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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 131-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129734

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with long-term hormone-dependent effects that are sometimes not revealed until maturity, middle age, or adulthood. The aim of this study was to conduct descriptive reviews on animal experimental and human epidemiological evidence of the adverse health effects of in utero and lactational exposure to selected EDCs on the first generation and subsequent generation of the exposed offspring. PubMed, Web of Science, and Toxline databases were searched for relevant human and experimental animal studies on 29 October 29 2018. Search results were screened for relevance, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated and qualitative data extracted for analysis. The search yielded 73 relevant human and 113 animal studies. Results from studies show that in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is associated with impairment of reproductive, immunologic, metabolic, neurobehavioral, and growth physiology of the exposed offspring up to the fourth generation without additional exposure. Little convergence is seen between animal experiments and human studies in terms of the reported adverse health effects which might be associated with methodologic challenges across the studies. Based on the available animal and human evidence, in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is detrimental to the offspring. However, more human studies are necessary to clarify the toxicological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 41-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471794

RESUMO

Wildlife is exposed to a diverse range of natural and man-made chemicals. Some environmental chemicals possess specific endocrine disrupting properties, which have the potential to disrupt reproductive and developmental process in certain animals. There is growing evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a key role in reproductive disorders in fish, amphibians, mammals, reptiles and invertebrates. This evidence comes from field-based observations and laboratory based exposure studies, which provide substantial evidence that environmental chemicals can cause adverse effects at environmentally relevant doses. There is particular concern about wildlife exposures to cocktails of biologically active chemicals, which combined with other stressors, may play an even greater role in reproductive disorders than can be reproduced in laboratory experiments. Regulation of chemicals affords some protection to animals of the adverse effects of exposure to legacy chemicals but there continues to be considerable debate on the regulation of emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Reprodução , Animais
3.
Water Environ Res ; 91(10): 1390-1401, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472086

RESUMO

Recently, emerging pollutants (EPs) have been frequently detected in urban wastewater, surface water, drinking water, and other water bodies. EPs mainly usually include pharmaceuticals and personal care products, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, antibiotic resistance genes, persistent organic pollutants, disinfection by-products, and other industrial chemicals. The potential threat of EPs to ecosystems and human health has attracted worldwide attention. Therefore, how to treat EPs in various water bodies has become one of the research priorities. In this paper, some research results on treatment of EPs published in 2018 were summarized. PRACTITIONER POINTS: At present, more attention has been paid to emerging pollutants (EPs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), antibiotic resistance genes, persistent organic pollutants, disinfection by-products, etc. Existing EPs disposal technologies mainly include: engineered wetlands and natural systems, biological treatment, physical and physicochemical separation, chemical oxidation, catalysis, etc. This paper reviews some research results on the treatment technologies of EPs published in 2018.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1068-1088, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470472

RESUMO

Existence of anthropogenic contaminants (ACs) in different environmental matrices is a serious and unresolved concern. For instance, ACs from different sectors, such as industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical, are found in water bodies with considerable endocrine disruptors potency and can damage the biotic components of the environment. The continuous ACs exposure can cause cellular toxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and alterations in sex ratios in human beings. Whereas, aquatic organisms show bioaccumulation, trophic chains, and biomagnification of ACs through different entry route. These problems have been found in many countries around the globe, making them a worldwide concern. ACs have been found in different environmental matrices, such as water reservoirs for human consumption, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), groundwaters, surface waters, rivers, and seas, which demonstrate their free movement within the environment in an uncontrolled manner. This work provides a detailed overview of ACs occurrence in water bodies along with their toxicological effect on living organisms. The literature data reported between 2017 and 2018 is compiled following inclusion-exclusion criteria, and the obtained information was mapped as per type and source of ACs. The most important ACs are pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, ofloxacin, acetaminophen, progesterone ranitidine, and testosterone), agricultural products or pesticides (atrazine, carbendazim, fipronil), narcotics and illegal drugs (amphetamines, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine), food industry derivatives (bisphenol A, and caffeine), and personal care products (triclosan, and other related surfactants). Considering this threatening issue, robust detection and removal strategies must be considered in the design of WWTPs and DWTPs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Organismos Aquáticos , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diclofenaco , Disruptores Endócrinos , Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Recursos Hídricos
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 949-958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468459

