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1.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 32(3): 431-442, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944432

RESUMO

This review covers the embryology, definition, and diagnosis of open spinal dysraphism with a focus on fetal ultrasound and MR imaging findings. Differentiating open versus closed spinal dysraphic defects on fetal imaging will also be discussed. Current fetal surgery practices and imaging findings in the context of fetal surgery are also reviewed.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Fetais/cirurgia
2.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 270, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myelocele is a rare form of open spina bifida. Surgical repair is recommended prenatally or in the first 48 h. In some cases, the repair may be delayed, and specific surgical factors need to be considered. METHOD: We give a brief overview of the surgical anatomy, followed by a description of the surgical repair of a thoracolumbar Myelocele in an 11-month-old child. CONCLUSION: Surgical repair of the Myelocele stabilizes the neurological status, prevents local and central nervous system infections. The understanding of Myelocele anatomy enables its removal while preserving as much healthy tissue as possible and restoring normal anatomy.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Vértebras Torácicas , Humanos , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lactente , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Meningomielocele/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Masculino , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
3.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 251: 108201, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Surgical robotics tends to develop cognitive control architectures to provide certain degree of autonomy to improve patient safety and surgery outcomes, while decreasing the required surgeons' cognitive load dedicated to low level decisions. Cognition needs workspace perception, which is an essential step towards automatic decision-making and task planning capabilities. Robust and accurate detection and tracking in minimally invasive surgery suffers from limited visibility, occlusions, anatomy deformations and camera movements. METHOD: This paper develops a robust methodology to detect and track anatomical structures in real time to be used in automatic control of robotic systems and augmented reality. The work focuses on the experimental validation in highly challenging surgery: fetoscopic repair of Open Spina Bifida. The proposed method is based on two sequential steps: first, selection of relevant points (contour) using a Convolutional Neural Network and, second, reconstruction of the anatomical shape by means of deformable geometric primitives. RESULTS: The methodology performance was validated with different scenarios. Synthetic scenario tests, designed for extreme validation conditions, demonstrate the safety margin offered by the methodology with respect to the nominal conditions during surgery. Real scenario experiments have demonstrated the validity of the method in terms of accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents a robust anatomical structure detection in present of abrupt camera movements, severe occlusions and deformations. Even though the paper focuses on a case study, Open Spina Bifida, the methodology is applicable in all anatomies which contours can be approximated by geometric primitives. The methodology is designed to provide effective inputs to cognitive robotic control and augmented reality systems that require accurate tracking of sensitive anatomies.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Robótica , Realidade Aumentada
4.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; 43(3): 225-233, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634787

RESUMO

Background: Myelomeningocele or spina bifida is an open neural tube defect that is characterized by protrusion of the meninges and the spinal cord through a deformity in the vertebral arch and spinous process. Myelomeningocele of post-natal tissue is well described; however, pre-natal tissue of this defect has no known previous histologic characterization. We compared the histology of different forms of pre-natal myelomeningocele and post-natal myelomeningocele tissue obtained via prenatal intrauterine and postnatal surgical repairs. Methods: Pre-and post-natal tissues from spina bifida repair surgeries were obtained from lipomyelomeningocele, myeloschisis, and myelomeningocele spina bifida defects. Tissue samples were processed for H&E and immunohistochemical staining (KRT14 and p63) to assess epidermal and dermal development. Results: Prenatal skin near the defect site develops with normal epidermal, dermal, and adnexal structures. Within the grossly cystic specimens, histology shows highly dense fibrous connective tissue with complete absence of a normal epidermal development with a lack of p63 and KRT14 expression. Conclusion: Tissues harvested from prenatal and postnatal spina bifida repair surgeries appear as normal skin near the defect site. However, cystic tissues consist of highly dense fibrous connective tissue with complete absence of normal epidermal development.


