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1.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109610, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585274

RESUMO

Biochar (BC) and magnesium ferrite (MF) have been used in effective adsorption of cadmium (Cd) in aqueous environment, whereas little is known about the effect of their composite on Cd adsorption and Cd-contaminated soil remediation. In this study, biochar (BC), magnesium ferrite (MF) and biochar assembled with magnesium ferrite (MB) were prepared for Cd adsorption and then applied in soils (1-2% w/w) to investigate their effects on Cd passivation by performing leaching experiments and early stage seeding growth test for packoi (Brassica chinensis L.). Compared with the BC and MF, the MB showed greater adsorption property for Cd at aqueous solution (31.3 mg/g) and amended soils (1.85 mg/g at 2% applied rate) based on the isotherms studies. Besides, the MB performed the better passivation ability in reduction of the bioavailable Cd and seeding growth experiment. Solid state analysis of the materials before and after leaching indicated that the passivation mechanism may be dominated by ion exchange and surface complexation. Principal component analysis revealed that the soil pH and adsorption capacity had the strong correlation with the contents of bioavailable-Cd and seedling growth. These results indicated that MB could be used as an efficient amendment in Cd contaminated soil for reducing bioavailable Cd concentrations and improving plant growth.


Assuntos
Brassica , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal , Compostos Férricos , Compostos de Magnésio , Solo
2.
Life Sci ; 234: 116787, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445028

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. This is due to its prevalence among infants, children, adolescents, pregnant and reproductive age women. Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) is the first line therapy for iron IDA. Unfortunately, it is reported that FeSO4 suffers from low absorption rate in the body and itself exhibits severe side effects. Herein, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles-loaded liposomes (LMNPs) are prepared, characterized and evaluated as a treatment regimen for IDA in Wistar rats (as an animal model). Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are prepared and loaded into liposomes using the thin film hydration method. The size of the prepared formulations is in the range 10-100 nm, thus it can avoid the reticular endothelial system (RES), and increased their blood circulation time. For in vivo assessment, thirty-five Wistar rats are divided into 5 groups (n = 7): negative control group, positive control group, and three groups treated with different iron formulations (FeSO4, MNPs and LMNPs). Anemia is induced in the anemic groups by the bleeding method and then treatment started with different iron compounds administrated orally for 13 days. Hematological parameters are followed up during the treatment period. Results indicate that, in the LMNPs group, the hematological parameters turn to normal values and the histopathological structures of the liver, spleen and kidney remain normal. This proves that liposome increases the bioavailability of MNPs. In conclusion, LMNPs demonstrate superiority as a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of IDA among the tested iron formulations.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Compostos Ferrosos/farmacocinética , Compostos Ferrosos/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/farmacocinética , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas/análise , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Ratos Wistar
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5435-5448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409997

RESUMO

Background: Ramipril (RMP) suffers from poor aqueous solubility along with sensitivity to mechanical stress, heat, and moisture. The aim of the current study is to improve RMP solubility and stability by designing solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) as tablet. Methods: The drug was initially incorporated in different liquid formulations (L-SNEDDS) which were evaluated by equilibrium solubility, droplet size, and zeta potential studies. The optimized formulation was solidified into S-SNEDDS powder by the adsorbent Syloid® and compressed into a self-nanoemulsifying tablet (T-SNEDDS). The optimized tablet was evaluated by drug content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration, and dissolution tests. Furthermore, pure RMP, optimized L-SNEDDS, and T-SNEDDS were enrolled in accelerated and long-term stability studies. Results: Among various liquid formulations, F5 L-SNEDDS [capmul MCM/transcutol/HCO-30 (25/25/50%w/w)] showed relatively high drug solubility, nano-scaled droplet size, and high negative zeta potential value. The optimized SNEDDS solidification with Syloid® at ratio (1:1) resulted in a compressible powder with an excellent flowability. The optimized tablet (T-SNEDDS) showed accepted content uniformity, hardness, friability, and disintegration time (<15 minutes). The optimized L-SNEDDS, S-SNEDDS, and T-SNEDDS showed superior enhancement of RMP dissolution compared to the pure drug. Most importantly, T-SNEDDS showed significant (P<0.05) improvement of RMP stability compared to the pure drug and L-SNEDDS in both accelerated and long-term stability studies. Conclusion: RMP-loaded T-SNEDDS offers a potential oral dosage form that provides combined improvement of RMP dissolution and chemical stability.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Ramipril/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Dureza , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Controle de Qualidade , Solubilidade , Eletricidade Estática , Comprimidos/química , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5051-5060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371946