RESUMO

Taurine is an important amino acid for the growth and development of the central nervous system and plays an important role in the development of the nervous system. Many studies have shown that taurine can prevent and repair neurodevelopmental damage, and its mechanism has also become a research hotspot. While most studies focus on nerve cells, less on placental cells that are closely related to early neurodevelopment (developmental neurotoxicity) by modulating fetal circulation level of thyroid hormones. Studies have shown that exposure of placental cells to the common environmental endocrine disruptor BDE 209 during early pregnancy may lead to developmental neurotoxicity due to thyroid hormone interference caused by abnormal expression of deiodinases. Therefore, in this study, the placenta-derived JEG cells cultured at 95% air/5% CO2 was used as a in vitro model, and the potential protection from taurine on BDE 209-mediated cytotoxicity was examined. When BDE 209 was found to cause a decrease in cell viability and disturbance in the gene and protein expressions of placental deiodinase 3, pretreatment of the JEG cells with taurine can moderately reduce the BDE 209-meditated cytotoxicity, and restore gene and protein expressions of placental deiodinase, so that thyroid hormone levels tend to be normal in cell culture medium. Our data suggest that taurine may have some protection on the developmental neurotoxicity caused by BDE 209.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Placenta/citologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
6.
Environ Res ; 177: 108630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421446

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several metals are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In utero development and adolescence are critical windows of susceptibility to EDC exposure. With the exception of a few heavy metals, few human studies have evaluated the impact of metal exposure on pubertal development. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone levels and sexual maturation and progression among girls from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. We measured urinary concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in samples collected from women during their third trimester of pregnancy and from their female children at 8-13 years (n = 132). We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) at age 8-13, and assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (breast, pubic hair development, and menarche status), at two time points (8-13, 14-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations as predictors of peripubertal hormones. In a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimation equations, we evaluated Tanner stage and menarche progression in relation to individual in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations. We found that higher in utero Zn was associated with increased inhibin B. Several metals at 8-13 years were associated with higher DHEA-S and estradiol, while Ni was positively but Cu was negatively associated with testosterone. In utero Ni, Al, and Cd were associated with slower progression of breast development after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. For example, an IQR increase in in utero Al exposure was associated with 0.82 times lower odds of progressing to a higher Tanner stage for breast development per year (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Peripubertal concentrations of Ba and Al were also associated with being at a higher pubic hair Tanner stage and menarche at 8-13, but lower odds of progressing to the next stage at 14-18 years. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to model the joint effect of multiple metals while accounting for correlated exposures, as well as potential non-linear relationships between metals and outcomes of interest, which yielded results similar to individual analyses. These findings suggest that female reproductive development may be vulnerable to the effects of metal exposure, and using both Tanner stages and hormone levels may provide clues about underlying mechanisms in two sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1121: 21-31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392649

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of non communicable diseases (NCDs) poses main challenges to global public health. Various environmental exposures to different chemicals and pollutants might interact with genetic and epigenetic mechanisms resulting in the development of NCDs. Among these environmental exposures, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) consist of a group of compounds with potential adverse health effects and the interference with the endocrine system. They are mostly used in food constituents, packaging industries and pesticides. Growing number of in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies documented the link of EDC exposure with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, which are the underlying factors for development of NCDs. Prevention of exposure to EDCs and reduction of their production should be underscored in strategies for primordial prevention of NCDs.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade
8.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 406-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects lipid accumulation; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aim to clarify the effect of DEHP on lipid metabolism and the role of TYK2/STAT1 and autophagy. METHODS: In total, 160 Wistar rats were exposed to DEHP [0, 5, 50, 500 mg/(kg•d)] for 8 weeks. Lipid levels, as well as mRNA and protein levels of TYK2, STAT1, PPARγ, AOX, FAS, LPL, and LC3 were detected. RESULTS: The results indicate that DEHP exposure may lead to increased weight gain and altered serum lipids. We observed that DEHP exposure affected liver parenchyma and increased the volume or number of fat cells. In adipose tissue, decreased TYK2 and STAT1 promoted the expression of PPARγ and FAS. The mRNA and protein expression of LC3 in 50 and 500 mg/(kg•d) groups was increased significantly. In the liver, TYK2 and STAT1 increased compensatorily; however, the expression of FAS and AOX increased, while LPL expression decreased. Joint exposure to both a high-fat diet and DEHP led to complete disorder of lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that DEHP induces lipid metabolism disorder by regulating TYK2/STAT1. Autophagy may play a potential role in this process as well. High-fat diet, in combination with DEHP exposure, may jointly have an effect on lipid metabolism disorder.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 447-459, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299577

