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1.
F1000Res ; 9: 1043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145011

RESUMO

In only a matter of months, the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world. The global impact of the disease has caused significant and repeated calls for quick action towards new medicines and vaccines. In response, researchers have adopted open science methods to begin to combat this disease via global collaborative efforts. We summarise here some of those initiatives, and have created an updateable list to which others may be added. Though open science has previously been shown as an accelerator of biomedical research, the COVID-19 crisis has made openness seem the logical choice. Will openness persist in the discovery of new medicines, after the crisis has receded?


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(10): 1320-1322, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174918

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) brought up discussions about improvements in both primary healthcare and hospital care in Brasil. In addition, the use of information and communication technology tools has become more prominent in the transmission of health information to patients remotely. Through content dissemination actions for professionals and direct guidance to users, remote telehealth/telemedicine services offer qualified actions that can reduce unnecessary referrals and decrease the flow of patients in health units. Information and communication technologies are allies in the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040989, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The spread of misinformation has accompanied the coronavirus pandemic, including topics such as immune boosting to prevent COVID-19. This study explores how immune boosting is portrayed on the internet during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Content analysis. METHODS: We compiled a dataset of 227 webpages from Google searches in Canada and the USA using the phrase 'boost immunity' AND 'coronavirus' on 1 April 2020. We coded webpages for typology and portrayal of immune boosting and supplements. We recorded mentions of microbiome, whether the webpage was selling or advertising an immune boosting product or service, and suggested strategies for boosting immunity. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between webpages that appeared in the searches in Canada and the USA. The most common types of webpages were from news (40.5%) and commercial (24.7%) websites. The concept of immune boosting was portrayed as beneficial for avoiding COVID-19 in 85.5% of webpages and supplements were portrayed as beneficial in 40% of the webpages, but commercial sites were more likely to have these portrayals. The top immune boosting strategies were vitamin C (34.8%), diet (34.4%), sleep (34.4%), exercise (30.8%) and zinc (26.9%). Less than 10% of the webpages provide any critique of the concept of immune boosting. CONCLUSIONS: Pairing evidence-based advice for maintaining one's health (eg, healthy diet, exercise, sleep) with the phrase immune boosting and strategies lacking in evidence may inadvertently help to legitimise the concept, making it a powerful marketing tool. Results demonstrate how the spread of misinformation is complex and often more subtle than blatant fraudulent claims.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Internet , Marketing , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/normas , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/tendências , Marketing/ética , Marketing/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027262

RESUMO

Individuals who encounter false information on social media may actively spread it further, by sharing or otherwise engaging with it. Much of the spread of disinformation can thus be attributed to human action. Four studies (total N = 2,634) explored the effect of message attributes (authoritativeness of source, consensus indicators), viewer characteristics (digital literacy, personality, and demographic variables) and their interaction (consistency between message and recipient beliefs) on self-reported likelihood of spreading examples of disinformation. Participants also reported whether they had shared real-world disinformation in the past. Reported likelihood of sharing was not influenced by authoritativeness of the source of the material, nor indicators of how many other people had previously engaged with it. Participants' level of digital literacy had little effect on their responses. The people reporting the greatest likelihood of sharing disinformation were those who thought it likely to be true, or who had pre-existing attitudes consistent with it. They were likely to have previous familiarity with the materials. Across the four studies, personality (lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, higher Extraversion and Neuroticism) and demographic variables (male gender, lower age and lower education) were weakly and inconsistently associated with self-reported likelihood of sharing. These findings have implications for strategies more or less likely to work in countering disinformation in social media.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/ética , Mídias Sociais/ética , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Probabilidade , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais/tendências
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039326, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical trial data sharing has the potential to accelerate scientific progress, answer new lines of scientific inquiry, support reproducibility and prevent redundancy. Vivli, a non-profit organisation, operates a global platform for sharing of individual participant-level trial data and associated documents. Sharing of these data collected from each trial participant enables combining of these data to drive new scientific insights or assess reproducibility-not possible with the aggregate or summary data tables historically made available. We report on our initial experience including key metrics, lessons learned and how we see our role in the data sharing ecosystem. We also describe how Vivli is addressing the needs of the COVID-19 challenge through a new dedicated portal that provides a direct search function for COVID-19 studies, availability for fast-tracked request review and data sharing. DATA SUMMARY: The Vivli platform was established in 2018 and has partnered with 28 diverse members from industry, academic institutions, government platforms and non-profit foundations. Currently, 5400 trials representing 3.6 million participants are shared on the platform. From July 2018 to September 2020, Vivli received 201 requests. To date, 106 of 201 requests received approval, 5 have been declined, 27 withdrew and 27 are in the revision stage. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has only magnified the necessity for data sharing. If most data are shared and in a manner that allows interoperability, then we have hope of moving towards a cohesive scientific understanding more quickly not only for COVID-19 but also for all diseases. Conversely, if only isolated pockets of data are shared then society loses the opportunity to close vital gaps in our understanding of this rapidly evolving epidemic. This current challenge serves to highlight the value of data sharing platforms-critical enablers that help researchers build on prior knowledge.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Gerenciamento de Dados , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Serviços de Informação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Gerenciamento de Dados/organização & administração , Gerenciamento de Dados/tendências , Humanos , Serviços de Informação/organização & administração , Serviços de Informação/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021985

