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2.
Soins Gerontol ; 23(132): 40-42, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522763

RESUMO

May 68 remains etched in everybody's mind. Fifty years on, many memories remain vivid and those who lived through this turbulent period. Yesterday's adults, today's senior citizens, share their testimonies.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas/história , Tumultos/história , França , História do Século XX , Humanos
4.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 25(1): 13-31, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694518

RESUMO

The massive waves of Chinese migrants arriving in California and Lima in the second half of the nineteenth century played a crucial role in expanding Chinese medicine in both settings. From the late 1860s on, herbalists expanded their healing system beyond their ethnic community, transforming Chinese medicine into one of the healing practices most widely adopted by the local population. This article uses a comparative approach to examine the diverging trajectories of Chinese healers in Peru and the USA, as well as the social and political factors that determined how this foreign medical knowledge adapted to its new environments.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/história , Medicina Herbária/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , /história , California , China/etnologia , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Medicina Herbária/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Peru , Médicos/história , Febre Amarela/história , Febre Amarela/terapia
5.
Adv Nutr ; 9(2): 148-150, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659690

RESUMO

Since 1980, every edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) has recommended increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, but reduced consumption of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium and, therefore, their primary food sources. Every edition has generated controversy, mainly from producers of foods affected by "eat less" recommendations, particularly meat. Objections to the 2015 DGAs focused on environmental as well as scientific issues, but also on purported conflicts of interest among members of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. On this basis, critics induced Congress to authorize the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) to review the process of drawing up the guidelines. The NAM's 2017 reports should strengthen the process, but as long as science continues to support advice to reduce consumption of targeted foods, the guidelines will continue to elicit political controversy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dissidências e Disputas , Comportamento Alimentar , Política Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Comitês Consultivos , Conflito de Interesses , Dieta/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Política Nutricional/história , Política , Ciência , Estados Unidos
6.
Med Hist ; 62(2): 155-176, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553009

RESUMO

Restoration London saw a wave of publications by physicians advocating that the 'compleat physician' should be one who experimented and produced his own medicines. Only thus, they argued, could the medical hierarchy be restored and medical authority re-established on a defensible basis. This article seeks to explain the context for this unusual approach, and why it failed to attract mainstream physicians by the end of the century, by considering the sixty-year career of one of its leading advocates, Everard Maynwaring (c.1629-1713), a prolific medical author, and what his own failure to enter the medical establishment may show about the problems inherent in this model for the physician. A university-trained gentleman physician who converted to chymical medicine c.1660, Maynwaring published learned and relatively unpolemical texts to persuade both medical and lay audiences of the superiority of experimental medicine as a mode of learned practice, yet could not easily reconcile this with the advocacy and sale of his own chymical medicines (especially as he focused increasingly on a small group of 'universal medicines') without being branded an 'empirick'. Fragmentary evidence regarding his career suggests he became increasingly marginalised, and as an old man was reduced to advertising his cures like the 'empiricks' from whom he had sought to distance both himself and physicians in general.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Padrões de Prática Médica/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Londres
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(1): 13-31, jan.-mar. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-892587

RESUMO

Resumen Las masivas olas de migrantes chinos que llegaron a California y Lima en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX jugaron un rol clave en la expansión de la medicina china en ambos contextos. Desde fines de la década de 1860, los herbolarios expandieron su sistema de sanación más allá de su comunidad étnica, transformando la medicina china en una de las prácticas de sanación más adoptada por la población local. Desde una perspectiva comparada, este artículo examina las divergentes trayectorias de los sanadores chinos en Perú y EEUU, así como los factores sociales y políticos que determinaron la adaptación de este conocimiento médico, foráneo, en su nuevo entorno.


Abstract The massive waves of Chinese migrants arriving in California and Lima in the second half of the nineteenth century played a crucial role in expanding Chinese medicine in both settings. From the late 1860s on, herbalists expanded their healing system beyond their ethnic community, transforming Chinese medicine into one of the healing practices most widely adopted by the local population. This article uses a comparative approach to examine the diverging trajectories of Chinese healers in Peru and the USA, as well as the social and political factors that determined how this foreign medical knowledge adapted to its new environments.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Medicina Herbária/história , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , Peru , Médicos/história , Febre Amarela/história , Febre Amarela/terapia , China/etnologia , California , Publicidade como Assunto/história , Medicina Herbária/legislação & jurisprudência , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Migração Humana/história
10.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(3): 376-397, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610552

