Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.273
Filtrar
1.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 49-53, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780184

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To explore the causes and characteristics of medical disputes caused by death after cardiac surgery and to analyze the pathological changes after cardiac surgery and the key points of forensic anatomy, thus to provide pathological evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiac surgery and judicial appraisal as well as reference for the prevention of medical disputes in such cases. Methods Forensic pathological cases of medical disputes caused by death after cardiac surgery which were accepted by the Center for Medicolegal Expertise of Sun Yat-Sen University from 2013 to 2018 were analyzed retrospectively from aspects such as causes of death, pathological diagnosis, surgery condition, medical misconduct, and so on. Results The causes of death after cardiac surgery of 43 patients were abnormal operation, low cardiac output syndrome, postoperative infection, postoperative thrombosis, and other diseases. Among the 43 cases, there were 18 cases without medical fault while 25 cases had medical fault. Conclusion The medical disputes caused by death after cardiac surgery are closely related to the operative technique and postoperative complications. The causes of medical faults include defects in diagnosis and treatment technique, as well as unfulfillment of duty of care.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Dissidências e Disputas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Medicina Legal , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 8, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436098

RESUMO

For more than a century, the prenatal environment was considered sterile. Over the last few years, findings obtained with next-generation sequencing approaches from samples of the placenta, the amniotic fluid, meconium, and even fetal tissues have challenged the dogma of a sterile womb, and additional reports have emerged that used culture, microscopy, and quantitative PCR to support the presence of a low-biomass microbial community at prenatal sites. Given the substantial implications of prenatal exposure to microbes for the development and health of the host, the findings have gathered substantial interest from academics, high impact journals, the public press, and funding agencies. However, an increasing number of studies have challenged the prenatal microbiome identifying contamination as a major issue, and scientists that remained skeptical have pointed to inconsistencies with in utero colonization, the impact of c-sections on early microbiome assembly, and the ability to generate germ-free mammals. A lively academic controversy has emerged on the existence of the wider importance of prenatal microbial communities. Microbiome has asked experts to discuss these issues and provide their thoughts on the implications. To allow for a broader perspective of this discussion, we have specifically selected scientists, who have a long-standing expertise in microbiome sciences but who have not directly been involved in the debate so far.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Feto/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mecônio/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Útero/microbiologia
6.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(287): 375-378, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130803

RESUMO

Poland is a country with an increasing number of claims based on medical errors, especially in the following surgical disciplines: obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics and emergency medicine, general surgery. This problem raises the need to seek out-of-court dispute solutions beneficial to the physician, the patient and the national health care system. Mediation - a procedure commonly used and well-established in Polish law, however, not widespread, as far as medical claims are concerned - creates this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to summarize international experiences in mediation in physician-patient disputes, and to try to popularize them in Poland. An analysis of foreign literature has provided evidence that mediation is an effective tool to resolve disputes by compromise, while reducing the costs and time of proceedings, and preventing burnout among physicians and the patients' loss of trust in medical care.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Médicos , Feminino , Humanos , Negociação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Polônia , Gravidez
7.
New Bioeth ; 26(4): 328-350, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196403

RESUMO

United States law recognizes adult reproductive liberty and many states view surrogacy services through that lens. During the COVID-19 pandemic in March, 2020, New York State enacted the Child-Parent Surrogacy Act (CPSA) into law, after feminists and their allies had caused its defeat in 2019. Just before approval of the CPSA, a group of legislators introduced the Alternative Surrogacy Bill (ASB). This article is a case study that examines how the CPSA and not the ASB became law, examining surrogate rights, the best interests of the child, and the ethical issues related to adult donor-conceived and surrogacy born children's rights to information about their ancestry.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Legislação Médica/ética , Técnicas Reprodutivas/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação , Adulto , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Comércio/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas Reprodutivas/economia , Técnicas Reprodutivas/ética , Direitos da Mulher
9.
Sci Adv ; 6(43)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978142