Assuntos
Imuno-Histoquímica , Meningomielocele , Disrafismo Espinal , Humanos , Disrafismo Espinal/patologia , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Meningomielocele/cirurgia , Meningomielocele/patologia , Meningomielocele/metabolismo , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido
5.
Int J Urol ; 31(7): 819-824, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated patients with occult spinal dysraphism who underwent spinal cord untethering. METHODS: Twenty-four patients who visited us between 1983 and 2000 were followed-up for a mean duration of 31 years. We studied their lower urinary tract function, skin stigmata, fertility, and work participation. RESULTS: Questionnaires sent in 2022 revealed that 5 patients had normal voiding (Group A) and 19 patients had abnormal voiding (Group B). Groups A and B underwent spinal cord untethering at a mean age of 5.7 and 13.0 years, respectively, showing a significant statistical difference (p = 0.036). After spinal cord untethering, the number of patients with detrusor normoactivity increased from 0 to 5, i.e., 3 of 6 with detrusor overactivity (50%), 1 of 2 not examined, and 1 of 5 not known. Patients with detrusor underactivity also increased from 11 to 19. Severity of incontinence in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form resulted in a mean value of 2.4 in Group A, which was significantly superior to the mean value of 9.1 in Group B (p = 0.004). Fourteen patients (58.3%) were married and had 21 healthy children. A majority of patients have had full-time jobs. A variety of skin stigmata were present in the lumbosacral region, and changes in vesico-urethral configurations were observed during a video-urodynamic study. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified that the early timing of spinal cord untethering performed in neonates or infants and detrusor overactivity prior to untethering surgery are important factors in achieving normal bladder function.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Seguimentos , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Espinha Bífida Oculta/complicações , Lactente , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/fisiopatologia , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/fisiopatologia , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
6.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 40(7): 2235-2239, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609721

RESUMO

Mirror movements, characterized by involuntary symmetrical movements in contralateral body parts during intentional movements, have been associated with various neurological conditions. Limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM), a rare form of spinal dysraphism, is defined by a focal closed midline defect and a fibro-neural stalk connecting the skin lesion to the underlying cord. We present a unique case of a 4-year-old girl with cervical LDM exhibiting mirror movements. The patient underwent surgical exploration, skin tag excision, fibrous tract removal, and cervical spinal cord detethering. Post-operatively, there was a partial improvement in mirror movements and a complete resolution of hand grip weakness.


Assuntos
Disrafismo Espinal , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Cervical/cirurgia , Medula Cervical/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 21(2): 107-110, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spina bifida is a congenital malformation involving an open vertebral column resulting from failure in neural tube closure. It is among the most frequently occurring birth defects, observed in 1-3 cases per 1,000 live births worldwide. Conventionally requiring surgical repair, it can cause severe neurologic and musculoskeletal complications. However, consumption of prophylactic folic acid in mothers, at least 3 months before to 12 weeks after conception (periconceptional) has been shown to reduce the incidence of spina bifida by approximately 75%. This makes ascertaining parental understanding of such benefits critical. Therefore, this study provides baseline information on the awareness of periconceptional folic acid among parents whose children previously underwent surgical repair of spina bifida defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study subjects constituted 80 parents whose biological children had undergone surgical repair of spina bifida defects from 2014 to 2021 at a large paediatric tertiary care centre in South India. Upon providing informed consent, the subjects answered a cross-sectional telephonic survey containing 21 questions aimed at exposing their understanding of folic acid and its association with spina bifida. RESULTS: None of the mothers had consumed folic acid before conception. However, 75% of them had consumed it as prescribed by their obstetrician during the first trimester of pregnancy. Finally, only 35% of them were aware of its role in preventing spina bifida. CONCLUSION: The awareness of periconceptional folic acid and its preventive role in spina bifida was low amongst parents whose children were once treated for same congenital abnormality.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Disrafismo Espinal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Transversais , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Pais
8.
Prenat Diagn ; 44(5): 644-652, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prenatal repair of spina bifida aperta through mini-hysterotomy results in less prematurity, as compared to standard hysterotomy, when adjusting for known prematurity risks. METHODS: We performed a bi-centric, propensity score matched, controlled study, that is, adjusting for factors earlier reported to result in premature delivery or membrane rupture, in consecutive women having prenatal repair either through stapled hysterotomy or sutured mini-hysterotomy (≤3.5 cm). Matches were pairwise compared and cox-regression analysis was performed to define the hazard ratio of delivery <37 weeks. RESULTS: Of 346 meeting the MOMS-criteria, 78 comparable pairs were available for matched-controlled analysis. Mini-hysterotomy patients were younger and had a higher BMI. Mini-hysterotomy was associated with a 1.67-lower risk of delivery <37 weeks (hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004) and 1.72 for delivery <34 + 6 weeks (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34-0.97; p = 0.037). The rate of intact uterine scar at birth (mini-hysterotomy: 98.7% vs. hysterotomy: 90.4%; p = 0.070), the rate of reversal of hindbrain herniation within 1 week after surgery (88.9% vs. 97.4%; p = 0.180) and the rate of cerebrospinal fluid leakage (0% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.50) were comparable. CONCLUSION: Prenatal spina bidifa repair through mini-hysterotomy was associated with a later gestational age at delivery and a comparable intact uterus rate without apparent compromise in neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Histerotomia , Espinha Bífida Cística , Humanos , Feminino , Histerotomia/métodos , Histerotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Histerotomia/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Adulto , Espinha Bífida Cística/cirurgia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão , Idade Gestacional
10.
Bone Joint J ; 106-B(3): 277-285, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423096

