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1.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 22-31, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877495

RESUMO

We produced this document to bring pertinent information to the practice of nephrology, as regards to the renal involvement with COVID-19, the management of acute kidney injury cases, and practical guidance on the provision of dialysis support.As information on COVID-19 evolves at a pace never before seen in medical science, these recommendations, although based on recent scientific evidence, refer to the present moment. The guidelines may be updated when published data and other relevant information become available.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefrologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Sociedades Médicas
2.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 41-43, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877498

RESUMO

Vascular accesses for hemodialysis are considered the patient's lifeline and their maintenance is essential for treatment continuity. Following the example of institutions in other countries affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, the Brazilian Society of Nephrology developed these guidelines for healthcare services, elaborating on the importance of carrying out procedures for the preparation and preservation of vascular accesses. Creating definitive accesses for hemodialysis, grafts and arteriovenous fistulas are non-elective procedures, as well as the transition from the use of non-tunneled catheters to tunneled catheters, which cause less morbidity. In the case of patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus infection, one may postpone the procedures for the quarantine period, to avoid spreading the disease.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Comitês Consultivos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/normas , Brasil , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Emergências , Humanos , Nefrologia/normas , Pandemias , Sociedades Médicas
3.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(4 Suppl 2): S1-S164, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778223

RESUMO

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) has provided evidence-based guidelines for hemodialysis vascular access since 1996. Since the last update in 2006, there has been a great accumulation of new evidence and sophistication in the guidelines process. The 2019 update to the KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Vascular Access is a comprehensive document intended to assist multidisciplinary practitioners care for chronic kidney disease patients and their vascular access. New topics include the end-stage kidney disease "Life-Plan" and related concepts, guidance on vascular access choice, new targets for arteriovenous access (fistulas and grafts) and central venous catheters, management of specific complications, and renewed approaches to some older topics. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence was independently conducted by using a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, and interpretation and application followed the GRADE Evidence to Decision frameworks. As applicable, each guideline statement is accompanied by rationale/background information, a detailed justification, monitoring and evaluation guidance, implementation considerations, special discussions, and recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrologia , Diálise Renal/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Humanos
4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(8): 733-742, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the current recommended treatment for dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas, yet long-term outcomes of this treatment are poor. Drug-coated balloons delivering the antirestenotic agent paclitaxel may improve outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective, single-blinded, 1:1 randomized trial, we enrolled 330 participants at 29 international sites. Patients with new or restenotic lesions in native upper-extremity arteriovenous fistulas were eligible for participation. After successful high-pressure percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, participants were randomly assigned to receive treatment with a drug-coated balloon or a standard balloon. The primary effectiveness end point was target-lesion primary patency, defined as freedom from clinically driven target-lesion revascularization or access-circuit thrombosis during the 6 months after the index procedure. The primary safety end point, serious adverse events involving the arteriovenous access circuit within 30 days, was assessed in a noninferiority analysis (margin of noninferiority, 7.5 percentage points). The primary analyses included all participants with available end-point data. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of missing data. RESULTS: A total of 330 participants underwent randomization; 170 were assigned to receive treatment with a drug-coated balloon, and 160 were assigned to receive treatment with a standard balloon. During the 6 months after the index procedure, target-lesion primary patency was maintained more often in participants who had been treated with a drug-coated balloon than in those who had been treated with a standard balloon (82.2% [125 of 152] vs. 59.5% [88 of 148]; difference in risk, 22.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 32.8; P<0.001). Drug-coated balloons were noninferior to standard balloons with respect to the primary safety end point (4.2% [7 of 166] and 4.4% [7 of 158], respectively; difference in risk, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.5 to 5.0; P = 0.002 for noninferiority). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the results of the primary analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-coated balloon angioplasty was superior to standard angioplasty for the treatment of stenotic lesions in dysfunctional hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas during the 6 months after the procedure and was noninferior with respect to access circuit-related serious adverse events within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic; IN.PACT AV Access Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03041467.).


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/efeitos adversos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Constrição Patológica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea
6.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(8): 601-605, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538115