RESUMO

Steroidal estrogens are widespread water contaminants with potential carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting activities. The World Health Organization has listed estrogens as group 1 carcinogens. These contaminants are of substantial concern because of potential threats to human health, and aquatic organisms on long-term exposure. A range of methods, including oxidation, adsorption, electrochemical, and irradiation techniques have been employed for their remediation from aqueous systems. However, inadequate removal, toxic sludge generation, high operating costs, and the requisite for skilled operating and maintenance personnel commercially hampered the application of many methods. An interesting alternative treatment approach based on the use of oxidoreductases, particularly laccases, has recently gained amicability for the biotransformation of emerging pollutants. The use of immobilized enzymes is more cost-effective from an industrial perspective due to improved catalytic stability, reusability, reduction of product inhibition, and easier product separation. This review provides comprehensive knowledge on the use of laccases in the biodegradation of steroidal estrogens, including estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol with endocrine-disrupting potency from the environment. After an overview of estrogens and catalytic properties of laccase, the use of free, as well as immobilized laccases with a particular emphasis on estrogens removal by laccase-based fed-batch, packed bed bioreactors, and membrane reactors, is discussed. A comparison of existing treatment technologies with enzyme technology for the removal of estrogens from different environmental matrices is made. Lastly, along with concluding remarks, future research direction aimed at bridging knowledge gaps for estrogenic compounds removal are also proposed in this very important research area.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109389, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272027

RESUMO

Simvastatin (SV), as an hypocholesterolaemic drug, has been detected in various aquatic environment. However, limited information is available on the effects of SV on freshwater invertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of SV on Daphnia. magna (D. magna) through measuring the physiological changes (e.g., survival, growth rate, and reproduction) in a 21-d chronic toxicity test We also determined the expression of seven detoxification and reproduction-related genes (i.e. HR96, P-gp, CYP360A8, GST, CYP314, EcR and Vtg) and several enzymes (i.e. APND, ERND, GST and CAT) in a acute test (24 h). Results showed that high concentration (e.g. 50 µg L-1) of SV for short time exposure (e.g. 24 h) significantly induced the expression of HR96 and P-gp (e.g. up to 2.5 folds)and enzymes (e.g. increasing 4.0 folds for ERND and GST activity) in D. magna.. The long-term chronic exposure (21 days) may cause the changes of life history parameters such as decreasing total egg production number per individual and intrinsic growth rates etc. SV may act as a potential endocrine disruptor to D. magna and the reproduction parameters were more sensitive endpoints than the survival and growth for evaluating SV exposure.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sinvastatina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/enzimologia , Daphnia/genética , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7174-7182, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240931

RESUMO

Intake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by humans could disturb the metabolism of hormones, induce cancer, and damage the liver and other organs. Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) are important EDCs and environmental contaminants. With the increasing use of plastics and nonionic surfactants worldwide, PAEs and APs have entered environmental water and accumulated in edible fish, which are finally consumed by humans. In this study, a coated direct inlet probe (CDIP) based on an atmospheric solid analysis probe, which can rapidly and simultaneously extract both PAEs and APs in fish, was developed. Twelve PAEs and APs were quantified by using a stable-isotope-labeled internal standard. Standard curves of the PAEs and APs having correlation coefficients of R2 ≥ 0.9837 were obtained. The limit of detection of the PAEs and APs was distributed from 0.01 to 40 ng g-1. The relative recovery of the method was 78-120% between low, medium, and high spiked levels. Combined with principal component analysis, PAE- and AP-contaminated Carassius auratus from different habitats could be identified. Multiple sample analysis mode allowed the extraction of up to 12 samples at once, and the total analysis time (including sample pretreatment, extraction, and analysis time) was less than 10 min per sample, which indicates that CDIP is useful for rapid quantitative analysis.