RESUMO

COVID-19 has highlighted an opportunity for medical professionals to engage in online Public Engagement with Science (PES). Currently a popular platform for PES is Reddit. Reddit provides an Ask Me Anything (AMA) format for subject matter experts to answer questions asked by the public. On March 11, 2020, from 2:00 to 4:00pm EST, two Emergency Department physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital hosted an AMA session on coronavirus. We retroactively conducted an analysis of the questions and answers from this AMA session in order to better understand the public's concerns around coronavirus and identify future opportunities for medical experts to leverage the Reddit AMA format in communicating with the general public. Results suggested that participants sought not only to obtain information, but to engage in discussion, and did so with each other in the absence of expert responses. The majority of bi-directional discussion occurred between participants. Due to the volume of questions and ratio of experts to participants, not all questions were answered. More posts provided facts or opinions, than posts that providing resources or requesting resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profissionalismo , Opinião Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0221833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095780

RESUMO

Romania and Ukraine share the Black Sea coastline, the Danube Delta and associated habitats, which harbor the endemic, aquatic Pontocaspian biota. Currently, this biota is diminishing both in numbers of species and their abundance because of human activities, and its future persistence strongly depends on the adequacy of conservation measures. Romania and Ukraine have a common responsibility to address the conservation of Pontocaspian biodiversity. The two countries, however have different socio-political and legal conservation frameworks, which may result in differences in the social network structure of stakeholder institutions with different implications for Pontocaspian biodiversity conservation. Here, we study the social network structure of stakeholder organizations involved in conservation of Pontocaspian biodiversity in Romania and the implications of network structure for conservation outcomes. Then we compare the findings from Romania to an earlier similar study from Ukraine. We apply a mix of qualitative and quantitative social network analysis methods to combine the content and context of the interactions with relational measures. We show that Pontocaspian biodiversity plays a minor and mostly incidental role in the inter-organizational interactions in Romania. Furthermore, there is room for improvement in the network structure through e.g. more involvement of governmental and nongovernmental organizations and increased motivation of central stakeholders to initiate conservation actions. Social variables, such as lack of funding, hierarchical, non-inclusive system of conservation governance and continuous institutional reforms in the public sector are consequential for the network relations and structure. Social network of stakeholders in Ukraine is more connected and central stakeholders utilize their favorable positions. However, neither in Ukraine is the Pontocaspian biodiversity a driver of organizational interactions. Consequently, both networks translate into sub-optimal conservation actions and the roads to optimal conservation are different. We end with sketching out conservation implications and recommendations for improved national and cross-border conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Rede Social , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Romênia , Ucrânia
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(5): 630-638, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to disaster-related media may be a risk factor for mental distress, but this has not been examined in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assesses whether exposure to social and traditional media during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with mental distress among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data came from the Understanding America Study, conducted with a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adults who completed surveys online. Participants included 6,329 adults surveyed between March 10 and March 31, 2020. Regression analyses examined the associations of (1) self-reported average time spent on social media in a day (hours) and (2) number of traditional media sources (radio, TV, and newspaper) consulted to learn about COVID-19 with self-reported mental distress (4-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Data were analyzed in April 2020. RESULTS: Participants responding at later survey dates reported more time spent on social media (ß=0.02, 95% CI=0.01, 0.03), a greater number of traditional media sources consulted to learn about COVID-19 (ß=0.01, 95% CI=0.01, 0.02), and greater mental distress (ß=0.07, 95% CI=0.04, 0.09). Increased time spent on social media and consulting a greater number of traditional media sources to learn about COVID-19 were independently associated with increased mental distress, even after adjusting for potential confounders (social media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.05, 0.23; traditional media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.08, 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a greater number of traditional media sources and more hours on social media was modestly associated with mental distress during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Meio Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932516

RESUMO

International attention on the environmental impacts of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is increasing, but little is known internationally about the large corpus of Chinese BRI environmental research. We present the first systematic review of the Chinese and English-language BRI environmental research, supported with text mining and sentiment analysis. We found that the research is dominated by Chinese authors writing about BRI routes within China in Chinese, even though concerns around BRI are largely about impacts and benefits within host countries, and the volume of publications in English is recently catching up. Different disciplines and methods are well-represented across languages, apart from specific types of Chinese social science papers. The sentiments of academic research are largely neutral and less polarised than media discourse. We recommend that scientists and practitioners should pay more attention to BRI environmental impacts in developing countries and proactively engage local voices.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , China , Programas Governamentais , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238989, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941521