RESUMO

Aims: Children with spinal dysraphism can develop various musculoskeletal deformities, necessitating a range of orthopaedic interventions, causing significant morbidity, and making considerable demands on resources. This systematic review aimed to identify what outcome measures have been reported in the literature for children with spinal dysraphism who undergo orthopaedic interventions involving the lower limbs. Methods: A PROSPERO-registered systematic literature review was performed following PRISMA guidelines. All relevant studies published until January 2023 were identified. Individual outcomes and outcome measurement tools were extracted verbatim. The measurement tools were assessed for reliability and validity, and all outcomes were grouped according to the Outcome Measures Recommended for use in Randomized Clinical Trials (OMERACT) filters. Results: From 91 eligible studies, 27 individual outcomes were identified, including those related to clinical assessment (n = 12), mobility (n = 4), adverse events (n = 6), investigations (n = 4), and miscellaneous (n = 1). Ten outcome measurement tools were identified, of which Hoffer's Functional Ambulation Scale was the most commonly used. Several studies used unvalidated measurement tools originally developed for other conditions, and 26 studies developed new measurement tools. On the OMERACT filter, most outcomes reported pathophysiology and/or the impact on life. There were only six patient- or parent-reported outcomes, and none assessed the quality of life. Conclusion: The outcomes that were reported were heterogenous, lack validation and failed to incorporate patient or family perceptions. Until outcomes can be reported unequivocally, research in this area will remain limited. Our findings should guide the development of a core outcome set, which will allow consistency in the reporting of outcomes for this condition.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Disrafismo Espinal , Criança , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia
11.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 51(3): 267-277, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342082

