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1.
Food Chem ; 346: 128895, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421902

RESUMO

Bisphenols (BPs) are worldwide used organic compounds in plastics, belonging to the group of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which exhibits endocrine disruption to beings. Migration of BPs from food contact materials like plastic containers, epoxy coatings in metal cans and thermal papers, would results in bioaccumulation of BPs in human beings, causing adverse health effects. Therefore, sensitive and selective determination of BPs in food is needed. Among different strategies have been explored for the detection of BPs, electrochemical sensors with relatively high sensitivity and fast response are promising. This paper is devoted to comprehensively review the developed electrochemical methods for BPs sensing in food, so that to find a direction for developing low cost, high accuracy and compatibility sensors toward the sensitive and selective detection of BPs. Different electrochemical technologies categorized by recognition agents, aptamers, enzymes, molecularly imprinted polymers and nanomaterials are discussed and summarized in their mechanisms, usages, merits and limitations. The challenges and further perspectives in the development of electrochemical sensors is also discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Eletroquímica/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 324: 124678, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461128

RESUMO

While the technologies available today can generate high-quality water from wastewater, the majority of the wastewater treatment plants are not intended to eliminate emerging xenobiotic pollutants, pharmaceutical and personal care items. Most endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and personal care products (PPCPs) are more arctic than most regulated pollutants, and several of them have acid or critical functional groups. Together with the trace occurrence, EDCs and PPCPs create specific challenges for removal and subsequent improvements of wastewater treatment plants. Various technologies have been investigated extensively because they are highly persistent which leads to bioaccumulation. Researchers are increasingly addressing the human health hazards of xenobiotics and their removal. The emphasis of this review was on the promising methods available, especially nanotechnology, for the treatment of xenobiotic compounds that are accidentally released into the setting. In terms of xenobiotic elimination, nanotechnology provides better treatment than chemical treatments and their degradation mechanisms are addressed.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Xenobióticos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111931, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418343

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in marine environments has become a major environmental concern. Nonetheless, the biological effects of EDCs on organisms in coastal environments remain poorly characterized. In this study, biomonitoring of EDCs in male fish Sebastiscus marmoratus was carried out in the Maowei Sea, China. The results showed that the concentration of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was below the detection limit, the concentrations of 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in seawater were moderate compared with those in other global regions, and the possible sources are the municipal wastewater discharge. Nested ANOVA analyses suggest significant differences of the brain aromatase activities and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) expression between the port area and the oyster farming area. A new fish expert system (FES) was developed for evaluating the biological effects of EDCs on fish. Our findings show that the FES is a potential tool to evaluate the biological effects of marine pollutants.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , China , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Water Res ; 188: 116469, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011607

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are well known emerging contaminants, which have the capacity to elicit negative effects on endocrine systems of both humans and wildlife. As the conventional wastewater treatment plants cannot stably remove these EDCs, post-treatment with advanced chemical oxidation methods such as ozonation are proven effective to further remove EDCs, but this additional treatment increase the wastewater treatment cost, which is impractical for worldwide application. To find potential alternative effective method, this work presents the importance of EDCs conjugates. Specifically, two important facts are described: 1) concentrations of EDCs conjugates in raw municipal wastewater vary with temperature, and their existence results in underestimated removal performance of WWTPs; 2) Strategies to enhance the cleavage rates of EDCs conjugates are most effective to improve the observed removal performance of conventional WWTPs on EDCs. Further work should be performed to check whether effective solutions can be found to increase their cleavage rates.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Humanos , Plantas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 18-27, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279030

RESUMO

This work describes the development, optimisation and validation of an analytical method for the rapid determination of 17 priority pharmaceutical compounds and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Rather than studying compounds from the same therapeutic class, the analyses aimed to determine target compounds with the highest risk potential (with particular regard to Scotland), providing a tool for further monitoring in different water matrices. Prioritisation was based on a systematic environmental risk assessment approach, using consumption data; wastewater treatment removal efficiency; environmental occurrence; toxicological effects; and pre-existing regulatory indicators. This process highlighted 17 compounds across various therapeutic classes, which were then quantified, at environmentally relevant concentrations, by a single analytical methodology. Analytical determination was achieved using a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The fully optimised method performed well for the majority of target compounds, with recoveries >71% for 15 of 17 analytes. The limits of quantification for most target analytes (14 of 17) ranged from 0.07 ng/L to 1.88 ng/L in river waters. The utility of this method was then demonstrated using real water samples associated with a rural hospital/setting. Eight compounds were targeted and detected, with the highest levels found for the analgesic, paracetamol (at up to 105,910 ng/L in the hospital discharge). This method offers a robust tool to monitor high priority pharmaceutical and EDC levels in various aqueous sample matrices.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1637: 461828, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373795