RESUMO

Messages to promote health behavior are essential when considering health promotion, disease prevention, and healthy life expectancy. The present study aimed to examine whether (1) positive and negative goal-framing messages affect message memory and behavioral intention differently in younger, middle-aged, and older adults, (2) framing effects are mediated by interest in health (health promotion and disease prevention) and emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and (3) mediation effects differ between positive and negative frames. Participants (N = 1248) aged 20 to 70 years were divided into positive and negative frame conditions. Framing demonstrated interactive effects on message memory; all age groups showed higher recognition accuracy in the positive than the negative frame. The accuracy of younger adults was higher than that of older adults in the negative frame, while older adults showed higher accuracy than younger adults in the positive frame. Additionally, recognition accuracy was higher in the positive frame, as participants had higher interest in health promotion and used cognitive reappraisal more frequently. Contrariwise, emotion regulation and interest in health promotion did not have significant effects on memory in negative frames. Moreover, regardless of the message valence, age did not influence behavioral intention directly but was mediated by interest in health and emotion regulation, while the older the participants were, the higher their interest in health, resulting in higher intention. For emotion regulation, intention increased with higher reappraisal scores and decreased with increasing suppression. Our results suggest that interest in health and emotion regulation should be considered when examining the relationship between age and goal-framing for health messages.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Objetivos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Popul Health Manag ; 23(5): 350-360, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897820

RESUMO

Given the severe and rapid impact of COVID-19, the pace of information sharing has been accelerated. However, traditional methods of disseminating and digesting medical information can be time-consuming and cumbersome. In a pilot study, the authors used social listening to quickly extract information from social media channels to explore what people with COVID-19 are talking about regarding symptoms and disease progression. The goal was to determine whether, by amplifying patient voices, new information could be identified that might have been missed through other sources. Two data sets from social media groups of people with or presumed to have COVID-19 were analyzed: a Facebook group poll, and conversation data from a Reddit group including detailed disease natural history-like posts. Content analysis and a customized analytics engine that incorporates machine learning and natural language processing were used to quickly identify symptoms mentioned. Key findings include more than 20 symptoms in the data sets that were not listed in online lists of symptoms from 4 respected medical information sources. The disease natural history-like posts revealed that people can experience symptoms for many weeks and that some symptoms change over time. This study demonstrates that social media can offer novel insights into patient experiences as a source of real-world data. This inductive research approach can quickly generate descriptive information that can be used to develop hypotheses and new research questions. Also, the method allows rapid assessments of large numbers of social media conversations that could be applied to monitor public health for emerging and rapidly spreading diseases such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Informática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961702

RESUMO

This study focuses on stigma communication about COVID-19 on Twitter in the early stage of the outbreak, given the lack of information and rapid global expansion of new cases during this period. Guided by the model of stigma communication, we examine four types of message content, namely mark, group labeling, responsibility, and peril, that are instrumental in forming stigma beliefs and sharing stigma messages. We also explore whether the presence of misinformation and conspiracy theories in COVID-19-related tweets is associated with the presence of COVID-19 stigma content. A total of 155,353 unique COVID-19-related tweets posted between December 31, 2019, and March 13, 2020, were identified, from which 7000 tweets were randomly selected for manual coding. Results showed that the peril of COVID-19 was mentioned the most often, followed by mark, responsibility, and group labeling content. Tweets with conspiracy theories were more likely to include group labeling and responsibility information, but less likely to mention COVID-19 peril. Public health agencies should be aware of the unintentional stigmatization of COVID-19 in public health messages and the urgency to engage and educate the public about the facts of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Pública/normas , Mídias Sociais , Estigma Social , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966298

RESUMO

Knowledge mobilisation is required to "bridge the gap" between research, policy and practice. This activity is dependent on the amount, richness and quality of the data published. To understand the impact of a changing climate on commercial species, stakeholder communities require better knowledge of their past and current situations. The common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is an excellent model species for this type of analysis, as it is well-studied due to its cultural, commercial and ecological significance in west Europe. Recently, C. edule harvests have decreased, coinciding with frequent mass mortalities, due to factors such as a changing climate and diseases. In this study, macro and micro level marine historical ecology techniques were used to create datasets on topics including: cockle abundance, spawning duration and harvest levels, as well as the ecological factors impacting those cockle populations. These data were correlated with changing climate and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index to assess if they are drivers of cockle abundance and harvesting. The analyses identified the key stakeholder communities involved in cockle research and data acquisition. It highlighted that data collection was sporadic and lacking in cross-national/stakeholder community coordination. A major finding was that local variability in cockle populations is influenced by biotic (parasites) and abiotic (temperature, legislation and harvesting) factors, and at a global scale by climate (AMO Index). This comprehensive study provided an insight into the European cockle fishery but also highlights the need to identify the type of data required, the importance of standardised monitoring, and dissemination efforts, taking into account the knowledge, source, and audience. These factors are key elements that will be highly beneficial not only to the cockle stakeholder communities but to other commercial species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Animais , Cardiidae , Europa (Continente) , Pesqueiros , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886702