RESUMO

While scientific uncertainty always invites the risk of politicization and raises questions of how to communicate about science, this risk is magnified for COVID-19. The limited data and accelerated research timelines mean that some prominent models or findings inevitably will be overturned or retracted. In this research, we examine the attitudes of more than 6000 Americans across five different survey experiments to understand how the cue giver and cue given about scientific uncertainty regarding COVID-19 affect public trust in science and support for science-based policy. Criticism from Democratic political elites undermines trust more than criticism from Republicans. Emphasizing uncertainty in projections can erode public trust in some contexts. Downplaying uncertainty can raise support in the short term, but reversals in projections may temper these effects or even reduce scientific trust. Careful science communication is critical to maintaining public support for science-based policies as the scientific consensus shifts over time.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 914-927, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880409

RESUMO

Draft legislation has been approved by the Union Cabinet in India seeking to limit surrogacy to altruistic arrangements with intended parents who are either Indian citizens or couples residing outside the country but of Indian origin. This follows longstanding debates as to whether commercial surrogacy should be permitted. The primary argument against such arrangements has been the potential to exploit and cause harm to surrogate women. There is considerable literature on the exploitation debate, but little has been written about whether these transactions cause harm to surrogate women. Our article addresses this gap in the literature and develops a three-step framework using Mill's harm principle through which to assess whether harm has occurred. We apply this framework to a sample of women who provided surrogacy services in India between 2006 and 2015, the period just before the government moved to ban overseas couples from accessing commercial surrogacy.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Mães Substitutas
14.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 302-311, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920565

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has created a global disaster by infecting millions of people and causing thousands of deaths across hundreds of countries. Currently, the infection is in its exponential phase in several countries and there is no sign of immediate relief from this deadly virus. At the same time, some "conspiracy theories" have arisen on the origin of this virus due to the lack of a "definite origin". To understand if this controversy is also reflected in scientific publications, here, we reviewed the key articles published at initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic (January 01, 2020 to April 30, 2020) related to the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the articles opposing the "conspiracy theories". We also provide an overview on the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 Spike as well as the Coronavirus research domain. Furthermore, a few important points related to the "conspiracy theories" such as "laboratory engineering" or "bioweapon" aspects of SARS-CoV-2 are also reviewed. In this article, we have only considered the peer-reviewed publications that are indexed in PubMed and other official publications, and we have directly quoted the authors' statements from their respective articles to avoid any controversy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Seleção Genética , Animais , Derramamento de Material Biológico , Armas Biológicas , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Dissidências e Disputas , Eutérios/classificação , Eutérios/virologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Recombinação Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22780-22786, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868412

RESUMO

Does being disagreeable-that is, behaving in aggressive, selfish, and manipulative ways-help people attain power? This question has long captivated philosophers, scholars, and laypeople alike, and yet prior empirical findings have been inconclusive. In the current research, we conducted two preregistered prospective longitudinal studies in which we measured participants' disagreeableness prior to entering the labor market and then assessed the power they attained in the context of their work organization ∼14 y later when their professional careers had unfolded. Both studies found disagreeable individuals did not attain higher power as opposed to extraverted individuals who did gain higher power in their organizations. Furthermore, the null relationship between disagreeableness and power was not moderated by individual differences, such as gender or ethnicity, or by contextual variables, such as organizational culture. What can account for this null relationship? A close examination of behavior patterns in the workplace found that disagreeable individuals engaged in two distinct patterns of behavior that offset each other's effects on power attainment: They engaged in more dominant-aggressive behavior, which positively predicted attaining higher power, but also engaged in less communal and generous behavior, which predicted attaining less power. These two effects, when combined, appeared to cancel each other out and led to a null correlation between disagreeableness and power.