RESUMO

A novel double-microextraction approach, combining dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and vortex-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-µ-SPE) was developed. The procedure was applied to extract endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) consisting of three phthalate esters (PEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) associated with PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm). Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for determination of the analytes. These analytes were first ultrasonically desorbed from PM2.5 in a 10% acetone aqueous solution. DLLME was used to first preconcentrate the analytes; the sample solution, still in the same vial, was then subjected to VA-µ-SPE. The synergistic effects provided by the combination of the microextraction techniques provided advantages such as high enrichment factors and good cleanup performance. Various extraction parameters such as type and volume of extractant solvent (for DLLME), and type of sorbent, extraction time, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time (for µ-SPE) were evaluated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were found to be the most suitable sorbent. This procedure achieved good precision with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of between 1.93 and 9.95%. Good linearity ranges (0.3-100 ng/mL and 0.5-100 ng/mL, depending on analytes), and limits of detection (LODs) of between 0.07 and 0.15 ng/mL were obtained. The method was used to determine the levels of PEs and BPA in ambient air, with concentrations ranging between below the limits of quantification and 0.48 ng/m3. DLLME-VA-µ-SPE-GC-MS/MS was demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of these EDCs present in PM2.5.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Disruptores Endócrinos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Material Particulado/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Ésteres , Limite de Detecção , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Material Particulado/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
7.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116223, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316500

RESUMO

Five endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were determined in four urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) in two seasonal periods (winter and summer). The MAM, one of the most urbanized areas in Mexico, is characterized by high industrial activity and population density, leading to extensive use of several EDCs. In the MAM, ∼90% of urban and industrial wastewater is treated in WWTPs, where EDCs can be partially eliminated. In this work, dissolved levels of 17ß-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4NP), and 4-tert-octylphenol (4TOP) in wastewater were determined. The EDCs' determination was carried out through solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High EDCs levels (0.4-450 ng/L) were found in the influents of WWTPs, while concentrations in the effluents ranged from 0.2 to 26.8 ng/L, with E2, EE2, and 4TOP being the most persistent. The Spearman correlation analysis revealed the association between E2 and EE2 (r = 0.4835, p < 0.05), and between BPA and 4NP (r = 0.5180, p < 0.05), suggesting that these EDCs have similar sources. Also, E2, BPA, and 4TOP were positively correlated with the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS) (r = 0.4080-0.5694, p < 0.05), indicating the association of the EDCs with the organic matter in the wastewater. The factor analysis confirmed the significant correlation of COD, BOD, TSS, temperature, and pH with the high occurrence of 4TOP during the summer. It was also confirmed that summer warmer temperatures favored the removal of BPA and 4NP in the studied WWTPs. Finally, the studied sites were classified by cluster analysis in three groups, revealing the impact that seasonality has on the behavior of the selected EDCs.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Estações do Ano , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
8.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128158, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297136

RESUMO

In this work, we developed an analytical approach using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection in order to determine simultaneously 24 endocrine disrupting chemicals such as alkylphenols, organophosphorus pesticides, parabens, phenylphenols, triclosan and bisphenol A in vegetable and fruit samples. Different variables influencing UAE and SPE performance were optimized in order to maximize removal of the sample matrix and preconcentration of the analytes. The optimized extraction and GC-MS quantitation conditions provided acceptable sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. Limits of detection spanned the range 0.6-25 ng kg-1, recoveries were near-quantitative and relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 7.6%. The proposed method was used to analyse 11 vegetable samples and 7 fruit samples purchased at various Spanish and Moroccan supermarkets. Most samples contained more than three of the analytes, at levels between 5.8 and 580 ng kg-1.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida , Verduras
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 166-174, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372468