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cutaneous wounds represent a major issue in medical care and are often prone to infections. Purpose: The aim of this study was the design of a clay mineral-drug nanocomposite based on montmorillonite and norfloxacin (NF, antimicrobial drug) as a powder for cutaneous application, to enhance wound healing in infected skin lesions. Methods: The nanocomposite has been prepared by means of an intercalation solution procedure. Adsorption isotherm, solid-state characterization of the nanocomposite, drug loading capacity and its release have been performed. Moreover, cytocompatibility, in vitro fibroblast proliferation and antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were assessed. Results: The clay drug adsorption isotherm demonstrates that the mechanism of NF intercalation into montmorillonite galleries is the adsorption as one single process, due to the charge-charge interaction between protonated NF and negatively charged montmorillonite edges in the interlayer space. Nanocomposite is biocompatible and it is characterized by antimicrobial activity greater than the free drug: this is due to its nanostructure and controlled drug release properties. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained, NF-montmorillonite nanocomposite seems a promising tool to treat infected skin lesions or skin wounds prone to infection, as chronic ulcers (diabetic foot, venous leg ulcers) and burns.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Nanocompostos/química , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Norfloxacino/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adsorção , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Difração de Raios X
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 129, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376017

RESUMO

Metal whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) have been reported as very useful tools to detect and quantify the presence of bioavailable fractions of certain metals in water and soil samples. In the current work, two bacterial WCBs able to report Cr(VI) presence and plants growing on Cr(VI)-enriched soil/medium were used to assess the potential transfer of this metal to organisms of higher trophic levels, and the risk of transfer to the food chain. To do it, the functionality of the WCBs within tissues of inoculated plants in contact with Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and water was studied in vitro and in a controlled greenhouse environment. One WCB was the previously described Ochrobactrum tritici pCHRGFP2 and the second, Nitrospirillum amazonense pCHRGFP2, is a newly engineered naturally-occurring endophytic microorganism. Three rice varieties (IAC 4440, BRS 6 CHUÍ, IRGA 425) and one maize variety (1060) were tested as hosts and subjected to Cr(VI) treatments (25 µM), with different results obtained. Inoculation of each WCB into plants exposed to Cr(VI) showed GFP expression within plant tissues. WCBs penetrated the root tissues and later colonized the shoots and leaves. In general, a higher fluorescence signal was detected in roots, together with a higher Cr content and denser WCB colonization. Best fluorescence intensities per plant biomass of shoots were obtained for plant host IRGA 425. Therefore, by analyzing colonized tissues, both WCBs allowed the detection of Cr(VI) contamination in soils and its transfer to plants commonly used in crops for human diet.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cromo/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/química , Rhodospirillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Engenharia Metabólica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ochrobactrum/genética , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Rhodospirillaceae/genética , Rhodospirillaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5477-5490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409999