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For open fetal spina bifida (fSB) repair, a maternal laparotomy is required. Hence, enhanced maternal recovery after surgery (ERAS) is paramount. A revision of our ERAS protocol was made, including changes in operative techniques and postoperative pain management. This study investigates eventual benefits. METHODS: Our study included 111 women with open fSB repair at our center. The old protocol group (group 1) either received a transverse incision of the fascia with transection of the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) or a longitudinal incision of the fascia without RAM transection, depending on placental location. The new protocol required longitudinal incisions in all patients (group 2). Postoperative pain management was changed from tramadol to oxycodone/naloxone. Outcomes of the two different protocol groups were analyzed and compared regarding the primary endpoint, the length of hospital stay (LOS) after fetal surgery, as well as regarding the following secondary endpoints: postoperative pain scores, day of first mobilization, removal of urinary catheter, bowel movement, and the occurrence of maternal and fetal complications. RESULTS: Out of 111 women, 82 (73.9%) were in group 1 and 29 (26.1%) were in group 2. Women in group 2 showed a significantly shorter LOS (18 [14-23] days vs. 27 [18-39] days, p = 0.002), duration until mobilization (3 [2-3] days vs. 3 [3-4] days, p = 0.03), and removal of urinary catheter (day 3 [3-3] vs. day 4 [3-4], p = 0.004). Group 2 less often received morphine subcutaneously (0% vs. 35.4%, p < 0.001) or intravenously (0% vs. 17.1%, p = 0.02) but more often oxycodone (69.0% vs. 18.3%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were seen regarding pain scores, bowel movement, and maternal and/or fetal complications. CONCLUSION: The new ERAS protocol that combined changes in surgical technique and pain medication led to better outcomes while reducing LOS. Continuous revisions of current ERAS protocols are essential to improve patient care continuously.