RESUMO

The concentrations of 22 endocrine disrupting chemicals, including 4 categories of sex hormones, progesterones, glucocorticoids, and phenolic hormones, in groundwater of Wuxi-Changzhou were analyzed using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that 20 EDCs were detected, among which bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) were the main components with detection ratios greater than 90%, followed by estriol (E3) and methyl-prednisolonel (Meprednl), which had detection rates 67.7% and 48.4%, respectively. The average concentration of BPA was the highest (4.95 ng·L-1), followed by that of Meprednl, E2, prednisolone (Prednl), testosterone propionate (TES-pro), and megestrol-acetate (MA; 2.84, 0.71, 0.64, 0.58, and 0.53 ng·L-1, respectively). The total concentration in each site ranged from 0.38 to 147.35 ng·L-1. The sites with higher concentration were mainly distributed in the Xinbei District, Liyang City, and the Zhonglou District of Changzhou City. The potential sources were analyzed by a principal component analysis (PCA) combining the point sources near sample sites. The results showed that domestic sewage, aquaculture, and industrial wastewater were the main sources, following by medical wastewater. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment showed a low risk of EDCs in the groundwater of the study area, and the risk of drinking water was greater than that of skin exposure. EE2 had the highest non-carcinogenic risk and is suggested to be monitored in priority.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estradiol/análise , Estrona/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128309, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The general population is exposed to the group of endocrine disrupting chemicals persistent organic pollutants (POPs), that includes polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to evaluate the associations of serum levels of PCB, PCDD, and PCDF congeners with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postmenopausal women not taking exogenous hormones. We hypothesized that associations of POPs with these gonadotropins could be modified by factors affecting endogenous hormones. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on data from 89 postmenopausal women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). POPs were summarized based on classification schemes thought to reflect toxicological properties. Associations of POPs and gonadotropin hormones were modeled with multivariable regression models. When evidence of interaction was found, conditional effects were estimated. RESULTS: We found inverse associations of LH, but not FSH, with exposure to anti-estrogenic and/or dioxin-like POPs, but not with non dioxin-like PCBs. A doubling of dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) was associated with a decrease in LH of 11.9% (95% CI = -21.3%, -1.4%, p = 0.03). Inverse associations were enhanced by potential effect modifiers related to both direct and indirect estrogenicity, including obesity and the obesity-related condition inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: These investigations support a pattern of endocrine-disrupting effects by dioxin-like POPs among postmenopausal women, especially those with conditions related to peripheral estrogenicity.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111485, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049614

RESUMO

Population growth followed by rapid development of industrialisation has caused serious environmental pollution with contaminants of emerging concern found in wastewater and surface water. As one of the most important resources for human survival, water is daily polluted by endocrine-disruptive chemicals (EDCs) including pharmaceuticals and personal care products, organic pollutants and heavy metals. Even at low concentrations in water bodies, chronic exposure to EDCs can cause adverse effects on human and environment health. The main concern with EDCs is the diseases they can generate in humans or wildlife by affecting the function of hormones in the body. Problems in the reproductive system, thyroid problems, Alzheimer's, cancer and obesity are some of the major effects of EDCs in humans. In wildlife, the reproductive system may be affected, including its levels of hatchability and vitellogenin. The efforts of the present review are on emphasising on the environmental concern on the occurrence and risk assessment of EDCs, their harmful effects in the ecosystem, human life, and wildlife, as a result of their incomplete removal from wastewater treatment plants. The review focuses on studies conducted in South Africa highlights the use of fungal bioreactors as a low-cost and eco-effective environmentally friendly wastewater treatment processes.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Humanos , África do Sul , Águas Residuárias , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 750, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155083

RESUMO

4-tert-Octylphenol (4-tOP) and triclosan (TCS) are endocrine disruptors which have been detected in environmental matrices such as air, soil and water at ultra-low levels. Exposure to endocrine disruptors may account at least in part, for the global increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases like cancers and diabetes and may also lead to an imbalance in the aquatic ecosystem. River Buffalo is an important natural resource in the Eastern Cape of South Africa serving more than half a million people. The presence of the two compounds in the river water hitherto unknown was investigated during winter seasons using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques. The sampling points differed by some physicochemical parameters. The concentration of 4-tOP ranged 0-755 ng/L, median value 88.1 ng/L while that of TCS ranged 0-1264.2 ng/L and the median value was 82.1 ng/L. Hazard quotient as an index of exposure risk varied according to daphnids Ëƒ fish Ëƒ algae for 4-tOP exposure while HQ for TCS exposure was algae > daphnids = fish showing that both compounds were capable of causing imbalance in the aquatic ecosystem. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Búfalos , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , África do Sul , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4981-4988, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124241