RESUMO

Background: Curcumin, a bioactive component with multiple characteristics, has been shown to have many therapeutic effects. However, there are several limitations regarding the use of curcumin such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability, and rapid elimination. Different approaches have been used to solve these problems. Materials and methods: In this study, surface-modified nanosuspension (NS) is investigated as a novel brain delivery system. Two different methods were used for the preparation of nanosuspensions with two different stabilizers. The surface of the nanosuspensions was coated with D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1,000 succinate (TPGS) and Tween 80 using physical adsorption. Curcumin NSs were prepared using two different top-down techniques by high-pressure homogenizer and probe sonicator. A validated sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method using fluorescence detection was used for the determination and quantification of curcumin. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of curcumin NSs and solutions after intravenous administration in rats were studied. Results: Higher levels of curcumin in the brain were detected when Tween 80-coated NS was used compared with the curcumin solution and TPGS coated NS (TPGS-NS) (P-value<0.05). Absorption of ApoE and/or B by Tween 80-coated nanoparticles (NPs) from the blood were caused transferring of these NPs into the brain using receptor-mediated endocytosis. Distribution of TPGS-NS in the brain compared with the curcumin solution was higher (P-value<0.05). Higher levels of curcumin concentration in the liver, spleen, and lung were also observed with TPGS-NS. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the surface-coating of NSs by Tween 80 may be used to improve the biodistribution of curcumin in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/química , Suspensões/química , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual , Vitamina E/química
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5555-5567, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413562

RESUMO

Background: Vinpocetine (VPN) is a synthetic derivative of the Vinca minor alkaloids. The drug is characterized by a short half-life, limited water solubility and high hepatic first-pass effect. The objective was to develop different lipid-based nanocarriers (NCs) loaded into a thermosensitive in situ gelling (ISG) system to improve VPN bioavailability and brain targeting via intranasal (IN) delivery. Methods:  Different lipid-based NCs were developed and characterized for vesicle size, zeta potential, VPN entrapment efficiency (EE) and morphological characterization using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The prepared NCs were loaded into ISG formulations and characterized for their mucoadhesive properties. Ex-vivo permeation and histological study of the nasal mucosa were conducted. Pharmacokinetic and brain tissue distribution were investigated and compared to a marketed VPN product following administration of a single dose to rats. Results: VPN-D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) micelles nano-formulation showed the smallest particle size, highest EE among the studied NCs. TEM images revealed an almost spherical shape for all the prepared NCs. Among the NCs studied, VPN-loaded TPGS micelles demonstrated the highest percent cumulative VPN ex vivo permeation. All the prepared ISG formulations revealed the presence of mucoadhesive properties and showed no signs of inflammation or necrosis upon histological examination. Rats administered IN VPN-loaded TPGS-micelles ISG showed superior VPN concentration in the brain tissue and significant high relative bioavailability when compared to that received raw VPN-loaded ISG and marketed drug oral tablets. VPN-D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) micelles nano-formulation showed the smallest particle size, highest EE among the studied NCs. TEM images revealed an almost spherical shape for all the prepared NCs. Among the NCs studied, VPN-loaded TPGS micelles demonstrated the highest percent cumulative VPN ex vivo permeation. All the prepared ISG formulations revealed the presence of mucoadhesive properties and showed no signs of inflammation or necrosis upon histological examination. Rats administered IN VPN-loaded TPGS-micelles ISG showed superior VPN concentration in the brain tissue and significant high relative bioavailability when compared to that received raw VPN-loaded ISG and marketed drug oral tablets. Conclusion: VPN-loaded TPGS-micelles ISG formulation is a successful brain drug delivery system with enhanced bioavailability for drugs with poor bioavailability and those that are frequently administered.


Assuntos
Géis/administração & dosagem , Micelas , Temperatura Ambiente , Alcaloides de Vinca/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/química , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Bovinos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Distribuição Tecidual , Alcaloides de Vinca/sangue , Alcaloides de Vinca/farmacocinética
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 272, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372767