Assuntos
Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Dor Pós-Operatória , Disrafismo Espinal , Humanos , Feminino , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Gravidez , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Adulto , Tempo de Internação , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 33(5): 411-416, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spina bifida represents one of the most common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1-2 children per 1000 live births worldwide. The functional level of patients with spina bifida is highly variable and believed to be correlated with the anatomical level of the lesion. The variable clinical picture is well established, but the correlation with anatomical level and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) data has not been investigated. Furthermore, the potential for preserving function beyond the apparent clinical level has also not been investigated. The objective of this research was to determine the presence and level of intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (tcMEP) and triggered electromyography (tEMG) responses, and the association of these responses with preoperative clinical function and radiographic data in pediatric cases of complex tethered cord release reoperations. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of pediatric patients with complex spinal dysraphism undergoing detethering reoperations was conducted. Preoperative demographic and clinical data, including the radiographic and clinical level of dysraphism, were collected. IONM, including tcMEPs and tEMG responses, were obtained and compared with preoperative clinical data. Descriptive analysis was performed, by patient for demographics and by case for surgeries performed. RESULTS: In 100% of 21 cases of complex detethering reoperations, representing 20 patients, intraoperative tcMEPs could be generated at (4.8%) or below (95.2%) the level of clinical function. Compared with the preoperative clinical examination, 5 cases (23.8%) demonstrated tcMEP responses that were 1 level below the clinical function level, 11 cases (52.4%) were 2 levels below, and 4 cases (19.0%) were 3 levels below. Overall, 18 of 21 cases showed tEMG responses at or below the level of clinical function; of these, 7 cases (33%) were 1 level below and 3 (14%) were ≥ 2 levels below the clinical function level. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of positive stimulation potentials below the level of clinical function in patients with complex spinal dysraphism undergoing detethering reoperations indicates a degree of preserved neuronal connectivity. These findings suggest novel future treatment approaches for these patients, including using devices targeted to stimulation of these neurological pathways.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Reoperação , Disrafismo Espinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Lactente , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/cirurgia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos
13.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 51(2): 175-183, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) eligibility criteria preclude in utero surgery for fetal spina bifida (fSB) when the maternal body mass index (BMI) is ≥35 kg/m2. Some centers still respect this criterion, while others, like ours, do not. This study aimed to assess whether maternal and fetal safety is compromised with higher maternal BMIs. METHODS: Data of 192 patients with open fSB repair at our center were retrospectively analyzed. According to their BMI, patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (BMI <30 kg/m2), group 2 (BMI 30-35 kg/m2), and group 3 (BMI >35 kg/m2). Subgroup analysis was performed to assess differences in maternal and fetal outcomes. Additionally, complications were divided into grades 1 to 5 according to their severity and outcome consequences and compared among groups. RESULTS: Out of 192 patients, 146 (76.0%) had a BMI <30 kg/m2, 28 (14.6%) had a BMI 30-35 kg/m2, and 18 (9.4%) had a BMI >35 kg/m2. Significant differences occurring more often in either group 2 or 3 compared to group 1 were maternal wound seroma (50% or 56% vs. 32%, p = 0.04), amniotic fluid leakage (14% or 6% vs. 2%, p = 0.01) as well as vaginal bleeding (11% or 35% vs. 9%, p = 0.01). On the contrary, duration of tocolysis with atosiban was shorter in patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 (4 or 5 vs. 6 days, p = 0.01). When comparing severity of maternal or fetal complications, grade 1 intervention-related complications occurred significantly more often in group 3 compared to group 1 or 2 (78% vs. 45% or 57%, p = 0.02). Gestational age at delivery was around 36 weeks in all groups without significant differences. CONCLUSION: This investigation did not identify clinically relevant maternal and/or fetal outcome problems related to BMIs >35 kg/m2. Additional studies are however needed to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Meningomielocele , Espinha Bífida Cística , Disrafismo Espinal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feto/cirurgia , Meningomielocele/cirurgia , Meningomielocele/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Espinha Bífida Cística/cirurgia
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 6(3): 101278, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetoscopic spina bifida repair is increasingly being practiced, but limited skill acquisition poses a barrier to widespread adoption. Extensive training in relevant models, including both ex vivo and in vivo models may help. To address this, a synthetic training model that is affordable, realistic, and that allows skill analysis would be useful. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to create a high-fidelity model for training in the essential neurosurgical steps of fetoscopic spina bifida repair using synthetic materials. In addition, we aimed to obtain a cheap and easily reproducible model. STUDY DESIGN: We developed a 3-layered, silicon-based model that resemble the anatomic layers of a typical myelomeningocele lesion. It allows for filling of the cyst with fluid and conducting a water tightness test after repair. A compliant silicon ball mimics the uterine cavity and is fixed to a solid 3-dimensional printed base. The fetal back with the lesion (single-use) is placed inside the uterine ball, which is reusable and repairable to allow for practicing port insertion and fixation multiple times. Following cannula insertion, the uterus is insufflated and a clinical fetoscopic or robotic or prototype instruments can be used. Three skilled endoscopic surgeons each did 6 simulated fetoscopic repairs using the surgical steps of an open repair. The primary outcome was surgical success, which was determined by water tightness of the repair, operation time <180 minutes and an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills score of ≥18 of 25. Skill retention was measured using a competence cumulative sum analysis of a composite binary outcome of surgical success. Secondary outcomes were cost and fabrication time of the model. RESULTS: We made a model that can be used to simulate the neurosurgical steps of spina bifida repair, including anatomic details, port insertion, placode release and descent, undermining of skin and muscular layer, and endoscopic suturing. The model was made using reusable 3-dimensional printed molds and easily accessible materials. The 1-time startup cost was €211, and each single-use, simulated myelomeningocele lesion cost €9.5 in materials and 50 minutes of working time. Two skilled endoscopic surgeons performed 6 simulated, 3-port fetoscopic repairs, whereas a third used a Da Vinci surgical robot. Operation times decreased by more than 30% from the first to the last trial. Six experiments per surgeon did not show an obvious Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills score improvement. Competence cumulative sum analysis confirmed competency for each surgeon. CONCLUSION: This high-fidelity, low-cost spina bifida model allows simulated dissection and closure of a myelomeningocele lesion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Meningomielocele , Disrafismo Espinal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Meningomielocele/diagnóstico , Meningomielocele/cirurgia , Silício , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Fetoscopia/métodos , Água
15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 40(2): 527-535, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37698650

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spina bifida is a major disorder that occurs when the membranes of the spinal cord and medulla fail to close during the embryonic period and affects the individual for the rest of life. Some physical, mental, and social difficulties can be observed in the lives of children with spina bifida after surgery. The aim of this study is to determine what kind of volumetric changes occur in the brain when spina bifida occurs in different regions of the cord. METHODS: The volume of intracranial structures of 14 children aged 1 to 9 years (7 cervical, 7 lumbosacral) with different levels of spina bifida compared with vol2Brain. RESULTS: Spina bifida occurring in the cervical region was found to cause a greater volumetric reduction in subcortical structures, cortex and gyrus than spina bifida occurring in the lumbosacral region. CONCLUSION: We believe that our study will help clinicians involved in the management of this disorder.