Assuntos
Ésteres/análise , Carpa Dourada , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida
12.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(7): 1099-1114, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179481

RESUMO

Endocrine active contaminants (EACs) in environmental samples can pose a range of toxicological threats to ecosystems, especially through their impacts on reproductive pathways mediated by the estrogen receptor. The physicochemical properties of known organic EACs vary greatly and typically require different sample preparation techniques to identify different classes of compounds. EAC sources are similarly diverse, including both endogenous compounds and anthropogenic chemicals found in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and their transformation products, which are often disposed of to sewers at their end of use. Looking for EACs in sewage sludge proposes a bottom-up, or end-of-use and treatment approach to discover environmentally relevant EACs, since many EACs accumulate in sludges even after application of robust wastewater treatment processes. This study demonstrates an extraction and analytical method capable of detecting a broad spectrum of known and suspected EACs via High Resolution Liquid Chromatography Quadropole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) suspect screening of fourteen California sewage sludge samples. Spike-recovery experiments were performed using twelve carefully selected surrogates to assess different extraction solvents, sample weights, extraction pH values, procedures for combining extracts with different extraction pH's, and solid phase extraction cartridges. Using LC-QTOF-MS, identifications of several other organic compounds in the samples were made, a goal unachievable with unit resolution mass spectrometry. Suspect screening of California sludge samples discovered 118 compounds including hormones, pharmaceuticals, phosphate flame retardants, recreational drugs, antimicrobials, and pesticides. Additionally, 22 of these identified compounds are predicted to interfere with estrogen receptors or other reproductive/developmental pathways based on the VEGA QSAR toxicity prediction model.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , California , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Águas Residuárias/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Chemosphere ; 233: 387-395, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176902

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), they are considered endocrine disruptors and can bioaccumulate in nature, and in living tissue. Human exposure to and the presence of PBDEs in human samples is of concern due to their potential health risks. Young children are one of the most vulnerable populations to PBDE's potential health effects. Ninety-one serum samples of 6-year-old children, residing in a contaminated location, due to former production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were analysed to examine children's exposure to PBDEs in Slovakia. Median serum concentrations found for individual PBDE congeners BDE-28+33, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -183 were 0.015, 0.184, 0.079, 0.046, 0.176, 0.014, and 0.097 ng g-1 lipid weight, respectively. Children's preschool maturity was measured using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III) test. In multivariate analyses BDE-153 serum concentrations were significantly inversely associated with WPPSI-III composite score (p = 0.011, ß = -23.6), while adjusting for PCB-153 and sex. Significant negative associations were observed for BDE-153 serum concentrations (p = 0.002, ß = -29.8) and WPPSI-III composite score, after controlling for PCB-118 and sex. Negative associations were also observed for BDE-47, BDE-100 and BDE-153, with different individual WPPSI subtest scores, after adjustment with PCB-153 and/or PCB-118 and sex. Serum concentrations of PCB-153 and PCB-118 were not statistically significantly associated with WPPSI-III composite score and individual subtest scores. These findings demonstrate adverse effects of PBDE serum exposure on preschool maturity of children, and PBDEs potentially negative impact on child neuropsychological development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Eslováquia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 729-736, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195281

RESUMO

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is one of the most frequently used UV filters in sunscreens and other cosmetic products. Its ubiquitous presence in various environmental matrices and its endocrine disrupting properties have been widely reported. However, we know little about the effect of EHMC exposure on humans, mainly due to its fast metabolism. In this study, urine and plasma of EHMC-dosed rats were analysed to identify its major metabolites. Five metabolites were found, with four firstly reported. Two metabolites were putatively identified as 4-methoxycinnamic acid (4-MCA) and 4'-methoxyacetophenone (4'-MAP). Quantitative results revealed that their excretion concentrations were much higher than the parent compound. Because of these high concentrations, for the human biomonitoring study, EHMC and these two metabolites were detected simultaneously in urine samples from Chinese children and adolescents. The results indicated wide exposure to EHMC, 4-MCA and 4'-MAP. The correlation between urinary concentration of EHMC and 4-MCA as well as 4-MCA and 4'-MAP provided important clues as to the sources and metabolic pathways among these three compounds. Several demographic factors were also assessed with the exposure level. As the first human exposure study of EHMC in a Chinese population, this report would help to establish an exposure database facilitating health risk assessment of EHMC.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/metabolismo , Animais , Cinamatos/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Medição de Risco
15.
J Environ Manage ; 246: 647-657, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212218

