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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e17992, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an intervention for unhealthy visual behaviors of school-age children using a wearable device (Clouclip). METHOD: The design was a self-controlled prospective study. Clouclip, with the vibration alert disabled, was first applied to measure baseline near-work behaviors in the first week. The vibration alert was then enabled to signal unhealthy visual behaviors (near-work distance < 30 cm and >5 seconds, or near-work distance <60 cm for >45 minutes) for 3 weeks. Near-work behaviors were measured again at the first week and the first month after intervention, respectively. The changes in behaviors between the baseline and the first week and the first month after intervention were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-seven subjects were eligible for this experiment (the mean age 10.45 ±â€Š0.50 years, 34 boys). Children who logged sufficient wearing time (12.30 ±â€Š0.18 hours on weekdays and 12.16 ±â€Š0.23 hours on weekends) were included for analysis. The average daily near-work distance was significantly increased after the vibration intervention. The time ratio of near-work activity <30 cm to the total <60 cm and the frequency of continuous near-work (distance <60 cm and continuous time >30 minutes) were significantly decreased after the intervention. Although some of the effects were reversed with time following the intervention, some were observed to be maintained until the end of the observation period, and the improvement of the behaviors was more prominent in children who had a shorter near-work distance (<30 cm) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Clouclip can significantly modify near-work behaviors in school-age children and it can last a certain period of time. If these behaviors are causes of myopia development and progression, Clouclip might provide a strategy for managing myopia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Miopia/terapia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Saúde da Família/educação , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(13): 2004-2007, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960849

RESUMO

The operation of wearable epidermal biofuel cells is prone to rapid irreversible deactivation effects under dynamic sweat pH changes from neutral to acidic. We demonstrate that the encapsulation of lactate-oxidase (LOx) within a hydrophobic protective carbon-paste anode imparts unusually high stability during dynamically changing pH fluctuations and allows the BFC to continue harvesting the lactate bioenergy even after long exposures to acidic conditions. The unique power-recovery ability of the carbon-paste BFC after its failure in harsh pH is attributed to the protective action of the non-polar paste environment.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Eletrodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Glucose Oxidase/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ácido Láctico/química , Suor/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 231-237, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718476

RESUMO

Excessive forces and/or loading rates during landing may place ballet dancers at risk for overuse injury. The ability to estimate and monitor the landing forces of ballet dancers could help to improve injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, force platforms are not conducive to testing outside of a laboratory. Fortunately, it may be possible to indirectly assess landing forces via a wearable accelerometer. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between impact accelerations, recorded via a pelvis-worn accelerometer, and the peak forces and loading rates during performance of a common ballet manoeuvre, and to examine if a wearable accelerometer is sensitive to fatigue-related changes in landing forces. Fifteen ballet dancers continuously performed a ballet manoeuvre until self-determined exhaustion while impact accelerations and landing forces were simultaneously recorded using an accelerometer and force platforms. We observed very strong, positive relationships between the impact accelerations and the peak forces and loading rates during the landings. In addition, the changes in impact accelerations with fatigue paralleled the changes in the peak forces and loading rates. As a result, it appears that a wearable accelerometer could be used to estimate and monitor landing forces in ballet dancers.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Dança/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Dança/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 62-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623527

RESUMO

This study investigated whether using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) can identify different walking conditions, including level walking (LW), descent (DC) and ascent (AC) slope walking as well as downstairs (DS) and upstairs (US) walking. Thirty healthy participants performed walking under five conditions. The IMU was stabilised on the exterior of the left shoe. The data from IMU were used to establish a customised prediction model by cut point and a prediction model by using deep learning method. The accuracy of both prediction models was evaluated. The customised prediction model combining the angular velocity of dorsi-plantar flexion in the heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) phases can distinctly determine real conditions during DC and AC slope, DS, and LW (accuracy: 86.7-96.7%) except for US walking (accuracy: 60.0%). The prediction model established by deep learning using the data of three-axis acceleration and three-axis gyroscopes can also distinctly identify DS, US, and LW with 90.2-90.7% accuracy and 84.8% and 82.4% accuracy for DC and AC slope walking, respectively. In conclusion, inertial measurement units can be used to identify walking patterns under different conditions such as slopes and stairs with customised prediction model and deep learning prediction model.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Aprendizado Profundo , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1171: 15-23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823236