Assuntos
Espinha Bífida Cística , Disrafismo Espinal , Criança , Humanos , Espinha Bífida Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Espinha Bífida Cística/cirurgia , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Medula Espinal
16.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 63(1): 53-59, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37970655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the lower-extremity neurological motor function level in fetuses with open spina bifida deteriorates within the 4-week interval between a first prenatal motor assessment at around 22 weeks of gestation and a second evaluation, prior to 'late' prenatal surgery, defined as surgery at 26-28 weeks and, in certain situations, up to 30 weeks, and to assess the association between prenatal presurgical motor-function level, anatomical level of the lesion and postnatal motor-function level. METHODS: This was a two-center cohort study of 94 singleton fetuses with open spina bifida which underwent percutaneous repair using the skin-over-biocellulose for antenatal fetoscopic repair (SAFER) technique between December 2016 and January 2022. All women underwent two prenatal systematic ultrasound evaluations, approximately 4 weeks apart, with the second one being performed less than 1 week before surgery, and one postnatal evaluation via physical examination within 2 months of birth. Motor-function classification was from spinal level T12 to S1, according to key muscle function. Each leg was analyzed separately; in case of discrepancy between the two legs, the worst motor-function level was considered for analysis. Motor-function-level evaluations were compared with each other and with the anatomical level as observed on ultrasound. Independent predictors of a postnatal reduction in motor-function level were assessed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Prenatal motor-function level was assessed at a median gestational age of 22.5 (interquartile range (IQR), 20.7-24.3) and 26.7 (IQR, 25.4-27.3) weeks, with a median interval of 4.0 (IQR, 2.4-6.0) weeks. The median gestational age at surgery was 27.0 (IQR, 25.9-27.6) weeks and the postnatal examination was at median age of 0.8 (IQR, 0.3-5.4) months. There was no significant difference in motor-function level between the two prenatal evaluations (P = 0.861). We therefore decided to use the second prenatal evaluation for comparison with postnatal motor function and anatomical level. Overall, prenatal and postnatal motor function evaluations were significantly different from the anatomical level (preoperative assessment, P = 0.0015; postnatal assessment, P = 0.0333). Comparing prenatal with postnatal motor-function level, we found that 87.2% of babies had similar or improved motor function compared with that prior to prenatal surgery. On logistic regression analysis, lower anatomical level of defect and greater difference between anatomical level and prenatal motor-function level were identified as independent predictors of postnatal motor function (odds ratio, 0.237 (95% CI, 0.095-0.588) (P = 0.002) and 3.44 (95% CI, 1.738-6.813) (P < 0.001), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During a 4-week interval between first ultrasound evaluation and late fetal surgical repair of open spina bifida, motor function does not change significantly, suggesting that late repair, ≥ 26 weeks, does not impact negatively on motor-function outcome. Compared with the anatomical level of the lesion, preoperative neurological motor-function assessment via ultrasound is more predictive of postnatal motor function, and should be included in preoperative counseling. © 2023 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Assuntos
Espinha Bífida Cística , Disrafismo Espinal , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Espinha Bífida Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Espinha Bífida Cística/cirurgia , Idade Gestacional , Estudos de Coortes , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Feto , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
World Neurosurg ; 182: 69, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37967745