RESUMO

This study was designed to explore the role of local knowledge (LK) in enhancing the resilience of Dinki watershed in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The data were collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and household surveys. The qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Whereas descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for quantitative data analyses. The result showed that the majority of the respondents have local knowledge and used in their daily activities. Furthermore, the LK is reported to have the adaptive capacity in managing land resource degradation, treating disease, mitigating food insecurity, and enhancing social capital, among others. Likewise, the logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, and education status of the household head were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to knowledge level, indicating their predictive power for the acquisition of LK. Accordingly, old-aged (60+ years) male respondents who attended primary education were higher to acquire LK than their counterparts. The result realized that the adaptive roles (land resource management, medication, climate change adaptation, etc.) of local knowledge systems could contribute to enhancing resilience. More importantly, the presence of social mechanisms is insurance to maintain LK. Thus, both intergenerational and intragenerational information gaps are filled with education and promotion on the roles of local knowledge systems. Besides, local-decision options should participate in custodians to share their experiences, that could contribute to sustaining ecosystem resilience.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Ecossistema , Conhecimento , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(12): 2031-2037, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995894

RESUMO

Social media services, such as Twitter, offer great potential for a better understanding of rheumatic and musculoskeletal disorders (RMDs) and improved care in the field of rheumatology. This study examined the content and stakeholders associated with the Twitter hashtag #Covid4Rheum during the COVID-19 pandemic. The content analysis shows that Twitter connects stakeholders of the rheumatology community on a global level, reaching millions of users. Specifically, the use of hashtags on Twitter assists digital crowdsourcing projects and scientific collaboration, as exemplified by the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance registry. Moreover, Twitter facilitates the distribution of scientific content, such as guidelines or publications. Finally, digital data mining enables the identification of hot topics within the field of rheumatology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Reumatologia
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e22060, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of behavioral interventions and policies designed to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on how well individuals are informed about both the consequences of infection and the steps that should be taken to reduce the impact of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between public knowledge about COVID-19, adherence to social distancing, and public trust in government information sources (eg, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), private sources (eg, FOX and CNN), and social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) to inform future policies related to critical information distribution. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (N=1243) between April 10 and 14, 2020. Data collection was stratified by US region and other demographics to ensure representativeness of the sample. RESULTS: Government information sources were the most trusted among the public. However, we observed trends in the data that suggested variations in trust by age and gender. White and older populations generally expressed higher trust in government sources, while non-White and younger populations expressed higher trust in private sources (eg, CNN) and social networks (eg, Twitter). Trust in government sources was positively associated with accurate knowledge about COVID-19 and adherence to social distancing. However, trust in private sources (eg, FOX and CNN) was negatively associated with knowledge about COVID-19. Similarly, trust in social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) was negatively associated with both knowledge and adherence to social distancing. CONCLUSIONS: During pandemics such as the COVID-19 outbreak, policy makers should carefully consider the quality of information disseminated through private sources and social networks. Furthermore, when disseminating urgent health information, a variety of information sources should be used to ensure that diverse populations have timely access to critical knowledge.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Distância Social , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936804

RESUMO

As the most visible face of health expertise to the general public, health agencies have played a central role in alerting the public to the emerging COVID-19 threat, providing guidance for protective action, motivating compliance with health directives, and combating misinformation. Social media platforms such as Twitter have been a critical tool in this process, providing a communication channel that allows both rapid dissemination of messages to the public at large and individual-level engagement. Message dissemination and amplification is a necessary precursor to reaching audiences, both online and off, as well as inspiring action. Therefore, it is valuable for organizational risk communication to identify strategies and practices that may lead to increased message passing among online users. In this research, we examine message features shown in prior disasters to increase or decrease message retransmission under imminent threat conditions to develop models of official risk communicators' messages shared online from February 1, 2020-April 30, 2020. We develop a lexicon of keywords associated with risk communication about the pandemic response, then use automated coding to identify message content and message structural features. We conduct chi-square analyses and negative binomial regression modeling to identify the strategies used by official risk communicators that respectively increase and decrease message retransmission. Findings show systematic changes in message strategies over time and identify key features that affect message passing, both positively and negatively. These results have the potential to aid in message design strategies as the pandemic continues, or in similar future events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Administração em Saúde Pública , Gestão da Segurança , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
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