT shows a higher regional inhomogeneity both during quiet and forced breathing which may contribute to dyspnea. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04343053, registration date 13/04/2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , COVID-19/complicações , Seguimentos , Dióxido de Carbono , Pulmão , Dispneia/etiologia , Sobreviventes , Inflamação
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277338, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to describe the profile of adult patients and analyze the predictors of death from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Knowledge of the predictors of death by COVID-19 in Rio de Janeiro, a state with one of the highest mortality rates in Brazil, is essential to improve health care for these patients. METHODS: Data from the Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza and the Mortality Information System were used. A binary logistic regression model evaluated the outcome of death, sociodemographic data, and clinical-epidemiological and health care covariates. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics were performed with the R program, version 4.0.0. RESULTS: Overall, 51,383 cases of SARS due to COVID-19 among adults were reported in the state between March 5 and December 2, 2020. Mortality was high (40.5%). The adjusted final model presented the following predictors of death in SARS patients due to COVID-19: male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.17); age (OR = 5.35, 95%CI, 4.88-5.88; ≥75 years); oxygen saturation <95% (OR = 1.48, 95%CI, 1.37-1.59), respiratory distress (OR = 1.31, 95%CI, 1.21-1.41) and dyspnoea (OR = 1.25, 95%CI, 1.15-1.36), the presence of at least one risk factor/comorbidity (OR = 1.32, 95%CI, 1.23-1.42), chronic kidney disease (OR = 1.94, 95%CI, 1.69-2.23), immunosuppression (OR = 1.51, 95%CI, 1.26-1.81) or chronic neurological disease (OR = 1.36, 95%CI, 1.18-1.58), and ventilatory support, invasive (OR = 8.89, 95%CI, 8.08-9.79) or non-invasive (OR = 1.25, 95%CI, 1.15-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with death were male sex, old age, oxygen saturation <95%, respiratory distress, dyspnoea, chronic kidney and neurological diseases, immunosuppression, and use of invasive or noninvasive ventilatory support. Identifying factors associated with disease progression can help the clinical management of patients with COVID-19 and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Dispneia
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