RESUMO

Spina bifida is the most common congenital central nervous system anomaly, resulting in lifelong neurologic, urinary, motor, and bowel disability.1 Its most frequent form is myelomeningocele, characterized by spinal cord extrusion into a sac filled with cerebrospinal fluid.1 We report the case of a 28-year-old pregnant female with no comorbidities. At 16 weeks of pregnancy, fetal ultrasound presented ventriculomegaly, cerebellar herniation, and lumbar myelomeningocele. At 22 weeks, intrauterine surgical correction was performed (Video 1). A minihysterotomy spanning approximately 3 cm was performed. The defect was opened, and the neural placode was dissected and released. This was followed by the isolation of the peripheric dura, which was molded into a tube and closed with watertight suture. Finally, the minihysterotomy was sutured and the skin was closed. The pregnancy followed its course with no complications, and the child was born at term with the lesion closed and no necessity of intensive care. Recent studies have demonstrated that infants who undergo open in utero myelomeningocele repair have better neurologic outcomes than those who are treated after birth.1,2 However, maternal morbidity is nonnegligible with the classical open surgery.2 Peralta et al2 propose a modification of the classic 6.0- to 8.0-cm hysterotomy in which the same multilayer correction of the spinal defect is performed through a 2.5- to 3.5-cm hysterotomy. This modification, called minihysterotomy, has been successfully performed outside of its creation center and was associated with reduced risks of preterm delivery and maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications.2,3.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Meningomielocele , Disrafismo Espinal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Encefalocele/complicações , Feto/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia/complicações , Meningomielocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningomielocele/cirurgia , Meningomielocele/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações
18.
J Pediatr Urol ; 20(1): 46.e1-46.e8, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37858511

RESUMO

AIMS: GDNF plays a crucial role in the stimulation of recovery, neuroplasticity and synaptic reorganization after spinal cord injury providing neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Plasma GDNF levels are upregulated in cases of spina bifida owing to the intrauterine damage of the exposed spinal cord. Our aim was to compare the plasma GDNF levels in patients of spina bifida with non-spina bifida cases and assess the correlation with neurological impairment at one year of follow up. METHODS: Single centre prospective analysis of cases of spina bifida from 2020 to 2022 at presentation and after one year of follow up post-surgery. Cases with hernia and hydrocele without any other disorders were recruited into the control group. Plasma GDNF levels were assessed with immunoassay kits and compared with neurological involvement. RESULTS: 85 cases were included in the study. GDNF levels were elevated in cases compared to controls (mean 6.62 vs 1.76) with significant p value (<0.01). Same was observed for open and closed defects (mean 7.63 vs 4.86: p < 0.01). At follow up of 52 cases post-surgery cases with neurogenic bladder with abnormal urodynamic studies, sphincter involvement and motor impairment had significantly elevated baseline levels of GDNF compared with those who did not have this neurological impairment (p < 0.01). DISCUSSION: The neurotrophic factor up-regulation can reflect an endogenous attempt at neuroprotection against the biochemical and molecular cascades triggered by the spinal cord damage. This upregulation can be represented as important biochemical markers of severe spinal cord damage and can be associated with severity of spine injury in MMC patients. Our results are in keeping with these findings, that, there were increased levels of plasma GDNF levels in cases of spinal dysraphism compared to control population. Also, the type of lesion reflecting the severity whether a closed or an open dysraphism, showed significant difference in levels between them suggesting, yet again, more damage in open defect as expected. The levels were higher with involvement of bladder, sphincter and lower limb power. CONCLUSION: There is significant elevation of plasma GDNF levels in cases of spina bifida and this elevation is proportional to the degree of spinal damage and hence the neurological impairment. GDNF levels are a good predictor for assessing the severity of the lesion and thus the outcome in these cases. Additional prospective and long-term studies with a larger cohort are needed for a better understanding of neurotrophin pattern modulation in MMC.