RESUMO

In this long-term field study, to restore a dried river ecosystem, reclaimed water was used as a supplementary water source. The main aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation and migration potential of EDCs in groundwater during long-term utilization of reclaimed water and the changes in microbial community during the removal of EDCs. A long-term field study was conducted in order to ascertain the temporal and spatial distribution of four selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in an underground aquifer in the Chaobai watershed, where reclaimed water is the primary water source. Anew, the microbial community structure at different groundwater depths, along with related environmental factors were also determined. Based on the results obtained from this long-term study, it was found that the EDCs in the surface water of the Chaobai river have entered a depth of 80 m in the groundwater aquifers, within a distance of 360 m from the river. The vertical profiles of the concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3) decreased significantly from the surface to different groundwater depths with first-order attenuation rates of 0.0416, 0.0343, 0.0498, and 0.0173 m-1. The aquifer depth, water temperature, conductivity, and coexisting anions correlated well with the distribution of EDCs in groundwater.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Água
16.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(2): 86-91, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216162

RESUMO

Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental effects that is used as an additive in food and beverage containers. There are no data of BPA levels in the Argentine population. The objective of this study was to measure BPA in the urine of pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Detection of BPA in pregnant women of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with a limit of quantification of 2 ng / ml and detection of 0.8 ng / ml. The proportion of women exposed to BPA within the 95% confidence interval (IC 95%) is described. Results: 149 pregnant women, average age 32 years (Standard Deviation 5.3), 81% (95% CI 73.9-86.9) workers and 83.7% (95% CI 76.7-89.1) have university or higher education, 66.4% (95% CI 58-74.0) of the urinary samples were quantifiable, with a median BPA of 4.3 ng/mg Cr (RI 3.2-6.7). Conclusions: This study shows that exposure to BPA during the process of embryonic development in a sector of the population of Argentina is widespread. In Argentina, the use of this ED is only regulated in baby bottles.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1019-1028, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146308

RESUMO

Emerging pollutants known as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a contemporary global issue, especially in aquatic ecosystems. As aquaculture production through mariculture activities in Malaysia supports food production, the concentration and distribution of EDCs in estuarine water ecosystems may have changed. Therefore, this current study aims to prepare a suitable and reliable method for application on environmental samples. Besides, this study also presented the occurrence of EDCs pollutant in Pulau Kukup, Johor, where the biggest and most active mariculture site in Malaysia takes place. Analytical methods based on a combination of solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Solid-phase extraction (SPE)-LC-MS/MS) have been modified and optimised to examine the level of targeted EDCs contaminant. In the current study, this method displays high extraction recovery for targeted EDCs, ranging from 92.02% to 132.32%. The highest concentration detected is diclofenac (<0.47-79.89 ng/L) followed by 17ß-estradiol (E2) (<5.28-31.43 ng/L) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) (<0.30-7.67 ng/L). The highest percentage distribution for the targeted EDCs in the current study is diclofenac, followed by EE2 and dexamethasone with the percentages of 99.44%, 89.53% and 73.23%, respectively. This current study can be a baseline assessment to understand the pollution profile of EDCs and their distribution in the estuarine water of the mariculture site throughout the world, especially in Malaysia. Owing to the significant concentration of targeted EDCs detected in water samples, the need for further monitoring in the future is required.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Malásia
18.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1049-1059, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146311