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCPs) have been of great concern as emerging contaminants of aquatic environments. In this study, the risks of EDCs and PPCPs in the Yangtze River Basin were ranked, based on their environmental exposure datasets and ecotoxicity datasets. The prioritized chemicals were then identified. The results found that EDCs and personal care products were deemed to represent higher risks to aquatic organisms, for example, estrone, estriol, 17ß-estradiol, bisphenol S, atrazine, triclocarban, and triclosan, while the risks of pharmaceuticals were 500-fold lower. Among the pharmaceuticals, antibiotics posed relatively higher risks. The Xiangjiang River and Honghu Lake with its surrounding rivers were hotspots where more chemicals were found with the highest concentrations, followed by Taihu Lake, Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River Delta. When comparing with algae and worms, fish were the most sensitive taxa to 17ß-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol. The results of this work provide sound guidance for the future monitoring and management of chemicals in China.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Disruptores Endócrinos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Cosméticos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 692-698, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040230

RESUMO

Effluents from on-site wastewater treatment systems can influence surface water quality, particularly when infrastructure is aging, malfunctioning, and improperly installed. Municipal wastewater often contains chemical compounds that can lead to adverse biological effects, such as reproductive impairment, in organisms that are chronically exposed. A significant number of these compounds are endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Water quality influences of on-site systems are poorly studied in semi-arid regions where instream flows are seasonally dependent on snowmelt, and when instream dilution of wastewater effluents is minimal during other times of the year. Here we examined surface water estrogenicity in low order tributaries of two unique semi-arid streams with on-site wastewater treatment systems, for which seasonal instream flow fluctuations occur in Park City, UT, USA. Water samples were collected from a total of five locations along two lotic systems downstream from active on-site treatment systems. Samples were extracted for targeted chemical analyses and to perform in vivo and in vitro bioassays with juvenile rainbow trout. Estrogenic activity was measured by quantifying the concentration and expression of vitellogenin (VTG) in plasma and liver, respectively. Plasma VTG presented elevated levels in fish exposed to water samples collected at the two sites in close proximity to on-site systems and during seasons with low stream discharge, though the levels observed did not suggest severe endocrine disruption. However, long-term exposure to these surface water could compromise the fish populations. While the sensitivity of in vitro bioassays was low and targeted chemical analyses did not identify causative compounds, the use of complementary lines of evidence (e.g., in vivo biological models) was advantageous in identifying estrogenic activity in waters influenced by effluents from on-site wastewater systems.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/sangue , Rios/química , Neve/química , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cidades , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Utah , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Qualidade da Água
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(4): 640-650, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970617

RESUMO

Micropollutants such as endocrine disruptors are one of the most important groups of chemicals polluting water resources. Conventional treatment systems may not be effective for the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and the fate of these chemicals should be carefully monitored in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Additional treatment methods such as advanced oxidation processes can be used for the removal of endocrine disruptors. This study presents the existence of endocrine disruptors in 4 different effluents: (i) municipal WWTP effluent, (ii) textile industry WWTP effluent, (iii) organized industrial zone (OIZ) WWTP effluent and (iv) pharmaceutical industry discharge and also presents their removal efficiencies by ozonation and peroxone oxidation. A broad spectrum of removal efficiencies was observed for the EDCs present in the samples since the oxidation efficiency of wastewaters containing EDCs mainly depends on the wastewater matrix and on the type of the EDCs. Ozonation was found to be a lower-cost option than peroxone oxidation at the investigated conditions.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
16.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957301

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP), a phenolic endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC), is known to have high toxicity to aquatic organisms and humans. The remediation of 4-NP-contaminated marine sediments was studied using red algae-based biochar (RAB) thermochemically synthesized from Agardhiella subulata with simple pyrolysis process under different temperatures of 300-900 °C in CO2 atmosphere. The RAB was characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The calcium in RAB efficiently activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) to generate reactive radicals for the catalytic degradation of 4-NP at pH 9.0. The oxygen-containing functional groups reacted with H2O2, which increased the generation of reactive radicals under alkaline pH condition. Ca2+ ion was the active species responsible for 4-NP degradation. CaO/CaCO3 on RAB surface enhanced direct electron transfer, increased HO production, and 4-NP degradation in marine sediments. Langmuir‒Hinshelwood type kinetics well described the 4-NP degradation process. Remediation of contaminated sediments using RAB could be a sustainable approach toward closed-loop biomass cycling in the degradation of 4-NP contaminants.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fenóis/análise , Rodófitas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomassa , Carbonatos/química , Catálise , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111064, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738625