Assuntos
Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Disrafismo Espinal , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/cirurgia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/cirurgia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia
19.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 33(1): 44-58, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cervical saccular limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM), previously so-called "cervical myelomeningocele," is a rare spinal dysraphism. Although the pathogenesis of true myelomeningocele is primary neurulation failure, LDM results from a delayed abnormality during the final stages of neurulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of these patients and to assess the correlation of outcomes with the level and type of lesion. Also, pooled data from the literature on similar lesions were systematically reviewed. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at Children's Medical Center (CMC), Tehran, Iran. Information of patients who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2020 (i.e., the recent series) was extracted and combined with data from a previously published series from the same center that were obtained between 2000 and 2003 (CMC series). The literature was reviewed for all published cases, to be combined with the CMC series for further analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included in the recent series. Combined with 16 previously published cases, 38 patients with a mean ± SD age at surgery of 11.75 ± 28.64 months were included in the CMC series. The rates of neurological deficit, hydrocephalus, and Chiari malformation type II in the CMC series were 26.32%, 39.47%, and 28.95%, respectively. The lesions were at the upper levels in 17 (44.7%) and lower cervical levels in 21 (55.3%) patients, with 31 cases (81.58%) diagnosed with stalk-type lesions and 7 cases (18.42%) with myelocystocele-type lesions. At final follow-up, 31 patients (81.57%) achieved sphincter continence, and all 36 accessible patients were ambulated, consisting of 28 (73.68%) independent and 8 (21.05%) dependent ambulation patients. The rates of Chiari malformation type II and hydrocephalus were insignificantly higher in patients with upper-level lesions, but those of neurological deficit, ambulation, and sphincter continence were not associated with level. The rates of hydrocephalus (p < 0.01), Chiari type II malformation (p < 0.01), and neurological deficit (p = 0.04) were significantly higher in the myelocystocele group. In the systematic review, 24.77% of patients had neurological deficit. Binary logistic regression showed that older age at surgery (p = 0.03) and associated spinal anomalies (p = 0.04) were significant predictors of deficits. Chiari type II malformation was significantly (p < 0.001) and hydrocephalus was marginally (p = 0.06) more common in patients with myelocystocele-type lesions. The rate of Chiari malformation type II was higher in patients with upper-level lesions (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cervical saccular LDM had better outcome compared with those patients with true myelomeningocele in more distal areas. According to the current series, most patients obtained ambulation and voiding continence, regardless of the level or type of lesion. Hydrocephalus, Chiari type II malformation, and neurological deficit were more common in patients with myelocystocele-type lesions.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari , Hidrocefalia , Meningomielocele , Disrafismo Espinal , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Meningomielocele/complicações , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irã (Geográfico) , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia/complicações
20.
Neurosurgery ; 94(4): 657-665, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face higher incidences and burdens of care for neural tube defects (NTDs) and hydrocephalus compared with high-income countries (HICs), in part due to limited access to neurosurgical intervention. In this scoping review, we aim to integrate studies on prenatal care, counseling, and surgical management for families of children with spinal dysraphism and hydrocephalus in LMICs and HICs. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Global Index Medicus, and Web of Science electronic databases were searched for English language articles pertaining to prenatal care, counseling, and surgical management for families of children with spinal dysraphism and hydrocephalus in HICs and LMICs. Identified abstracts were screened for full-text review. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed in full and analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies (16.9%) were conducted in HICs only, 50 studies (70.4%) were conducted in LMICs only, and 9 studies (12.7%) encompassed both. On thematic analysis, seven underlying topics were identified: epidemiology, folate deficiency and supplementation/fortification, risk factors other than folate deficiency, prenatal screening, attitudes and perceptions about NTDs and their care, surgical management, and recommendations for guideline implementation. CONCLUSION: NTDs have become a widely acknowledged public health problem in many LMICs. Prenatal counseling and care and folate fortification are critical in the prevention of spinal dysraphism. However, high-quality, standardized studies reporting their epidemiology, prevention, and management remain scarce. Compared with NTDs, research on the prevention and screening of hydrocephalus is even further limited. Future studies are necessary to quantify the burden of disease and identify strategies for improving global outcomes in treating and reducing the prevalence of NTDs and hydrocephalus. Surgical management of NTDs in LMICs is currently limited, but pediatric neurosurgeons may be uniquely equipped to address disparities in the care and counseling of families of children with spinal dysraphism and hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Disrafismo Espinal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Países em Desenvolvimento , Países Desenvolvidos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Disrafismo Espinal/epidemiologia , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Ácido Fólico , Hidrocefalia/epidemiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia/complicações
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