RESUMO

Emerging technologies have the potential to transform our approach to medical education. A goal in this chapter is to inspire researchers, educators and scholars in the bio-medical visualisation field who can benefit from integrating wearable Augmented Reality (AR) technologies, like the HoloLens into their existing teaching and learning environments. We draw from case studies, existing research and the educational technology literature, to propose the design of purposeful learner-centered experiences that might benefit from wearable AR technologies in the classroom.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Educação Médica , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/tendências , Aprendizagem
8.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(6): 432-435, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854530

RESUMO

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs in the middle-aged and elderly population and has dyskinesia as the main clinical symptom. Bradykinesia is a typical dyskinesia symptom of Parkinson's disease. The evaluation of bradykinesia based on wearable devices is an important support for individualized diagnosis and telemedicine. This paper focuses on the bradykinesia, expound the existing detection and evaluation techniques for wearable devices and data analysis methods. This paper also analyzes and discusses some current problems in the field and future research directions.


Assuntos
Hipocinesia , Doença de Parkinson , Telemedicina , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos
9.
Nature ; 575(7781): 169-174, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666696

RESUMO

Two dry surfaces can instantly adhere upon contact with each other through intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals interactions1,2. However, such instant adhesion is challenging when wet surfaces such as body tissues are involved, because water separates the molecules of the two surfaces, preventing interactions3,4. Although tissue adhesives have potential advantages over suturing or stapling5,6, existing liquid or hydrogel tissue adhesives suffer from several limitations: weak bonding, low biological compatibility, poor mechanical match with tissues, and slow adhesion formation5-13. Here we propose an alternative tissue adhesive in the form of a dry double-sided tape (DST) made from a combination of a biopolymer (gelatin or chitosan) and crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) grafted with N-hydrosuccinimide ester. The adhesion mechanism of this DST relies on the removal of interfacial water from the tissue surface, resulting in fast temporary crosslinking to the surface. Subsequent covalent crosslinking with amine groups on the tissue surface further improves the adhesion stability and strength of the DST. In vitro mouse, in vivo rat and ex vivo porcine models show that the DST can achieve strong adhesion between diverse wet dynamic tissues and engineering solids within five seconds. The DST may be useful as a tissue adhesive and sealant, and in adhering wearable and implantable devices to wet tissues.


Assuntos
Adesividade , Adesivos/química , Coração , Pulmão , Próteses e Implantes , Estômago , Molhabilidade , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Animais , Quitosana/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Dessecação , Gelatina/química , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Hidrogéis/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/química , Camundongos , Ratos , Eletricidade Estática , Estômago/anatomia & histologia , Estômago/química , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Água/análise , Água/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(6): 1673-1686, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674672

RESUMO

Wearable devices allow users the ability to leave mobile phones behind while remaining connected to the digital world; however, this creates challenges in the examination, acquisition, identification, and analysis of probative data. This preliminary research aims to provide an enhanced understanding of where sensitive user data and forensic artifacts are stored on smartwatch wearable devices, both through utilization as a connected and standalone device. It also provides a methodology for the forensically sound acquisition of data from a standalone smartwatch wearable device. The results identify significant amounts of data on the Samsung™ Gear S3 Frontier, greater than that stored on the companion mobile phone. An Apple Watch® Series 3 manual examination method which produces native screenshots was identified; however, the companion mobile phone was found to store the greatest amount of data. As a result of this research, a data extraction tool for the Samsung™ Gear S3 Frontier was created.