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloon compared with conventional plain balloon for the treatment of failing native dialysis access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 60 patients presenting to the Kasr Alainy Hospitals and Aseer Central Hospital in the period from September 2015 to December 2017 with failing native vascular access. Dilatation with a plain balloon was done in 30 patients (group I) and with a paclitaxel-coated balloon in 30 patients (group II) with either stenosis or occlusion. The majority were outflow lesions, with 20 (66.7 %) patients in group I and 21 (70%) patients in group II. Mean balloon diameter was 7.1mm (± 1.5mm) compared with 6.5mm (± 1.2mm) and length 66mm (± 19.1mm) compared with 54.6mm (± 15.7mm), respectively. Safety endpoint was reported as 30 day's freedom from procedure-related major complications and mortality. Procedural technical success was defined as a residual diameter 30% or less for treated lesions. Target lesion primary patency, circuit primary patency and secondary patency were reported at 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: There were no 30-day procedure-related major complications or mortality in either group. Procedural technical success of 100% was achieved in both groups. Target lesion primary patency, circuit primary patency and secondary patency in group II were better than in group I, especially at 12 months (90% vs 66.7%, 83.3% vs 60% and 96.7% vs 93.3%, respectively). There was a statistically significant difference in target lesion primary patency (p = 0.029) in patients who were treated with paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasties. CONCLUSION: The paclitaxel-coated balloon proved to be safe and effective, and improved the patency of failing vascular access. Results are comparable with previous studies.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel , Diálise Renal , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Angioplastia com Balão/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Diálise Renal/métodos , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of an 18-gauge nonfenestrated catheter (18-NFC) with a 22-gauge fenestrated catheter (22-FC) for cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 74 consecutive patients imaged on a 2nd generation dual-source CT with arterial phase CCTA were included in this retrospective investigation to either an 18-NFC or 22-FC. In comparison to the 18-NFC, the 22-FC has three additional perforations for contrast agent dispersal proximal to the tip. We examined the two groups for differences in their average attenuation in the right and left ventricles (RV, LV) and in the atrium (RA, LA) as well as in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and the left main coronary artery (LM). The averages were calculated for both the 18-NFC and 22-FC. RESULTS: Catheters were successfully placed on the first attempt 97% (36/37) for 18-NFC and 95% (35/37) for the 22-FC. The following enhancement levels were measured: 22-FC (in Hounsfield-Units (HU)): RV = 203±29, LV = 523±36, RA = 198±29, LA = 519±38, RCA = 547±26, LM = 562±25; 18-NFC: RV = 146±26, LV = 464±32, RA = 141±24, LA = 438±35, RCA = 501±23, LM = 523±23; RV (p = 0,03), LV (p = 0.12), RA (p = 0.02), LA (p = 0.04), RCA (p = 0.3), LM (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: No significant differences in attenuation levels as well as in image quality of the coronary arteries were found between NFC and FC. Nevertheless, the 22-gauge FC examinations showed significantly higher attenuation in the left and right atrium as well as the right ventricle. Patients with poor venous access may benefit from a smaller gauge catheter that can deliver sufficiently high flow rates for CCTA.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/instrumentação , Angiografia Coronária/instrumentação , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imipenem, an intravenous antibiotic is recommended for use in drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) when an effective regimen with combination of other second line drugs is not possible. Though the treatment success rates with carbapenems are promising, the twice daily injection of Imipenem usually requires patients to be hospitalized. The Médecins Sans Frontières independent clinic in Mumbai, India implemented ambulatory and home based management of patients receiving Imipenem through the use of port-a-cath. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the adverse events and treatment outcomes of ambulatory pre- and XDR-TB patients initiated on imipenem through port-a-cath between January 2015 and June 2018 and to explore the challenges with this regimen as perceived by healthcare providers and patients. METHODS: A convergent mixed methods study with quantitative (longitudinal descriptive study using the routine data) and qualitative (descriptive study) part conducted concurrently. For the quantitative component, all XDR-TB and pre-XDR-TB initiated on imipenem containing regimen during January 2015-June 2018 were included. For qualitative component, interviews were carried out including patients who initiated on imipenem (n = 5) and healthcare providers (n = 7) involved in providing treatment. Treatment outcomes, culture conversion and adverse events during treatment were described. Thematic analysis was carried out for qualitative component. RESULTS: Of the 70 patients included, the mean age was 28.1 (standard deviation: 11.2) years and 36 (51.4%) were females. Fifty one (72.9%) had XDR-TB. All patients were resistant to fluoroquinilone, levofloxacin. Vomiting was reported by 55 (78.6%) patients and at least one episode of QTC prolongation (more than 500 msec by Fredrecia method) was detected in 25 (35.7%). Port-a-cath block and infection was seen in 11 (15.7%) and 20 (28.6%) patients respectively. Favourable outcomes were seen in 43 (61.4%) patients. Mortality was seen in 22 (31.4%) patients, 2 (2.9%) were lost-to-follow-up and 3 (4.3%) were declared as treatment failure. The overarching theme of the qualitative analysis was: Challenges in delivering Imipenem via port-a-cath device in ambulatory care. Major challenges identified were difficulties in adhering to drug dose timelines, vomiting, restricted mobility due to port-a-cath, paucity of infection control and space constraints at patients' home for optimal care. CONCLUSION: Administration of imipenem was feasible through port-a-cath. Though outcomes with ambulatory based imipenem containing regimens were promising, there were several challenges in providing care. The feasibility of infusion at day care facilities needs to explored to overcome challenges in infusion at patients home.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Imipenem/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/complicações , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Humanos , Imipenem/efeitos adversos , Imipenem/normas , Índia , Controle de Infecções/normas , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