RESUMO

Very limited studies have evaluated the impact of rainfall on the fate of endocrine-disrupting micropollutants in lacustrine systems. This yearlong study investigated monthly fluctuation of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) concentrations in both water and sediment samples from Taihu Lake and evaluated the impact of rainfall on their spatiotemporal distribution and partition trends. Results showed that BPA concentration in water was negatively correlated to rainfall while NP concentrations in both phases were positively related to rainfall. The spatial distribution of NP in the lake water was season specific with the lakeshore area higher than the central area during the wet season and a reversed pattern during the dry season. The spatial distributions of sediment-associated NP and BPA in both phases were not significantly different among seasons. Contrary partition tendencies were observed for BPA and NP that BPA tended to desorb from sediment and NP tended to be adsorbed during the wet season while the trends were reversed during the dry season. This study suggests that rainfall could affect the occurrence, distribution and environmental fate of micropollutants and should be considered in the monitoring program and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Fenóis/análise , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111093, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805502

RESUMO

Phenolic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have drawn more and more interest due to their prevalence and persistence in aquatic environment. To study the adsorption of various phenolic EDCs on river sediments under natural conditions, we first sought to analyze the distribution characteristics of phenol and bisphenol A (BPA) in sediment from the Bahe River. The static adsorption experiments contained either single- or dual-contaminant of phenol and/or BPA in the system; they were conducted to characterize the adsorption of these two pollutants in the surface sediments and the main factors affecting the adsorption processes of the dual-contaminant system, including particle size, humic acid (HA) concentration, pH, and temperature. Results showed that in certain seasons, there was a significant correlation between the levels of phenol and BPA in Bahe sediments. When comparing the adsorption behaviors of phenol and BPA on sediments in single- and dual-contaminant systems, we found that the phenol adsorption behavior varied, while that of BPA remained consistent across the different systems. Moreover, different effects were observed with regards to a single factor and the interaction of multiple factors on the adsorption of pollutants. Of the four single factors, only HA concentration had a significant effect on the phenol adsorption in sediment. When considering the interaction of multiple factors, the interaction between HA concentration and temperature significantly promoted the adsorption of phenol. The influence of factors on the adsorption of BPA was in the following order: particle size > HA concentration > pH > temperature. Particle size significantly inhibited BPA adsorption in the sediment, while the interaction between particle size and pH increased BPA adsorption.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Rios/química , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461440, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822980

RESUMO

A selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence derivatization method was developed for determination of ethinyl estradiol (EE); one of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). The fluorescence derivatization procedure was based on Sonogashira coupling reaction using 4-(4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl) iodobenzene (DIB-I), a fluorescence labeling reagent, to derivatize EE in presence of copper and palladium ions. The formed fluorescent product was separated on Cosmosil 5C18 MS-II by an isocratic elution with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 5.0 mM Tris-HNO3 buffer, pH 7.4 (60:40, v/v %). The detection wavelengths were set at 310 and 400 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. Various parameters affecting derivatization reaction were optimized. Further, the proposed method was validated and a good linearity with low detection limit (S/N=3) 7.4 ng L-1 was obtained in water sample after a simple solid-phase disk extraction (C18 SPE disk) method. The proposed method was successfully applied for detection of EE in river water samples in order to monitor EE concentration and to distinguish its effect on the ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Etinilestradiol/análise , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Fluorescência , Extração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461347, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797827

RESUMO

Phthalate diesters are a group of plasticizers extensively used in the manufacturing and processing of plastics. Phthalate monoesters are the primary degradation products of the diesters. Accumulation of endocrine disruptive diesters and monoesters in soil is of great concern because of the extensive use of plastic mulching and misdisposal of plastics. Accurate determination of their levels in soil is critical to assess the occurrence, exposure, and risks of phthalate diesters and monoesters. In this study, we aimed to develop a robust and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of phthalate diesters and monoesters in soil. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification, combined with accelerated solvent extraction and in-line cleanup for sample preparation. The method detection limits for the 14 diesters and 11 monoesters were in the range of 0.59 to 10.08 ng g-1 d.w. Acceptable recoveries (69%-131%) for these analytes were obtained when four deuterated analogs were used for internal calibration, and intra- and inter-day variations were less than 15%. This method was later successfully applied to five soil samples, and 8 diesters and 7 monoesters were detected with the maximum concentration up to 1142.2 ng g-1 d.w. The method developed in this study can be used for screening and accurate quantification of phthalate diesters and monoesters in soil and possibly in other environmental matrices.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Solo/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/normas , Ésteres/química , Limite de Detecção , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/normas , Plastificantes/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Temperatura
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