Assuntos
Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Artefatos , Segurança Computacional , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Smartphone
11.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 39(6): 422-431, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of electronic head-mounted low vision aid (e-LVA) SightPlus (GiveVision, UK, givevision.net) and to determine which people with low vision would see themselves likely using an e-LVA like this. METHODS: Sixty participants with low vision aged 18 to 93 used SightPlus during an in-clinic study session based on a mixed methods design. Visual acuity (ETDRS), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson) and reading performance (MNREAD) were measured binocularly at baseline (no device), with the device in 'normal' mode (zoom only), and with preferred enhanced mode (zoom and one of four digital image enhancements). At the end of the session, a short questionnaire recorded willingness to use an e-LVA like SightPlus, potential use cases, positive/negative comments and adverse effects. RESULTS: Binocular distance visual acuity improved significantly by 0.63 logMAR on average (p < 0.0001) to 0.20 logMAR. Contrast sensitivity improved significantly by 0.22 log units (p < 0.0001) to 1.21 log units with zoom only and by 0.40 log units to 1.37 log units with zoom and preferred image enhancement. Reading performance improved significantly for near visual acuity and critical print size (p < 0.015), although reading speed significantly decreased (p < 0.0001). Nearly half (47%) of the participants indicated they would use an e-LVA like SightPlus, especially for television, reading and entertainment (e.g. theatre). Multivariate logistic regression showed that proportion of lifetime affected by sight loss, baseline contrast sensitivity and use of electronic LVAs explained 41% of the variation in willingness to use. CONCLUSIONS: SightPlus improves visual function in people with low vision and would be used in its current form by one half of the people who tried it. Adverse effects were infrequent and resolved when the device was removed. Future work should focus on comparing e-LVAs through repeatable real-world tasks and impact on quality of life.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Baixa Visão/reabilitação , Acuidade Visual , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Visuais , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 629-641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705516

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the treatment of choice for insomnia; however, it is not widely used due to a lack of experienced therapists and its relatively high clinical cost. Recently, Internet and mobile CBT-I have been developed to replace face-to-face CBT-I, and research on this topic has been increasing. In addition, attempts have been made to use wearable devices for sleep-wake estimation. Studies on digital CBT-I thus far have shown favorable treatment effects in general, but the problem of a high dropout rate has not been sufficiently improved. In addition, more sophisticated technology is needed to develop fully automated digital CBT-I. As part of efforts to maximize the treatment effectiveness of future insomnia patients, research and development of mobile and Internet CBT-I and improvement of sleep tracker accuracy and validation studies are needed.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Aplicativos Móveis , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Internet , Sono , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(20): 1909-1917, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical sensors on wearable devices can detect irregular pulses. The ability of a smartwatch application (app) to identify atrial fibrillation during typical use is unknown. METHODS: Participants without atrial fibrillation (as reported by the participants themselves) used a smartphone (Apple iPhone) app to consent to monitoring. If a smartwatch-based irregular pulse notification algorithm identified possible atrial fibrillation, a telemedicine visit was initiated and an electrocardiography (ECG) patch was mailed to the participant, to be worn for up to 7 days. Surveys were administered 90 days after notification of the irregular pulse and at the end of the study. The main objectives were to estimate the proportion of notified participants with atrial fibrillation shown on an ECG patch and the positive predictive value of irregular pulse intervals with a targeted confidence interval width of 0.10. RESULTS: We recruited 419,297 participants over 8 months. Over a median of 117 days of monitoring, 2161 participants (0.52%) received notifications of irregular pulse. Among the 450 participants who returned ECG patches containing data that could be analyzed - which had been applied, on average, 13 days after notification - atrial fibrillation was present in 34% (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 39) overall and in 35% (97.5% CI, 27 to 43) of participants 65 years of age or older. Among participants who were notified of an irregular pulse, the positive predictive value was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.92) for observing atrial fibrillation on the ECG simultaneously with a subsequent irregular pulse notification and 0.71 (97.5% CI, 0.69 to 0.74) for observing atrial fibrillation on the ECG simultaneously with a subsequent irregular tachogram. Of 1376 notified participants who returned a 90-day survey, 57% contacted health care providers outside the study. There were no reports of serious app-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of receiving an irregular pulse notification was low. Among participants who received notification of an irregular pulse, 34% had atrial fibrillation on subsequent ECG patch readings and 84% of notifications were concordant with atrial fibrillation. This siteless (no on-site visits were required for the participants), pragmatic study design provides a foundation for large-scale pragmatic studies in which outcomes or adherence can be reliably assessed with user-owned devices. (Funded by Apple; Apple Heart Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03335800.).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Nervenarzt ; 90(12): 1207-1214, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641793