9.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 3): S233-S242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology undertaken to provide guidance on the appropriateness, as well as inappropriateness, of vascular access device selection, characteristics, and insertion technique for pediatric patients. METHODS: The RAND Corporation-University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method was used. After definition of key terms and scope, a systematic review of the pediatric vascular access literature was undertaken. Clinical scenarios were developed to reflect the common indications for vascular access across pediatric health care. These were sectioned according to (1) device selection, (2) device characteristics, and (3) insertion technique. An interdisciplinary panel of experts (N = 14) consisting of leading experts representing diverse pediatric clinical disciplines including anesthesiology, cardiology and cardiac surgery, critical care and emergency, general surgery, hematology and oncology, hospital medicine, infectious disease, interventional radiology, pharmacology, regional pediatric hospitalist, and vascular access nursing specialties was convened. The scenarios were rated for appropriateness by the panel over 2 rounds (1 [highly inappropriate] to 9 [highly appropriate]). Round 1 ratings were completed anonymously and independently by panel members and classified into 3 levels of appropriateness: appropriate, uncertain, and inappropriate, or disagreement. For round 2, panelists met in-person to discuss the round 1 ratings and independently rerated the indications. All indications were reclassified into 3 levels of appropriateness or disagreement. CONCLUSIONS: The RAND Corporation-University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method provides a rigorous, in-depth and transparent methodology to develop the first appropriateness criteria for the selection of pediatric vascular access devices in a range of patient groups.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Cateterismo Periférico/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Cateteres de Demora/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Los Angeles
10.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 3): S243-S268, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To critically review the evidence for the selection and insertion of pediatric vascular access devices (VADs). DATA SOURCES: Data were sourced from the US National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, the Cochrane Library databases, Embase, and international clinical trial databases. STUDY SELECTION: Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, cohort designs, randomized control trials (RCTs), quasi RCTs, before-after trials, or case-control studies that reported on complications and/or risk as well as reliability of VADs in patients aged 0 to 18 years were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were independently reviewed to extract and summarize details on the number of patients and catheters, population, age of participants, VAD type, study method, indication, comparators, and the frequency of VAD failure or complications. RESULTS: VAD selection and insertion decision-making in general hospitalized and some specialized patient populations were well evidenced. The use of single-lumen devices and ultrasound-guided techniques was also broadly supported. There was a lack of RCTs, and for neonates, cardiac patients, patients with difficult venous access, midline catheters, catheter-to-vein ratio, and near-infrared devices, the lack of evidence necessitated broadening the review scope. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the lack of formal assessment of the quality of evidence and the lack of RCTs and systematic reviews. Consequently, clinical decision-making in certain pediatric populations is not guided by strong, evidence-based recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first synthesis of available evidence for the selection and insertion of VADs in pediatric patients and is important for determining the appropriateness of VADs in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Pediatria/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pediatria/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
11.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 3): S269-S284, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vascular access device decision-making for pediatric patients remains a complex, highly variable process. To date, evidence-based criteria to inform these choices do not exist. The objective of the Michigan Appropriateness Guide for Intravenous Catheters in pediatrics (miniMAGIC) was to provide guidance on device selection, device characteristics, and insertion technique for clinicians, balancing and contextualizing evidence with current practice through a multidisciplinary panel of experts. METHODS: The RAND Corporation and University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method was used to develop miniMAGIC, which included the following sequential phases: definition of scope and key terms, information synthesis and literature review, expert multidisciplinary panel selection and engagement, case scenario development, and appropriateness ratings by an expert panel via 2 rounds. RESULTS: The appropriateness of the selection, characteristics, and insertion technique of intravenous catheters commonly used in pediatric health care across age populations (neonates, infants, children, and adolescents), settings, diagnoses, clinical indications, insertion locations, and vessel visualization devices and techniques was defined. Core concepts including vessel preservation, insertion and postinsertion harm minimization (eg, infection, thrombosis), undisrupted treatment provision, and inclusion of patient preferences were emphasized. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide evidence-based criteria for intravenous catheter selection (from umbilical catheters to totally implanted venous devices) in pediatric patients across a range of clinical indications. miniMAGIC also highlights core vascular access practices in need of collaborative research and innovation.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/normas , Prova Pericial/normas , Pediatria/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Adolescente , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Prova Pericial/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Michigan , Pediatria/métodos
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