RESUMO

Bacterial conjunctivitis is a leading cause of ocular infections requiring short-term therapeutic treatment with frequent administration of drugs on daily basis. Topical dosage forms available in the market for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis such as simple drug solutions and suspensions are rapidly eliminated from the precorneal space upon instillation due to tear turn over and nasolacrimal drainage, limiting intraocular bioavailability of drug to less than 10% of the administered dose. To overcome issues related to conventional drop, an effort was made to design and evaluate prolong release ophthalmic solution of levofloxacin hemihydrate (LFH) using ion-sensitive in situ gelling polymer. Gellan gum was used as the in situ gelling agent. Formulations were screened based on in vitro gelation time, in vitro drug release, and stability towards sol to gel conversion upon storage. The prototype formulations exhibiting quick in vitro gelling time (< 15 s), prolonged in vitro drug release (18-24 h), and stability for at least 6 months at 25°C/40% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/25% RH were evaluated for pharmacokinetic studies using healthy New Zealand white rabbits. Tested formulations were found to be well-tolerated and showed significant increase in AUC0-24 (22,660.39 h ng/mL) and mean residence time (MRT 12 h) as compared with commercially available solution Levotop PF® (Ajanta Pharma Ltd., India)(AUC0-24 6414.63 h ng/mL and MRT 4 h). Thus, solution formulations containing in situ gelling polymer may serve as improved drug delivery system providing superior therapeutic efficacy and better patient compliance for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Levofloxacino/síntese química , Soluções Oftálmicas/síntese química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/síntese química , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Levofloxacino/farmacocinética , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacocinética , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacocinética , Coelhos
9.
Food Chem ; 298: 125040, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261008

RESUMO

The effects of co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot, baby spinach and/or cherry tomato on the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins and carotenoids such as α-carotene, ß-carotene, lutein and lycopene were examined using a simulated in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion model. The individual vegetables and their mixtures were digested with and without added a standardised salad dressing. Bioaccessibility of total anthocyanins was enhanced by 10-15% (p < 0.05) when red cabbage was co-digested with the carotenoid-rich vegetables, except with carrot. In contrast, the co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot decreased bioaccessibility of total carotenoids by 21-33% (p < 0.05), and with cherry tomato by 42-56% (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of a given carotenoid varied depending on the vegetable matrix. Among the tested vegetable mixtures, red cabbage and baby spinach when co-digested demonstrated that anthocyanins and carotenoids were equally bioaccessible (total anthocyanin bioaccessibility of 62-66% and total carotenoid bioaccessibility of 66%).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Verduras/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Digestão , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Saliva , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 250, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297635

RESUMO

Melanoma is regarded as the fifth and sixth most common cancer in men and women, respectively, and it is estimated that one person dies from melanoma every hour in the USA. Unfortunately, the treatment of melanoma is difficult because of its aggressive metastasis and resistance to treatment. The treatment of melanoma continues to be a challenging issue due to the limitations of available treatments such as a low response rate, severe adverse reactions, and significant toxicity. Natural polyphenols have attracted considerable attention from the scientific community due to their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy. It has been suggested that poorly soluble polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, coumarin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate may have significant benefits in the treatment of melanoma due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and chemoprotective efficacies. The major obstacles for the use of polyphenolic compounds are low stability and poor bioavailability. Numerous nanoformulations, including solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes, have been formulated to enhance the bioavailability and stability, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of polyphenols. This review will provide an overview of poorly soluble polyphenols that have been reported to have antimetastatic efficacy in melanomas.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121745, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323724

RESUMO

The status of heavy metals and the P fractions in compost affects their environmental risk. The present study investigated the effects of different initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios (15, 22, 27) on redistribution of Cu, Zn, and P fractions during composting. The results showed that the composting process transformed Cu, Zn and P from mobile fractions to more stable fractions. Compost with an initial C/N of 22 showed the most effective immobilization of Cu, Zn and P because of yielding greatest degree of polymerization. Multivariate statistical analysis identified organic matter as the most critical factor for explaining the redistribution of Cu, Zn, and P fractions in composting. However, the degree of organic matter degradation (organic matter content and Humic acid/Fulvic acid) better explained the change of bioavailability factor for Cu and the mobility of P during composting. This research provided guidance for providing technology to reduce environmental risk in compost.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Compostagem , Cobre/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2841-2848, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359699