RESUMO

The breathtaking technological progress in the field of mobile computing, smartphones and wearables offers new opportunities for psychiatric research and therapy. Wearables enable not only the objective assessment of psychiatric symptoms in real time and everyday life but using continuous monitoring and analysis of relevant parameters can also define important situations, contexts and timing during which extended assessment strategies and real-life interventions can be implemented. The momentary effect of inner city green space exposure on well-being, motivational behavior feedback and geofencing for the detection of drinking episodes are used as examples to illustrate the core benefits of real-time analyses and feedback from wearables for psychiatric research and therapy.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria/instrumentação , Psiquiatria/tendências
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505727

RESUMO

With the development of wearable devices, strain sensors have attracted large interest for the detection of human motion, movement, and breathing. Various strain sensors consisting of stretchable conductive materials have been investigated based on resistance and capacitance differences according to the strain. However, this method requires multiple electrodes for multipoint detection. We propose a strain sensor capable of multipoint detection with a single electrode, based on the ultrasound pulse-echo method. It consists of several transmitters of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single polyvinylidene fluoride receiver. The strain sensor was fabricated using CNTs embedded in stretchable polydimethylsiloxane. The received data are characterized by the different times of transmission from the CNTs of each point depending on the strain, i.e., the sensor can detect the positions of the CNTs. This study demonstrates the application of the multipoint strain sensor with a single electrode for measurements up to a strain of 30% (interval of 1%). We considered the optical and acoustic energy losses in the sensor design. In addition, to evaluate the utility of the sensor, finger bending with three-point CNTs and flexible phantom bending with six-point CNTs for the identification of an S-curve having mixed expansion and compression components were carried out.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Entorses e Distensões/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Capacitância Elétrica , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento/fisiologia , Respiração , Entorses e Distensões/fisiopatologia
16.
Gait Posture ; 74: 212-217, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature supports the promising effect of real-time feedback to re-train runners. However, no studies have comprehensively assessed the effects of foots trike and cadence modification using different forms of real-time feedback provided via wearable devices. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of the present study was to determine if a change could be made in foot strike pattern and plantar loads using real-time visual, auditory and combined feedback provided using wearable devices. METHODS: Visual, auditory and combined feedback were provided using wearable devices as fifteen recreational runners ran on a treadmill at self-selected speed and increased cadence. Plantar loads and location of initial contact were measured with a flexible insole system. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Bonferroni adjusted pair-wise comparisons were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: A significant effect of condition was noted on location of center of pressure (p < 0.01). Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc comparisons showed that feedback conditions differed from baseline as well as the new cadence conditions, however did not differ from each other. A significant interaction effect (region x feedback) was found for plantar loads (maximum force P < 0.001). Significant effects of feedback were noted at the heel (P < 0.001), medial midfoot (P < 0.001), lateral midfoot (P < 0.001), medial forefoot (P = 0.003), central forefoot (P = 0.003), and great toe (P = 0.004) but not at the lateral forefoot (P = 0.6) or lateral toes (P = 0.507). SIGNIFICANCE: The unique findings of our study showed that an anterior shift of the center of pressure, particularly when foot strike modification was combined with 10% increased cadence. We found lower heel and midfoot loads along with higher forefoot and great toe loads when foot strike modification using real-time feedback was combined with increased cadence. Our findings also suggest that auditory feedback might be more effective than visual feedback in foot-strike modification.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Feedback Formativo , Corrida/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Calcanhar/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Sapatos , Dedos do Pé/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4405, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562319

RESUMO

The emergence of smart electronics, human friendly robotics and supplemented or virtual reality demands electronic skins with both tactile and touchless perceptions for the manipulation of real and virtual objects. Here, we realize bifunctional electronic skins equipped with a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical system able to transduce both tactile-via mechanical pressure-and touchless-via magnetic fields-stimulations simultaneously. The magnetic microelectromechanical system separates electric signals from tactile and touchless interactions into two different regions, allowing the electronic skins to unambiguously distinguish the two modes in real time. Besides, its inherent magnetic specificity overcomes the interference from non-relevant objects and enables signal-programmable interactions. Ultimately, the magnetic microelectromechanical system enables complex interplay with physical objects enhanced with virtual content data in augmented reality, robotics, and medical applications.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Algoritmos , Eletricidade , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Eletrônica/métodos , Humanos , Magnetismo , Robótica , Transdutores
18.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 37(9): 455-462, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518339