RESUMO

Tebuconazole is a widely used fungicide that has been detected in water ecosystems, of which the concentrations may affect the endocrine function of aquatic organisms. At present study, tissue-specific bioaccumulation of tebuconazole was found in ovary of adult zebrafish, indicating a potential risk of endocrine disruption. In order to evaluate the potential endocrine disrupting effects, three life stages (2 hpf (hours post-fertilization) -60 dpf (days post-fertilization), Stage I; 60-120 dpf, Stage II; 180-208 dpf, Stage III) of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were chronically exposed to tebuconazole at the concentrations ranging from 0.05 mg/L to 1.84 mg/L. Result showed that exposed to tebuconazole could lead to a male-biased sex differentiation in juvenile zebrafish and significant decrease of the percentage of germ cells in sexually-mature zebrafish. Egg production was significantly inhibited by 57.8% and 19.2% after Stage II- and Stage III-exposures, respectively. The contents of 17ß-estradiol in gonad decreased by 63.5% when exposed to 0.20 mg/L tebuconazole at Stage II and by 49.5% after exposed to 0.18 mg/L tebuconazole at Stage III, respectively. For all stages exposure, reductions in 17ß-estradiol/testosterone ratio were observed, indicating an imbalance in steroids synthesis. Additionally, tebuconazole reduced the expression of cyp19a, which was consistent with the decrease of E2 level. In overall, the present findings indicated that, playing as an anti-estrogen-like chemical, tebuconazole inhibited the expression of Cyp19, thereby impairing steroid hormones biosynthesis, leading to a diminished fecundity of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Aromatase/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Gônadas/embriologia , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 982-991, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146318

RESUMO

Odontocete cetaceans bioaccumulate high concentrations of endocrine disrupting persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) - collectively DDTs - but few studies have explored DDTs-mediated endocrine disruption in cetaceans. Herein, we use remotely collected blubber biopsies from common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting a site with high localized DDTs contamination to study the relationships between DDTs exposure and steroid hormone homeostasis in cetaceans. We quantified blubber steroid hormone concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and blubber POP concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We detected six steroid hormones in blubber, including progesterone (P4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP4), androstenedione (AE), testosterone (T), cortisol (F), and cortisone (E). Sampled dolphins (n = 62) exhibited exposure to DDT, DDE, DDD, chlordanes (CHLDs), mirex, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). Using principal components analysis (PCA), we determined that blubber DDTs primarily loaded to the first principal component (PC1) explaining 81.6% of the total variance in POP exposure, while the remaining POPs primarily loaded to the PC2 (10.4% of variance). PC1 scores were negatively correlated with blubber T in males and blubber F in females, suggesting that exposure to DDTs impacted androgen and corticosteroid homeostasis. These conclusions were further supported by observed negative correlations between T and o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDD in males sampled in the fall, and between F and the six individual DDTs and ∑6DDTs in females. Overall, these results suggest that POP-mediated endocrine disruption may have occurred in this stock of dolphins, which could negatively impact their health and fitness. However, this study relied on uncontrolled incidental exposures, making it impossible to establish a causal relationship between DDTs exposure and endocrine effects. Importantly, this study demonstrates that remotely collected blubber biopsies are a useful matrix for studying endocrine disruption in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , DDT/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Esteroides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Golfo do México , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Testosterona/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23491-23504, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201698

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on testis development of F1 male mice. The BPA exposure model of pregnant mice was prepared by intragastric administration of BPA at the doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day at gestation day (GD) 0.5-17.5. The testis index of the offspring mice was calculated at postnatal day (PND) 21 and PND 56. The results showed that maternal exposure to 20 mg/kg BPA during pregnancy significantly increased the testicular index of F1 males at PND 21, and 40 mg/kg BPA significantly decreased the testicular index of F1 males at PND 56 (P < 0.01). BPA significantly reduced serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels, and improved testicular ERα and ERß levels in F1 males at both PND 21 and PND 56. BPA exposure also upregulated transcription of testicular Dnmt1 and inhibited the transcription of testicular Dnmt3A and Dnmt3B in F1 mice at PND 21. BPA reduced the transcriptional level of testicular DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt), increased the expression of testicular caspase-7, caspase-9, and bax, and decreased the expression of bcl-2 in F1 mice at PND 56. Consistent with that, BPA improved the apoptosis rate in the testis at PND 56 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Our study indicates that BPA disrupts the secretion of testosterone, estradiol, and estrogen receptors by interfering with the transcription of testicular DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) in offspring males, which damages testicular tissues and affects the potential reproductive function.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases , Estradiol/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade
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