RESUMO

This paper examines the recent public controversy sparked by the laboratory creation of a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza transmissible among mammals. The contours of the controversy can be understood by tracking the assemblage of actors, institutions and devices gathered together in response to the governmental problem of how to manage emerging diseases. The grouping is tenuously held together by a shared commitment to the project of 'pandemic preparedness'. However, as the controversy unfolds, it becomes clear that the main actors involved do not share a common understanding of the problem to be addressed by pandemic preparedness, and the assemblage threatens to decompose. At the center of the dispute is the question of how to assess the risks and benefits of research in a field characterized by urgency and uncertainty.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária/história , Animais , Aves , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/história , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/genética , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Mamíferos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/história , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Editoração/ética , Editoração/história , Medição de Risco
11.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(5): 655-680, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639539

RESUMO

In this paper, I examine disputes over recent claims that male circumcision reduces HIV risk to suggest a complicated relationship between risk individualization and categorization. Whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in sub-Saharan Africa appear to have provided key evidence for the World Health Organization's endorsement of male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy, RCTs alone did not provide evidence for the underlying causal mechanism. For that, medical authorities have turned to histo-immunological studies of the foreskin's biomolecular vulnerability to HIV, thus molecularizing risk. Some actors used these studies both as a way of shoring up results of RCTs conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and as an important rationale in arguments for making neonatal circumcision more widely available. Others, however, resisted this move to generalize the RCT results to other parts of the world, citing both contextual differences in HIV transmission patterns and conflicting scientific details regarding the biomolecular basis of the foreskin's susceptibility. Nevertheless, by locating an abstract notion of relative risk in the body itself, I argue that histological studies of foreskin have played a key role in stabilizing male circumcision status as a new risk category, largely independent of a given individual's risk profile.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/ética , Dissidências e Disputas , Prepúcio do Pênis/cirurgia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Circuncisão Masculina/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Feminino , Prepúcio do Pênis/virologia , Infecções por HIV/história , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Política de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(1): 33-52, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28195026

RESUMO

This paper examines how the Weizmann Institute of Science has been telling the story of the successful commercialization of a scientific invention, through its corporate communication channels, from the early 1970s to today. The paper aims to shed light on the transformation processes by which intellectual-property-based commercialization activities have become widely institutionalized in universities all over the world, and on the complexities, ambiguities and tensions surrounding this transition. We look at the story of the scientific invention of Copolymer-1 at the Weizmann Institute of Science and its licensing to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, which subsequently developed the highly successful drug Copaxone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. We argue that, in its tellings and retellings of the story of Copolymer-1, the Weizmann Institute has created narratives that serve to legitimize the institution of academic patenting in Israel.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Patentes como Assunto/história , Polímeros/história , Transferência de Tecnologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Indústria Farmacêutica/história , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/história , Acetato de Glatiramer/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Israel , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Universidades/história
14.
Nuncius ; 32(2): 286-329, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354699

RESUMO

In the famous debate whether neurons communicate via chemical mediators or electrical signals, Henry Dale and Otto Loewi mounted powerful evidence on the mediation of nervous activity by chemical transmitters, while John Eccles led the campaign for the electrophysiologists. Eventually, Eccles converted to chemical transmission, when he identified excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials initiated by the release of chemical neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft. This well-known episode from the history of neurophysiology counts as a rare instance of philosophy of science advancing scientific research, because the philosopher Karl Popper had encouraged Eccles to theorize an experiment proving the falsity of his own interpretation ­ according to Popper's philosophy of science progressing by falsification. The paper shows how Eccles' intellectual mobilization was grounded in a series of geographical moves, technological adaptations and re-arrangements of his group. This massive travel of people, ideas, instruments, and techniques mediated between the contradictory views, long before Popper kindled Eccles to reflect about the conflicting paradigms and the new theorizing did hardly change his experimental practice. Popper's immediate effect was a critical and reflexive distance that enabled Eccles to present his evidence more persuasively, as can be shown from archival sources. The exchanges between Eccles and Popper thus shaped the philosophy of falsification to a powerful strategy for writing science.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas/história , Neurofisiologia/história , Austrália , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/fisiologia , Eletrofisiologia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/história , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Nova Zelândia , Filosofia/história
16.
Notes Rec R Soc Lond ; 71(2): 157-77, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125057

RESUMO

In the late 1870s, a small group of Italian psychiatrists became interested in hypnotism in the wake of the studies conducted by the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Eager to engage in hypnotic research, these physicians referred to the scientific authority of French and German scientists in order to overcome the scepticism of the Italian medical community and establish hypnotism as a research subject based on Charcot's neuropathological model. In the following years, French studies on hypnotism continued to exert a strong influence in Italy. In the mid 1880s, studies on hypnotic suggestion by the Salpêtrière and Nancy Schools of hypnotism gave further impetus to research and therapeutic experimentation and inspired the emergence of an interpretative framework that combined theories by both hypnotic schools. By the end of the decade, however, uncertainties had arisen around both hypnotic theory and the therapeutic use of hypnotism. These uncertainties, which were linked to the crisis of the neuropathological paradigm that had to a large extent framed the understanding of hypnotism in Italy and the theoretical disagreements among the psychiatrists engaged in hypnotic research, ultimately led to a decline in interest in hypnotism in Italy.