RESUMO

Web-based interventions that promote physical activity have been tested in various populations and proven effective. However, information on recruiting and retaining ethnic minorities in these interventions is limited. This study discusses practical issues in recruitment and retention of Asian Americans using three strategies: (1) only Web-based intervention (Group 1), (2) one with Fitbit Charge HR (Group 2), and (3) one with Fitbit Charge HR and office visits (Group 3). Recruitment and retention rates, minutes of weekly research team meetings, and the researchers' memos were collected. Retention rates were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the minutes and memos were content analyzed following Weber's methods. Retention rates varied by the end of the first (12% in Group 3, 36.9% in Group 2) and third month (0% in Group 3, 36.9% in Group 2). The practical issues were (1) difficulties in recruitment across strategies, (2) the necessity of using community consultants/leaders across strategies, (3) subethnic differences across strategies, (4) timing issues across strategies, (5) Fitbit as a facilitator with several hindrances, and (6) office visits as an inhibitor. Fitbits with user guidelines and community consultants'/leaders' involvement are proposed for future Web-based interventions to promote physical activity in Asian Americans.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Internet , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Exercício/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2691-2701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526108

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of total sleep deprivation on self-paced endurance performance, and heart rate (HR) indices of athletes' "readiness to perform". Endurance athletes (n = 13) completed a crossover experiment comprising a normal sleep (NS) and sleep deprivation (SD) condition. Each required completion of an endurance time-trial (TT) on consecutive days (D1, D2) separated by normal sleep or total sleep deprivation. Finishing time, perceived exertion (RPE), mood, psychomotor vigilance (PVT), and HR responses were assessed. Time on D2 of SD was 10% slower than D2 of NS (64 ± 7 vs 59 ± 4 min, P < 0.01), and 11% slower than D1 of SD (58 ± 5 min, P < 0.01). Subjective to objective (RPE:mean HR) intensity ratio was higher on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD (P < 0.01). Mood disturbance and PVT mean response time increased on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD. Anaerobic threshold and change in TT time were correlated (R = -0.73, P < 0.01). Sleep helps to optimise endurance performance. Subjective to objective intensity ratios appear sensitive to effects of sleep on athletes' readiness. Research examining more subtle sleep manipulation is required.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
20.
Sports Health ; 11(6): 535-542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The variability of throwing metrics, particularly elbow torque and ball velocity, during structured long-toss programs is unknown. HYPOTHESES: (1) Elbow torque and ball velocity would increase as throwers progressed through a structured long-toss program and (2) intrathrower reliability would be high while interthrower reliability would be variable. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Sixty healthy high school and collegiate pitchers participated in a structured long-toss program while wearing a validated inertial measurement unit, which measured arm slot, arm velocity, shoulder rotation, and elbow varus torque. Ball velocity was assessed by radar gun. These metrics were compared within and between all pitchers at 90, 120, 150, and 180 ft and maximum effort mound pitching. Intra- and interthrower reliabilities were calculated for each metric at every stage of the program. RESULTS: Ball velocity significantly changed at each progressive throwing distance, but elbow torque did not. Pitching from the mound did not place more torque on the elbow than long-toss throwing from 120 ft and beyond. Intrathrower reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) throughout the progressive long-toss program, especially on the mound. Ninety-one percent of throwers had acceptable interthrower reliability (coefficient of variation <5%) for ball velocity, whereas only 79% of throwers had acceptable interthrower reliability for elbow torque. CONCLUSION: Based on trends in elbow torque, it may be practical to incorporate pitching from the mound earlier in the program (once a player is comfortable throwing from 120 ft). Ball velocity and elbow torque do not necessarily correlate with one another, so a degree of caution should be exercised when using radar guns to estimate elbow torque. Given the variability in elbow torque between throwers, some athletes would likely benefit from an individualized throwing program. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Increased ball velocity does not necessarily equate to increased elbow torque in long-toss. Some individuals would likely benefit from individualized long-toss programs for rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Braço/fisiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Beisebol/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Rotação , Ombro/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos , Torque , Exercício de Aquecimento , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
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