Assuntos
Personalidade/fisiologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ocupações , Estudos Prospectivos , Personalidade Tipo A
16.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(8): 54-64, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757910

RESUMO

Dementia patients in the moderate-late stage of the disease can, and often do, express different preferences than they did at the onset of their condition. The received view in the philosophical literature argues that advance directives which prioritize the patient's preferences at onset ought to be given decisive moral weight in medical decision-making. Clinical practice, on the other hand, favors giving moral weight to the preferences expressed by dementia patients after onset. The purpose of this article is to show that the received view in the philosophical literature is inadequate and is out of touch with real clinical practice. I argue that having dementia is a cognitive transformative experience and that preference changes which result from this are legitimate and ought to be given moral weight in medical decision-making. This argument ought to encourage us to reduce our confidence in the moral weight of advance directives for dementia patients.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas/ética , Cognição , Demência , Ética Médica , Competência Mental , Preferência do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Princípios Morais
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S54-S59, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737233

RESUMO

In 2017, the court case over medical treatment of UK infant, Charlie Gard, reached global attention. In this article, I will analyze one of the more distinctive elements of the case. The UK courts concluded that treatment of Charlie Gard was not in his best interests and that it would be permissible to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. However, in addition, the court ruled that Charlie should not be transferred overseas for the treatment that his parents sought, even though specialists in Italy and the US were willing to provide that treatment. Is it ethical to prevent parents from pursuing life-prolonging treatment overseas for their children? If so, when is it ethical to do this? I will outline arguments in defense of obstructing transfer in some situations. I will argue, however, that this is only justified if there is good reason to think that the proposed treatment would cause harm.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Futilidade Médica/ética , Transferência de Pacientes/ética , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Dissidências e Disputas , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Itália , Masculino , Futilidade Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Turismo Médico/ética , Turismo Médico/legislação & jurisprudência , Pais , Transferência de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Recusa do Médico a Tratar/ética , Recusa do Médico a Tratar/legislação & jurisprudência , Texas , Traqueostomia/ética , Traqueostomia/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Suspensão de Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S70-S74, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737236

RESUMO

The alleviation of suffering has always been central to the care of the sick. Yet as medical technology has advanced and life-sustaining treatments multiplied, medicine's capacity to both prevent and create suffering has grown exponentially. In pediatric medicine, the ability to stave off death with life-sustaining treatments allows children to survive but also to suffer in ways that are diverse and unprecedented. However, although parents and pediatric clinicians broadly agree that all children can suffer, there is little published literature in which researchers analyze or clarify the concept of pediatric suffering. This gap is worrisome, especially in light of growing concerns that the label of suffering is used to justify end-of-life decision-making and mask quality-of-life determinations for pediatric patients with profound neurologic impairment. Moreover, the awareness that some children can experience suffering but cannot communicate whether and how they are suffering creates a problem. Does the determination of suffering in a nonverbal child lie in the judgement of clinicians or parents? In this article, I will address several important questions related to the suffering of children through an analysis of two prevalent conceptualizations of pediatric suffering and suggest a possible avenue forward for future scholarship.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Terminologia como Assunto , Bibliometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Lactente , Futilidade Médica/ética , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção da Dor/ética , Qualidade de Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
20.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(2): 211-215, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediation in healthcare is a non-adversarial process to resolve a dispute risen between patients and health providers during medical attention Aim: To characterize the mediation process taking place in the public health system in Chile, from its start until 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Under the Transparency Law, information about mediation processes between 2005 and 2017 was requested to the State Defense Council (CDE in its Spanish acronym). This data was complemented with the information available on the website of this agency. RESULTS: Ninety four percent of the complaints filed at the CDE were deemed eligible for mediation. Only 19% of the concluded cases led to an agreement between the disputing parties. The agreements reached were mostly monetary compensation, medical assistance, and apologies/explanation of the facts. The average amount of compensation reached $14,862,088 (Chilean pesos). The most commonly claimed damage resulting from medical care was partial disability. The medical specialties more often claimed were Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Surgery, and Internal Medicine. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of conducted mediations is a source of feedback for healthcare staff and health institutions. It would greatly contribute to prevent possible damage and medical conflicts, specially within the specialties with the most complaints. Improvements to the existing legislation are required to ensure free access for all the population.


Assuntos
Negociação , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Obstetrícia , Gravidez
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...