Assuntos
Hipnose/história , Psiquiatria/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália
17.
Notes Rec R Soc Lond ; 71(2): 179-96, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125058

RESUMO

In May 1892, Belgium adopted a law on the exercise of hypnotism. The signing of the law constituted a temporary endpoint to six years of debate on the dangers and promises of hypnotism, a process of negotiation between medical doctors, members of parliament, legal professionals and lay practitioners. The terms of the debate were not very different from what happened elsewhere in Europe, where, since the mid 1880s, hypnotism had become an object of public concern. The Belgian law was nevertheless unique in its combined effort to regulate the use of hypnosis in public and private, for purposes of entertainment, research and therapy. My analysis shows how the making of the law was a process of negotiation in which local, national and transnational networks and allegiances each played a part. While the transnational atmosphere of moral panic had created a seedbed for the law, its eventual outlook owed much to the powerful lobby work of an essentially local network of lay magnetizers, and to the renown of Joseph Delbœuf, professor at the University of Liège, whose work in the field of hypnotism stimulated several liberal doctors and members of Parliament from the Liège region to defend a more lenient law.


Assuntos
Hipnose/história , Legislação Médica/história , Bélgica , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História da Medicina , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Hipnose/ética
18.
Notes Rec R Soc Lond ; 71(2): 197-211, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125059

RESUMO

In the late nineteenth century, German-speaking physicians and psychiatrists intensely debated the benefits and risks of treatment by hypnotic suggestion. While practitioners of the method sought to provide convincing evidence for its therapeutic efficacy in many medical conditions, especially nervous disorders, critics pointed to dangerous side effects, including the triggering of hysterical attacks or deterioration of nervous symptoms. Other critics claimed that patients merely simulated hypnotic phenomena in order to appease their therapist. A widespread concern was the potential for abuses of hypnosis, either by giving criminal suggestions or in the form of sexual assaults on hypnotized patients. Official inquiries by the Prussian Minister for Religious, Educational and Medical Affairs in 1902 and 1906 indicated that relatively few doctors practised hypnotherapy, whereas the method was increasingly used by lay healers. Although the Ministry found no evidence for serious harm caused by hypnotic treatments, whether performed by doctors or by lay healers, many German doctors seem to have regarded hypnotic suggestion therapy as a problematic method and abstained from using it.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas/história , Hipnose/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hipnose/ética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/história , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Médicos/história , Psiquiatria/história
19.
Nuncius ; 32(1): 25-51, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125069

RESUMO

This paper presents how rhinoplasty as a surgical technique with a particular social impact developed, and how motivated patients and courageous surgeons contributed to the process before Gaspare Tagliacozzi published his seminal work De curtorum chirurgia in 1597. The few sources that provide evidence of people having their noses reconstructed enable us to understand how this technique gradually spread across Europe from the south of Italy northwards. They also give information about the fate of some individual patients and their surgeons. While patients considered rhinoplasty a painful but worthwhile procedure, liberating them from having to wear a prosthesis, scholars' and physicians' opinions on the subject were polarized.


Assuntos
Nariz/cirurgia , Rinoplastia/história , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Próteses e Implantes/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/história , Olfato
20.
Nuncius ; 32(1): 146-65, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125070

RESUMO

While representing one of the most important developments in the knowledge of the brain, both for its theoretical advances and its medical consequences, the work of David Ferrier met with strong criticism from conservative circles in Victorian society. At the end of 19th century certain British neurologists and neurosurgeons ­ including Ferrier ­ faced vehement public attacks by those aristocrats who, under the banner of antivivisectionism and "natural theology", expressed their fears of the reorganization of medicine into a scientific discipline. The debate that developed in Victorian society after these events led not only to the diffusion of Ferrier's ideas and public recognition of the advanced neurosurgical practices that stemmed from his work, but also contributed to the affirmation of the medical community in the scientific world of the time.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/história , Neurologia/história , Vivissecção/história , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Dissidências e Disputas/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Neurologistas/história , Neurocirurgiões/história , Neurocirurgia/história , Reino Unido
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