RESUMO

Curcumin( Cur) is a natural active substance extracted from the roots or tubers of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities on brain diseases. Due to the poor stability,low solubility,poor absorption and low bioavailability of curcumin,N-acetyl-L-cysteine( NAC) was used as an absorption enhancer and mixed with curcumin to improve the absorption of curcumin in the body. In this paper,curcumin was smashed by airflow pulverization,and Cur-NAC mixtures were prepared by being grinded with liquid. Then,the raw material and the product were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry( DSC),X-ray diffraction( XRD) for structural characterization. The dissolution was determined by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the samples prepared by grinding method were similar to those of the raw materials,while the melting temperature and the accumulated dissolution degree were not significantly changed. The crystal forms of the products were not changed,and no new crystal form was formed after grinding. After the administration of intranasal powder,blood samples were collected from the orbit,while the whole brain tissues were removed from the skull and dissected into 10 anatomical regions. The concentrations of curcumin in these samples were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of curcumin in plasma and brain were compared at different time points. After intranasal administration of two drugs,it was found that the concentration of curcumin after sniffing up the mixtures in plasma was high,and the concentration of the drug in the olfactory bulb,hippocampus,and pons was increased significantly. Within 0. 083-0. 5 h,the olfactory bulb,piriform lobe and hippocampus remained high concentrations,the endodermis,striatum,hypothalamus and midbrain reached high concentrations within 1-3 h; and the cerebellum,pons and brain extension maintained relatively high concentrations within 3-7 h. The experiment showed that nasal administration of Cur-NAC mixtures can significantly improve the bioavailability of curcumin,and lead to significant differences in brain tissue distribution.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Química Encefálica , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Encéfalo , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109424, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299478

RESUMO

The synthesis of a humic acid-layered double hydroxide (HA-LDH) hybrid was purposed for the remediation of contaminated soils in mining area. The hybrid was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. In order to investigate the effect of HA-LDH on the mine soil, greenhouse experiments of Artemisia ordosica were carried out under different concentrations of amendments (0, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%). The plant growth, metal availability, and soil enzyme activities were studied to determine the effects of HA-LDH. The mine soil with 5% HA-LDH was the optimum proportion, and the growth of Artemisia ordosica was in good status. The HA-LDH and Artemisia ordosica could effectively decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals (such as Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Zn, and As) in the mine soil, and improve the enzyme activities of ß-glucosidase, urease, and phosphatase. The HA-LDH with magnetism could be easily separated. The characteristics and reusability of HA-LDH could be well maintained after five cycles of remediation. Consequently, the HA-LDH is promising for the remediation of contaminated soils in mining area.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Metais Pesados/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solo/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidróxidos/química , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109430, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306921

RESUMO

Agronomic strategies as intercropping might be applied to reduce plant-available copper (Cu) in Cu-contaminated soils. Thus, our aim was to characterize two different oat cultivars, Avena sativa L. cv. Fronteira and cv. Perona for their ability to tolerate and/or phytostabilize Cu. Copper toxicity reduced plant biomass of both cultivars. The exudate analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and phytosiderophores, yet with a different pattern between the cultivars: cv. Fronteira showed a Cu-concentration and time-dependent release of phenolic compounds, while cv. Perona down-regulated this release during the second week of treatment. Copper concentration increased linearly in all the tissues analysed with increasing Cu concentration showing yet a different compartmentalization: cv. Fronteira and cv. Perona preferentially accumulated Cu in the apoplasm and symplast, respectively. This higher accumulation of Cu in the apoplasm strongly reduces the available binding sites, leading to a competitive absorption with other macro-and micronutrients (e.g. Ca, Mn, Zn). Furthermore, in both cultivars Cu toxicity led to a significant reduction of shoot phosphorus content. The ionomic profile and compartmentalization of Cu together with the root activities demonstrate the different tolerance mechanism towards Cu toxicity of the two oat cultivars. In particular, cv. Fronteira seems to adopt an exclusion strategy based on accumulating Cu in the apoplasm and on the exudation of phenolic compounds. Thus, this cultivar could reduce the mobility and the consequent soil bioavailability of Cu playing an important role as phytostabilizer plant in intercropping systems in Cu-contaminated vineyards or orchards.


Assuntos
Avena/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Avena/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , Cobre/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 330-335, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263937

RESUMO

The immobilization effect and mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite(NHAP) on Pb in the ryegrass rhizosphere soil were studied by root-bag experiment. The speciation analysis results revealed that the residual Pb concentrations in the rhizosphere soil significantly increased after NHAP application. The acid-soluble and reducible Pb concentrations significantly decreased, indicating that NHAP had obviously immobilized Pb. Meanwhile, NHAP significantly promoted the secretion of tartaric acid from ryegrass roots, resulting the rhizosphere soil pH had been below that of the control group. This helped to relieve the stress of Pb on ryegrass, also promoted the dissolution of NHAP, resulting the formation of stable precipitation with more Pb ions. NHAP increased the rhizosphere soil pH by 0.03 to 0.17, which promoted the conversion of Pb to non-utilizable bioavailability. The total Pb mass balance indicated only a very small proportion Pb transferred to the shoots through ryegrass roots. The formation of pyromorphite by Pband NHAP in soil was accordingly to interpret the dominant mechanism for Pb immobilization.


Assuntos
Durapatita/química , Chumbo/análise , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanoestruturas/química , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Chumbo/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Minerais/química , Modelos Teóricos , Fosfatos/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tartaratos/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 125091, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272049

RESUMO

The complexation of Lepidium sativum protein hydrolysate (LSPH) with a lipophilic molecule, curcumin (CUR), and its effect on curcumin in vitro bioaccessibility/stability, functional and antioxidant activity were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the LSPH/CUR complex confirmed the presence of hydrophobic interactions that led to the complex formation. The LSPH (10-30 kDa) fraction showed a compact complexation with curcumin at pH 3.0 with excellent aqueous solubility, stability, and bioaccessibility. Further, complexation enhanced the aqueous solubility of curcumin more than 856-fold. In vitro sequential simulated gastric and intestinal digestion indicated that the bioaccessibility of curcumin was increased from 67% to 95% post complexation. The functional attributes suggest that the LSPH/CUR complex has good foam-forming capacity and emulsion stability, which are crucial for food product formulations. The results indicate that, since LSPH is a dietary protein, it might possibly be formulated as a functional food and as an excellent lipophilic bioactive molecule delivery vehicle in food formulations.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lepidium sativum/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Digestão , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Emulsões/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
19.
Food Chem ; 299: 125092, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280001

RESUMO

The health-promoting functions of fruit phenolic compounds are mainly attributed to their metabolites. The organic cultivation of fruits is becoming increasingly popular. Thus, this study evaluates whether the differences in red Grenache grapes derived from organic culture conditions influence the bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds in rats. Organic and nonorganic (conventional) red Grenache grapes (OG and CG, respectively) were characterized and administered to Wistar rats (65 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg bw). Serum was recollected at different time points, and the phenolic metabolites were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that organic cultivation increased the oligomeric proanthocyanidin and anthocyanidin contents and decreased the content of free flavanols and dietary fiber. The serum profile of OG-administered rats showed higher metabolite concentrations at 2 h and reduced metabolite concentration at 24 h compared with the CG-administered rats. Thus, this particular serum kinetic behavior might influence the bioactivity of their phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Agricultura Orgânica , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Food Chem ; 299: 125097, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284242

RESUMO

The low solubility, instability, and low bioavailability of food bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, restrict their applications in the fields of food science and nutrition. Ferritin protein has received more and more attention in encapsulation and delivery of the bioactive compounds due to its nanosized shell-like structure and its reversible self-assembly character. After encapsulation, bioactive compounds can be functionalized by the ferritin vehicle to achieve stabilization, solubilization, and targeted delivery. In addition, the outer interfaces and the porous structure of ferritin are also artfully harnessed for encapsulation. This review focuses on the newest advances in the fabrication, characterization, and application of ferritin-based nano-carriers for bioactive compounds by the reversible self-assembly, outer-interface decoration methods, and the channel-directed approach. The functional improvements of food bioactive compounds, including their solubility, stability, and cellular uptake, are emphasized. The limitations that affect ferritin encapsulation are also examined.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/química , Ferritinas/farmacocinética , Alimentos , Nanoestruturas/química , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Quitosana/química , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacocinética , Solubilidade , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , beta Caroteno/química , beta Caroteno/farmacocinética
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